**Кыргыз Тили** Spoken natively by 4.3 million people. Indigenous to Kyrgyzstan and Xinjiang, China. Spoken also in Russia, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkey, Uzbekistan, and Pakistan. Member of the Turkic Language Group of the Altai language family. As set up tables, need to make a column to see if both the Russian and Kyrgyz words are equally acceptable. **\ ** **Table of Contents** **\ ** **How to Use This Section** **\ ** **Vocabulary Lists (Pretty Picture)** **\ ** **Title** +------------------+-----------------+---------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +==================+=================+=====================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +------------------+-----------------+---------------------+ | - | | | +------------------+-----------------+---------------------+ +----------------------------------+-----------------+ | **Сын Атоочтор жана Тактоочтор** | | +==================================+=================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | +----------------------------------+-----------------+ | - | | +----------------------------------+-----------------+ +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | **Этиштер** | | | | +================+================+================+================+ | **Англис | **Этиштин | **Инфи | **Жөндөмө жана | | Тили** | Уңгусу** | н[и]{.ul}тив** | Эскертүүлөр** | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ **\ ** **Кийим-кечеси жана м[о]{.ul}дасы** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - accessory | аксессу[а]{.ul}р | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - act of soaking | сууга чылоо | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - act of tearing | жыртуу | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - appearance | кебете | Х | | | | | | 1: (outer | 1: (сырткы кебете) | 1: (Х) | | appearance) | | | | | 2: (сырткы келбети) | 2: (Х) | | 2: (outer | | | | appearance) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - apron | алжапкыч | √: ф[а]{.ul}ртук | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - awl | шибеге | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - backback | рюкз[а]{.ul}к | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - badge; emblem | знач[о]{.ul}к | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - bag; purse; | баштык | √: с[у]{.ul}мка | | satchel; sack | | | | | 1: (баштыкча) | 1: (Х) | | 1: (diminuitive of | | | | above; | 2: (чаар баштык) | 2: (Х) | | | | | | little sack; pouch) | 3: (с[у]{.ul}мка | 3: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | | койгуч) | Mix) | | 2: (Peace Corps med | | | | kit style | 4: (клатч) | 4: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | | bag) | | | | | | | | 3: (cubby hole) | | | | | | | | 4: (clutch) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - bangs | чёлка | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - beauty salon | сулуулук | Х | | | сал[о]{.ul}нy | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - bed^1^ | керебет | √: кров[а]{.ul}ть | | | | | | 1: (bunk bed) | 1: (эки | 1: (√: эки | | | [я]{.ul}рустуу | [я]{.ul}рустуу | | 1а: (bunk-type bed | керебет) | кров[а]{.ul}ть | | on ships;\ | | | | hospital plank bed) | 1а: (к[о]{.ul}йка) | \[*Both terms are | | | | Kyrgyz-* | | 2: (crib) | 2: (бала керебет) | | | | | *Russian Mixes*\]) | | | | | | | | 1а: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | | | | | | | | 2: (Х) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - bedding; sheets | шейшеп | Х | | for a bed | | | | | 1: (астынкы шейшеп) | 1: (Х) | | 1: (bed sheet | | | | \[tight fitting\]) | 2: (үстүнкү шейшеп) | 2: (Х) | | | | | | 2: (top sheet) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - belt; waistband | кур | √: рем[е]{.ul}нь | | | | | | 1: (belt buckle) | 1: (таралга) | 1: (Х) | | | | | | 2: (elastic | 2: (чоймо) | 2: (√: | | waisteband) | | рез[и]{.ul}нка) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - beret | бер[е]{.ul}т | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - bib^2^ | көкүрөкчө | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - bib^2^ | боркок | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - blanket; | (керебет) жапкыч | √: оде[я]{.ul}ло | | coverlet | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Кийим-кечеси жана м[о]{.ul}дасы II** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - bleach | агартуучу зат | Х | | | | | | 1: (bleaching -- if | 1: (агаруу) | 1: (Х) | | process is | | | | | 2: (агартуу) | 2: (Х) | | done by thing | | | | itself) | | | | | | | | 2: (bleaching -- act | | | | of | | | | | | | | whitening another | | | | object) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - blindfold | таңуу | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - blouse | бл[у]{.ul}зка | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - boot -- outdoor | бат[и]{.ul}нке | √: бат[и]{.ul}нка | | or hiking;\ | | | | boot -- girly, | 1: (өтүк) | (*бат[и]{.ul}нке* | | frilly, or small | | *and бат[и]{.ul}нка | | for a child | | are* | | | | | | 1: (rain boot) | | *Kyrgyzised | | | | Russian*) | | | | | | | | √: сап[о]{.ul}жка | | | | (*outdoor or hiking* | | | | | | | | *meaning only*) | | | | | | | | 1: (X) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - boutique | бут[и]{.ul}к | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - bra | бюстг[а]{.ul}лтер | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - bracelet | билерик | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - braid (in hair) | өрүм | X | | | | | | 1: (braid \[in | 1: (өрүлгөн чач) | 1: (X) | | hair\]) | | | | | 2: (чач өрүү) | 2: (X) | | 2: (hair braiding) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - broach | брошь | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - brocade | барча | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - brush | щётка | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (hair brush) | 1: (чач щётка) | 1: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | | | Mix) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - burlap | таар | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - button | топчу | X | | | | | | 1: (snap button) | 1: (кн[о]{.ul}пка) | 1: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | | 2: (button hole) | 2: (топчулук) | | | | | 2: (Х) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cap; baseball | к[е]{.ul}пка | Already Russian Word | | hat | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cardigan | к[о]{.ul}фта | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - carpet | килем | Х | | | | | | 1: (diminuitive of | 1: (килемче) | 1: (X) | | above; mat) | | | | | 2: (пал[а]{.ul}с) | 2: (Already Russian | | 2: (Turkish-esque | | Word) | | rug) | 3: (дор[о]{.ul}жка) | | | | | 3: (Already Russian | | 3: (runner carpet) | 4: (коврол[и]{.ul}н) | Word) | | | | | | 4: (fitted carpet; | | 4: (Already Russian | | wall-to-wall\ | | Word) | | carpet; carpeting) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cashmere | кашем[и]{.ul}р | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - checkered design | чакмак | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Кийим-кечеси жана м[о]{.ul}дасы III** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cloakroom; coat | чечинип кийинүүчү | Х | | check | жай | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - closet | шкаф | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (wardrobe) | 1: (кийим илүүчү | 1: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | | шкаф) | Mix) | | 1a: (chiffonier) | | | | | 1a: | 1а: (Already Russian | | | (шифонь[е]{.ul}р) | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - clothes hanger; | (кийим) илгич | √: в[е]{.ul}шалка | | coat rack | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - clothespin | кыпчыткыч | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - clothing | кийим | Х | | (collective | | | | term); article | 1: (кийим-кече) | 1: (Х) | | of clothing; | | | | garment | 2: (сырт кийим) | 2: (Х) | | | | | | 1: (all encompassing | 3: (ич кийим) | 3: (Х) | | term for | | | | | 4: (бут кийим) | 4: (√: туфли) | | clothing;\ | | | | most general | 5: (баш кийим) | 5: (Х) | | term^3^) | | | | | 6: (жумуш кийими) | 6: (√: | | 2: (outerwear) | | раб[о]{.ul}чий кийим | | | | | | 3: (underwear) | | \[*Kyrgyz-Russian | | | | Mix*\]) | | 4: (shoe; footwear) | | | | | | | | 5: (headwear) | | | | | | | | 6: (overalls; work | | | | clothes) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - collar | жака | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - collection (line | колл[е]{.ul}кция | Already Russian Word | | of clothes) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - comb | тарак | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - corset | корс[е]{.ul}т | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cosmetics^4^ | атыр-упа | √: косм[е]{.ul}тика | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cosmetology | косметол[о]{.ul}гия | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - costume jewelry | бижутер[и]{.ul}я | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cotton (Northern | кебез | Х | | dialect) | | | | | 1: (пахта) | 1: (X) | | 1: (cotton | | | | \[Southern | | | | dialect\]) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - crocheting | илмек | Х | | hook/needle | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - crown | таажы | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - curtain | парда | Х | | | | | | 1: (curtain rod) | 1: (карн[и]{.ul}з) | 1: (Kyrgyzised | | | | Russian?) | | 2: (shower curtain) | 2: (душ парда) | | | | | 2: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | 3: (light | 3: (терезе парда) | Mix) | | translucent curtain | | | | | | 3: (Х) | | \[Russian: | | | | *гард[и]{.ul}на*\]) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cutting out | бычуу | Х | | \[act of\] | | | | | | | | > (of clothing | | | | > pattern) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - depilation | депил[я]{.ul}ция | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Кийим-кечеси жана м[о]{.ul}дасы IV** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - diaper^5^ | ороо | √: п[а]{.ul}мперс | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - doctor's | хал[а]{.ul}т | Already Russian Word | | spock^6^ | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - doormat | полов[и]{.ul}к | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - dress (woman);\ | көйнөк | Х: dress meaning\ | | dress shirt | | √: руб[а]{.ul}шка | | (man, woman) | 1: (үлпөт көйнөк) | | | | | 1: (Х) | | 1: (wedding dress) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - dress code | дресс-к[о]{.ul}д | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - dry-cleaning | химиялык тазалоо; | Kyrgyzised Russian | | | химтазалоо | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - dryer (machine) | кир кургаткыч | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - ear piercing;\ | кулак көзөө | Х | | act of piercing | | | | ears | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - earring | кулак сөйкө | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - embroidery | сайма | Х | | | | | | 1: (act or hobby of | 1: (сайма саюу) | 1: (Х) | | | | | | embroidering) | 2: (п[я]{.ul}льцы) | 2: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | | 2: (embroidery | 3: (саймачылык) | | | hoop;\ | | 3: (Х) | | tambour frame) | | | | | | | | 3: (embroidered | | | | goods | | | | | | | | \[collective term\]; | | | | | | | | > profession of | | | | > embroidery) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - eye shadow | тень | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - eyebrow plucking | каш терүү | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - eyelash | кирпик өстүрүү | Х | | extensions;\ | | | | act of making | | | | eyelashes longer | | | | (*наращение | | | | ресниц*) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - eyeliner (the | каранд[а]{.ul}ш | Already Russian Word | | pencil) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - fabric | кездеме | Х | | | | | | 1: (chintz) | 1: (чыт) | 1: (Х) | | | | | | 2: (type of silk | 2: (торко) | 2: (Х) | | fabric) | | | | | 3: (курак) | 3: (Х) | | 3: (scrap of fabric; | | | | *лоскут*) | 4: (чакмактуу | 4: (√: | | | кездеме) | шотл[а]{.ul}ндка) | | 4: (plaid) | | | | | 5: (токулган буюм) | 5: (√: | | 5: (knitted fabric; | | трикот[а]{.ul}ж) | | something | 6: (тюль) | | | | | 6: (Already Russian | | that has been made | | Word) | | by | | | | | | | | knitting) | | | | | | | | 6: (tulle) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **\ ** **Кийим-кечеси жана м[о]{.ul}дасы V** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - fashion | м[о]{.ul}да | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (fashion show) | 1: (пок[а]{.ul}з | 1: (Already Russian | | | мод) | Word) | | 2: (fashion house | | | | \[fashion | 2: (м[о]{.ul}да үйү) | 2: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | | | Mix) | | brand dynasty, like | | | | | | | | Chanel\]) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - felt | кийиз | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - fit; form (of | фас[о]{.ul}н | Already Russian Word | | suit, jeans) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - flannel | момосуй | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - flap (i.e. over | кл[а]{.ul}пан | Already Russian Word | | pocket) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - flax | зыгыр | √: лён | | | | | | 1: (flaxen fibre) | 1: (зыгырдын буласы) | 1: (√: лёндун буласы | | | | | | | | \[Kyrgyz-Russian | | | | Mix\]) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - flyaway hair | балапан чач | Х | | (one strand of | | | | hair is | | | | disheveled, but | | | | the rest is | | | | neat) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - foundation | тон[а]{.ul}лка | Already Russian Word | | (make-up) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - fur | мех | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (long camel hair | 1: (чууда) | 1: (X) | | growing | | | | | 2: (н[о]{.ul}рка) | 2: (Already Russian | | on neck and legs) | | Word) | | | | | | 2: (mink) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - garter | тарткыч | √: подв[я]{.ul}зка | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - garter | байлагыч | √: подв[я]{.ul}зка | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - gel | гель | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - glasses | көз айнек | √: очк[и]{.ul} | | | | | | 1: (sunglasses) | 1: (күндөн | 1: (√: | | | калкалоочу көз | с | | | | олнцезащ[и]{.ul}тные | | | айнек) | очк[и]{.ul}) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - glove | кол кап | √: перч[а]{.ul}тки | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - G-string | амер.белдемчи | Kyrgyz-Russian Mix | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - hair curler | бигуд[и]{.ul} | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - hair cut (act | стр[и]{.ul}жка | Already Russian Word | | of) | | | | | 1: (причёска) | 1: (Already Russian | | 1: (hair cut \[the | | Word) | | style\]) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - hair dryer | чач кургаткыч | √: фен | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - hair dye | чач боёк | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - hair ribbon | б[а]{.ul}нтик | Already Russian Word | | (esp. frilly pom | | | | pom of school | | | | girl) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **\ ** **Кийим-кечеси жана м[о]{.ul}дасы VI** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - hand crème | кол май | √: кол крем | | | | | | 1: (face crème) | 1: (бет май) | (Kyrgyz-Russian Mix) | | | | | | | | 1: (√: бет крем | | | | | | | | \[Kyrgyz-Russian | | | | Mix\]) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - hand towel; wash | майлык | Х | | cloth; rag (for | | | | wiping table, | 1: (кол аарчы) | 1: (Х) | | hands)^10^ | | | | | | | | 1: (Naryn dialect | | | | for hand | | | | | | | | towel) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - hat | шапке | √: шл[я]{.ul}па; | | | | ш[а]{.ul}пка | | 1: (brim of hat) | 1: (кыр) | | | | | 1: (Х) | | 2: (Sorting Hat) | 2: (Бөлүштүргөн | | | | шл[я]{.ul}па) | 2: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | | | Mix) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - headscarf | жоолук | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - heel (of shoe) | така | Х | | | | | | 1: (high heel) | 1: (шиштака) | 1: (Х) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - heel (of sock, | согончок | Х | | stocking) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - helmet | шлем | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - hole (in | томолок | Х | | clothing) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - hood | капюш[о]{.ul}н | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - iron (clothes);\ | үтүк | Х | | flatiron; hair | | | | iron | 1: (үтүктөө) | 1: (X) | | | | | | 1: (ironing \[act | 2: (үтүктөөчү | 2: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | of\]) | доск[а]{.ul}) | Mix) | | | | | | 1а: (ironing board) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - jacket | к[у]{.ul}ртка | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (sleeveless | 1: | 1: (Аlready Russian | | jacket) | (безрук[а]{.ul}вка) | Word) | | | | | | 2: (windbreaker) | 2: (ветр[о]{.ul}вка) | 2: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - jumper; pinafore | дж[е]{.ul}мпер | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - kilt^7^ | килт\ | Already Russian Word | | | ( | | | | *Шотл[а]{.ul}ндиянын | | | | элинин улуттук | | | | кийими*) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - knot | түйүн | Х | | | | | | 1: (dim. of above; | 1: (түйүнчөк) | 1: (Х) | | little knot) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - lace | кр[у]{.ul}жево | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **\ ** **Кийим-кечеси жана м[о]{.ul}дасы VII** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - laundry | кир | Х | | | | | | 1: (laundry machine) | 1: (кир \[жуугуч\] | 1: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | | маш[и]{.ul}на) | Mix) | | 2: (laundry | | | | detergent) | 2: (кир жуучу | 2: (Х) | | | каражат) | | | 2а: (powdered | | 2a: (Already Russian | | laundry | 2a: (порош[о]{.ul}к) | Word) | | | | | | detergent) | 3: (кир жуу) | 3: (Х) | | | | | | 3: (act of doing the | 4: (кир самын) | 4: (Х) | | laundry) | | | | | 5: (кир жуучу жай) | 5: (Х) | | 4: (laundry soap) | | | | | | | | 5: (laundromat; the | | | | cleaner's) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - layer (of | кабат | Х | | clothing) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - leather | булгаары | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - leather^8^ | (аң) тери(си) | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - lengthening (act | узартуу | Х | | of) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - lint; fuzz | түк | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - lipstick | ооз боёгуч | √: пом[а]{.ul}да | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - lockerroom; | кийинүүчү жай | Х | | | | | | > changing room; | | | | > | | | | > dressing room | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - lockerroom; | кийим чечүү жай | Х | | | | | | > changing room | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - lockerroom;\ | кийим которуучу жай | X | | changing room | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - loom | токуу станогу | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - luggage; baggage | жүк | X | | | | | | 1: (hand luggage; | 1: (колго алынып | 1: (Х) | | | жүрүүчү | | | carry-on baggage) | | | | | жүк) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - make-up | маки[я]{.ul}ж | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (act of putting | 1: (ажарлоо) | 1: (Х) | | on face | | | | | 2: (грим) | 2: (Already Russian | | make-up; act of | | Word) | | doing | | | | | | | | one's face) | | | | | | | | 2: (stage make-up) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - manicure | маникүр | Kyrgyzised Russian | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - mannequin | маник[е]{.ul}н | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - mascara | тушь | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - mask | м[а]{.ul}ска | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - material | матери[а]{.ul}л | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - mattrass | матр[а]{.ul}ц | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - mittens | мээлей | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - moccasin | мокас[и]{.ul}н | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - nail polish | тырмактар үчүн боёгу | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Кийим-кечеси жана м[о]{.ul}дасы VIII** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - name tag | б[е]{.ul}йджик | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - needle | ийне | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - oilcloth | клеёнка | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - pants | шым | Х | | | | | | 1: (dress pants) | 1: | 1: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | | (класс[и]{.ul}ческий | Mix) | | 2: (jeans)^9^ | шым) | | | | | 2: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | 3: (pantleg) | 2: (дж[и]{.ul}нсы | Mix if | | | \[шым\]) | | | 4: (sweatpants;\ | | *шым* is included) | | light athletic | 3: (кашат) | | | pants) | | 3: (Х) | | | 4: | | | | (спорт[и]{.ul}вный | 4: (Х) | | | шым) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - pedicure | педикүр | Kyrgyzised Russian | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - perfume | атыр | √: дух[и]{.ul} | | (woman's);\ | | | | eau de toilette | 1: (одекол[о]{.ul}н) | 1: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | | 1: (eau de Cologne | | | | \[men's\]) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - pig-tail | саамай | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - pillow | жаздык | Х | | | | | | 1: (pillow case) | 1: (жаздык тыш) | 1: (Х) | | | | | | 2: (pillow case) | 2: (жаздык кап) | 2: (Х) | | | | | | 3: (diminuitive of | 3: (жаздыкча) | 3: (Х) | | pillow; | | | | | 3a: (жөлөнгөн | 3а: (Х) | | cushion) | жаздыкча) | | | | | 4: (Х) | | 3а: (lounge pillow) | 4: (пыр) | | | | | | | 4: (pillow stuffer | | | | made of | | | | | | | | chaffe; loose | | | | feathers, etc | | | | | | | | that float in air | | | | after shake | | | | | | | | a pillow or *төшөк*) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - pin (i.e. safety | төөнөгүч | X | | pin) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - pocket | чөнтөк | Х | | | | | | 1: (chest pocket) | 1: (төш чөнтөк) | 1: (Х) | | | | | | 2: (back pocket) | 2: (жан чөнтөк) | 2: (Х) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - polyester | поли[э]{.ul}стер | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - powder (for | упа | √: п[у]{.ul}дра | | face) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - pyjamas | пиж[а]{.ul}ма | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - quilt; comforter | жууркан | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - rag (for | тр[я]{.ul}пка | Already Russian Word | | cleaning up)^10^ | | | | | 1: (казан жуугуч) | | | 1: (rag, dish cloth | | | | \[Ы-К\]) | 2: (\[идиш жууган\] | | | | майлык) | | | 2: (rag, dish cloth | | | | \[Нарын\]) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - raincoat | плащ | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Кийим-кечеси жана м[о]{.ul}дасы IX** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - razor | устара | X | | | | | | 1: (razor -- men's | 1: (сакал алгыч) | 1: (Х) | | only) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - ribbon; tape or | тасма | √: л[е]{.ul}нта | | taper (fabric); | | | | band (i.e. of | | | | lace) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - ring | шакек | X | | | | | | 1: (diminuitive of | 1: (шакекче) | 1: (Х) | | above) | | | | | 2: | 2: (Already Russian | | 2: | (обруч[а]{.ul}льное | Word) | | (wedding/engagement | кольц[о]{.ul}) | | | ring) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sack (flour, | мүшөк | √: меш[о]{.ul}к | | coal, etc) | | | | | | (*мүшөк is | | | | Kyrgyzised* | | | | | | | | *Russian*) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sandal; | санд[а]{.ul}лий | √: шлёпка, шлёпанцы | | flip-flop | | | | | | (*санд[а]{.ul}лий is | | | | Kyrgyzised* | | | | | | | | *Russian*) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - satin | атил[е]{.ul}с | Kyrgyzised Russian | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - scarf | моюн орогуч | √: шарф | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - scrunchie | рез[и]{.ul}нка | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sewing | тигүү | X | | | | | | 1: (sewing machine) | 1: (кийим тиккен | 1: (Kyrygz-Russian | | | маш[и]{.ul}на) | Mix) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - shoe rack | бут тизгич | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - shoe shine; shoe | блеск | Already Russian Word | | polish | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - shoelace | боо | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - shortening (of | кыскартуу | Х | | fabric);\ | | | | trim (haircut) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - shorts (pants) | ш[о]{.ul}рта | √: ш[о]{.ul}ртик\ | | | | (*ш[о]{.ul}рта is | | | | Kyrgyzised* | | | | | | | | *Russian*) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - silk | жибек | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - size (of | өлчөм | √: разм[е]{.ul}р | | clothing)^11^ | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - skirt | [ю]{.ul}бка | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sleeping bag | сп[а]{.ul}льный | Already Russian Word | | | меш[о]{.ul}к | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sleeve | жең | Х | | | | | | 1: (cuff) | 1: (жең учу) | 1: (Х) | | | | | | 2: (cufflink) | 2: (з[а]{.ul}понка) | 2: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **\ ** **Кийим-кечеси жана м[о]{.ul}дасы X** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - slipper | т[а]{.ul}почке | √: т[а]{.ul}почки\ | | | | (Can still be | | 1: (slippers for | 1: (дом[а]{.ul}шлы) | pluralized in | | wearing around | | | | | 1a: (алмаштырып | Krygyz: | | the house) | кийинүүчү | * | | | | т[а]{.ul}почкилер*)\ | | 1a: (slippers that | бут кийим) | (*Т[а]{.ul}почке is | | one takes on | | Kyrgyzised* | | | | | | and off when going | | *Russian*) | | from | | | | | | 1: (Kyrgyzised | | indoors to outdoors) | | Russian) | | | | | | | | 1a: (√: | | | | см[е]{.ul}нный | | | | | | | | \[*Kyrgyzised | | | | Russian*\]) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sneakers; | кросс[о]{.ul}вка | Already Russian Word | | running shoes; | | | | trainers | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sock | байпак | √: носк[и]{.ul} | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - soft, elegant | назиктик | Х | | refinedness | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - softening (act | жумшартуу | X | | of) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sole (of shoe) | таман | Х | | | | | | 1: (instep; | 1: (батек) | 1: (Х) | | removable sole) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - spandex | эласт[а]{.ul}н | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - spindle | ийик | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sport shoes; | б[о]{.ul}тас | Kyrgyzised Russian | | cleats | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - stain | так | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - starch (for | крахм[а]{.ul}л | Already Russian Word | | laundry) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - stitch | тигиш | Х | | | | | | 1: (chain stitch) | 1: (илме) | 1: (Х) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - stripe | тилке | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - style | стиль | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - suit | кост[ю]{.ul}м | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (sport's coat; | 1: (пидж[а]{.ul}к) | 1: (Already Russian | | suit jacket) | | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - suitcase | чемод[а]{.ul}н | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sweater | св[и]{.ul}тер | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (long dress-like | 1: (т[у]{.ul}ника) | 1: (Already Russian | | sweater) | | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sweatshirt | фуф[а]{.ul}йка | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - tag; label (on | ярл[ы]{.ul}к | Already Russian Word | | clothing) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - taking in | кабылына келтирүү | √: | | clothes;\ | | р | | clothes | | еставр[а]{.ul}циялоо | | restoration | | | | | | (*Kyrgyzised | | | | Russian*) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - tassle | чачык | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - textiles | текст[и]{.ul}ль | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (textile | 1: (текст[и]{.ul}ль | 1: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | industry) | өнөр жайы) | Mix) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Кийим-кечеси жана м[о]{.ul}дасы XI** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - thimble | оймок | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - thread | жип | Х | | | | | | 1: (clothesline) | 1: (кир жайган жип) | 1: (Х) | | | | | | 2: (clothesline) | 2: (керме) | 2: (Х) | | | | | | 3: (ball \[of | 3: (түрмөк) | 3: (Х) | | yarn/threads\]) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - tie; necktie | г[а]{.ul}лстук | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - tights | колг[о]{.ul}тки | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - toe (of shoe, | тумшук | Х | | sock) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - top (woman's) | т[о]{.ul}пик | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - towel | сүлгү | √: полот[е]{.ul}нце | | | | | | 1: (towel \[*Талас | 1: (чачык) | 1: (√: | | dialect*\] | | полот[е]{.ul}нце) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - track suit | спортёвка | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - t-shirt | футб[о]{.ul}лка | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - turban | селде | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - turtle neck | водол[а]{.ul}зка | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - umbrella | кол чатыр | √ : з[о]{.ul}нтик | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - undershirt | м[а]{.ul}йка | Already Russian Word | | (male); | | | | wifebeater | 1: (ич көйнөк) | 1: (X) | | | | | | 1: (undershirt | | | | \[female\]) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - underwear (pair | дамбал | √: тр[у]{.ul}сики | | of); boxers; | | | | briefs (men); | 1: (гамаш) | 1: (Kyrgyzised | | panties (female) | | Russian) | | | | | | 1: (long Johns) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - uniform | ф[о]{.ul}рма | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - unpacking (act | жайгаштыруу | Х | | of) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - velvet | баркыт | Х | | | | | | 1: (velveteen; | 1: (чий баркыт) | 1: (Х) | | corduroy) | | | | | 2: (макмал) | 2: (Х) | | 2: (old term for | | | | velvet, still | | | | | | | | seen in epics and | | | | place | | | | | | | | names) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - vest | желетке | √: жил[е]{.ul}т | | | | | | 1: (life jacket; | 1: (куткаруучу | 1: (√: куткаруучу | | life vest)^12^ | желетке) | жил[е]{.ul}т | | | | | | | | \[*Kyrgyz-Russian | | | | Mix*\]) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - watch | саат | X | | | | | | 1: (wrist watch) | 1: (кол саат) | 1: (X) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Кийим-кечеси жана м[о]{.ul}дасы XII** +----------------------------+-----------------+---------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +============================+=================+=====================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------------+-----------------+---------------------+ | - wearing (act of); | кийүү | Х | | *надев[а]{.ul}ние* | | | | | 1: (кийгизүү) | 1: (Х) | | 1: (act of dressing | | | | another) | | | +----------------------------+-----------------+---------------------+ | - weaving | токуу | X | +----------------------------+-----------------+---------------------+ | - wig | жасалма чач | √: пар[и]{.ul}к | +----------------------------+-----------------+---------------------+ | - wig | кийме чач | √: пар[и]{.ul}к | +----------------------------+-----------------+---------------------+ | - wool | жүн | Х | +----------------------------+-----------------+---------------------+ | - wrinkle (in clothing) | бырыш | Х | +----------------------------+-----------------+---------------------+ | - zipper | сыдырма | Х | +----------------------------+-----------------+---------------------+ **Кийим-кечеси жана м[о]{.ul}дасы XIII** [Notes on Nouns Pertaining to Clothing and Fashion]{.ul} ^1^ *Керебет* is a traditional Western bed. *Төшөк* is often used to refer to this as well, as many Kyrgyz people's "beds" are these type of cushions positioned on the ground; and, indeed, instead of matresses, many families put *төшөкs* on top of the bed frame. The Russian word *кров[а]{.ul}ть* can also occasionally be heard. ^2^ *Боркок* is much more used and widely understood than *көкүрөкчө*. ^3^ *Кийим* is mainly used for "clothing" over *кийим-кече*. The latter is more all-encompassing, meaning "clothing and the like." It is used in the phrase *кийим-кече дүкөнү*. ^4^ *Косм[е]{.ul}тика* is the most general term for "cosmetics." *Атыр-упа* literally just means "perfume-powder." It was seen as a translation for cosmetics on a sign in Bishkek. ^5^ For "diaper," *п[а]{.ul}мперс* is much more common nowadays than *ороо.* ^6^ Often seen accompanied by *ак* to describe the traditional white colour of a doctor's coat. ^7^ The Kyrgyz explanation may need to be added after saying this word, as many Kyrgyz people might not be as familiar with kilts as English speakers. ^8^ *Тери* is used much more often than *аң териси*. ^9^ Jeans in Kyrgyz can be *дж[и]{.ul}нсы шым* or simply *дж[и]{.ul}нсы*; note that in Kyrgyz "jeans" is singular and can pluralized: *дж[и]{.ul}нсылар*. ^10^ It should be noted that the Russian word *тр[я]{.ul}пка* is the most universal word for "rag; dish cloth". In Naryn, *тр[я]{.ul}пка* retains this meaning, but it is only used for a rag that cleans the floor. A rag for wiping the table or other cleaning would be *майлык*. ^11^ The Russian *разм[е]{.ul}р* is much more common than the Kyrgyz *өлчөм*. ^12^ The Kyrgyz-Russian mix is more common than the pure Kyrgyz phrase. **Кийим-кечеси жана м[о]{.ul}дасы XIV** [Other Kyrgyz Nouns Pertaining to Clothing and Fashion]{.ul} \*What follows is list of traditional Kyrgyz, Central Asian (Uzbek, Kazakh, and other Turkic peoples), Russian, and Islamic (due to Kyrgyzstan's close relationship with Islam) articles of clothing. Each descriptor is listed first in Kyrgyz followed by an explanation in English and an accompanying picture: +------------------+------------------------+------------------------+ | **Кыргызча** | **Англис тилиндеги | **Сүрөт** | | | түшүндүрмө** | | +==================+========================+========================+ | - аб[а]{.ul}йя | Аbaya, a Muslim | ![C:\\Users\ | | | woman's loose | \Owner\\Desktop\\Abaya | | | fittiting garment | photo | | | without any eye or | (29).jpg](med | | | face covering. | ia/image1.jpeg){width= | | | | "1.7999989063867017in" | | | | height= | | | | "2.086956474190726in"} | +------------------+------------------------+------------------------+ | - дублёнка | Russian sheepskin coat | ![dublyonka | | | with the skin on the | -zhenskaya-celentano-1 | | | outside and the warm | 809-3413-800x1200](med | | | fun on the inside. | ia/image2.jpeg){width= | | | | "1.6826388888888888in" | | | | height="2.1875in"} | +------------------+------------------------+------------------------+ **Кийим-кечеси жана м[о]{.ul}дасы XV** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Кыргызча** | **Англис тилиндеги | **Сүрөт** | | | түшүндүрмө** | | +======================+======================+======================+ | - жоолук | The general word for | ![ | | | "headscarf," | C:\\Users\\Owner\\Ap | | 1: (ак жоолук)^1^ | *жоолук* is its own | pData\\Local\\Micros | | | institution in | oft\\Windows\\INetCa | | | Kyrgyzstan. As a | che\\Content.Word\\i | | | Muslim woman's | (2 | | | headcovering, | ).jpeg](media/image3 | | | *жоолукs* are | .jpeg){width="1.8in" | | | important status | height="1 | | | symbols for women in | .738888888888889in"} | | | the community. The | | | | come in many sizes, | \-\-- | | | colours, and | | | | designs. | 1: | | | | ![103658](media/i | | | 1: (Literally | mage4.jpeg){width="1 | | | translating to | .7909722222222222in" | | | | height="1. | | | "white headscarf," | 4520833333333334in"} | | | an *ак* | | | | | | | | *жоолук* is worn to | | | | inform | | | | | | | | others that the | | | | woman is | | | | | | | | married. There is a | | | | special, | | | | | | | | pre-wedding ceremony | | | | in | | | | | | | | which already | | | | married | | | | | | | | women | | | | ritualistically | | | | place | | | | | | | | white headscarfs on | | | | the | | | | | | | | head of the bride to | | | | be.) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - калпак^2^ | Traditional felt | ![ | | | men's hat, white and | C:\\Users\\Owner\\Ap | | | pointed, supposedly | pData\\Local\\Micros | | | resembling the | oft\\Windows\\INetCa | | | mountains of | che\\Content.Word\\k | | | Kyrgyzstan. It is | alpak-6.jpg](media/i | | | all-purpose wear, | mage5.jpeg){width="1 | | | worn in both summer | .4347222222222222in" | | | and winter and for | height="1. | | | both casual and | 0784722222222223in"} | | | formal occasions. | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - көлөч (√: | Тhe rubber bottom of | ![image](media/i | | гал[о]{.ul}ш) | a boot that is | mage6.jpeg){width="1 | | | usually kept by the | .4222222222222223in" | | - 1: (маасы) | door so that one can | height="0.96875in"} | | | change easily for | | | | going outside. One | \-\-- | | | simply slides on | | | | these outdoor shoes | 1: | | | over one's socks or | | | | other footwear in | ![9b4164 | | | order to walk around | 97773fcce66311126c88 | | | outside. | c9](media/image7.jpe | | | (*Kyrgyzised | g){width="1.40625in" | | | Russian*) | height="1. | | | | 8854166666666667in"} | | | 1: (Type of galosh | | | | without a | | | | | | | | heel that has a soft | | | | interior | | | | | | | | and leathery, light | | | | exterior. | | | | | | | | Can be worn inside | | | | the | | | | | | | | home, but it's not | | | | | | | | considered | | | | professional to | | | | | | | | wear to work.) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Кийим-кечеси жана м[о]{.ul}дасы XVI** +------------------+------------------------+------------------------+ | **Кыргызча** | **Англис тилиндеги | **Сүрөт** | | | түшүндүрмө** | | +==================+========================+========================+ | - курак | Kyrgyz and Kazakh | ![C:\\Users\\Ow | | | specific geometric | ner\\AppData\\Local\\M | | 1: (куракчылык) | designs in patchwork | icrosoft\\Windows\\INe | | | quilting. | tCache\\Content.Word\\ | | | | maxresdefault.jpg](med | | | 1: (The artform of | ia/image8.jpeg){width= | | | using | "1.8608694225721785in" | | | | height=" | | | patchwork to create | 1.0480752405949256in"} | | | | | | | geometric desings; | ![5411060](med | | | | ia/image9.jpeg){width= | | | collective term for | "1.8541666666666667in" | | | goods | height=" | | | | 1.3909722222222223in"} | | | made using this | | | | method) | ![1038164265](medi | | | | a/image10.jpeg){width= | | | | "1.8597222222222223in" | | | | height=" | | | | 1.0055555555555555in"} | +------------------+------------------------+------------------------+ | - куржун | Kyrgyz saddle bag, or, | ![zoom](medi | | | more artistically, a | a/image11.jpeg){width= | | | flap-like cloth | "1.8597222222222223in" | | | covering used for | height=" | | | decoration. | 1.0576388888888888in"} | | | | | | | | ![64cfe070ac2d | | | | 3cce47c5728dc252](medi | | | | a/image12.jpeg){width= | | | | "1.8541666666666667in" | | | | height=" | | | | 1.4743055555555555in"} | +------------------+------------------------+------------------------+ | - ник[а]{.ul}б | Niqab, a Muslim | ![Woman_in_niqab, | | | woman's garment that | \_Aleppo\_(2010)](medi | | | covers the entire body | a/image13.jpeg){width= | | | and face, leaving only | "1.8645833333333333in" | | | the eyes uncovered. | height=" | | | | 1.8701388888888888in"} | +------------------+------------------------+------------------------+ **Кийим-кечеси жана м[о]{.ul}дасы XVII** +-----------------+------------------------+------------------------+ | **Кыргызча** | **Англис тилиндеги | **Сүрөт** | | | түшүндүрмө** | | +=================+========================+========================+ | - өрмөк | Traditional Kyrgyz | ![52b3750dcf097005 | | | loom. A modern loom is | 7f0bb52a2c87f52c](medi | | 1: (өрмөкчүлүк) | called *токуу | a/image14.jpeg){width= | | | стан[о]{.ul}гу.* | "1.9013888888888888in" | | | | height=" | | | 1: (The artform of | 2.0520833333333335in"} | | | using a | | | | | | | | Kyrgyz loom to make | | | | | | | | woven goods; | | | | collective | | | | | | | | term for goods made in | | | | this | | | | | | | | manner) | | +-----------------+------------------------+------------------------+ | - сайма | The name for the | ![Сайма](medi | | | special Kyrgyz | a/image15.jpeg){width= | | 1: (саймачылык) | technique of | "1.2395833333333333in" | | | embroidery. | height=" | | | | 1.7347222222222223in"} | | | 1: (Collective term | | | | for articles | | | | | | | | made by embroidering | | | | in\ | | | | the specific Kyrgyz | | | | way or | | | | | | | | the name for the | | | | artform | | | | | | | | itself) | | +-----------------+------------------------+------------------------+ | - такыя | Bashkir woman's | ![C:\\Us | | | traditional headwear. | ers\\Owner\\AppData\\L | | 1: (кеп такыя) | Consists of | ocal\\Microsoft\\Windo | | | skullcap-like covering | ws\\INetCache\\Content | | | decorated with metal | .Word\\TAKIA.JPG](medi | | | circles resembling | a/image16.jpeg){width= | | | coins with fringe | "1.7418678915135608in" | | | hanging down | height=" | | | | 1.8608705161854768in"} | | | 1: (loose fitting hat | | | | with long | \-\-- | | | | | | | ear flaps and a long | 1: | | | train in | | | | | ![Без | | | the back) | названия](medi | | | | a/image17.jpeg){width= | | | | "1.9215277777777777in" | | | | height= | | | | "2.017361111111111in"} | +-----------------+------------------------+------------------------+ **Кийим-кечеси жана м[о]{.ul}дасы XVIII** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Кыргызча** | **Англис тилиндеги | **Сүрөт** | | | түшүндүрмө** | | +======================+======================+======================+ | - тебетей | Traditional Kyrgyz | ![ | | | headwear made out of | C:\\Users\\Owner\\Ap | | | leather with a ring | pData\\Local\\Micros | | | of fur, often mink, | oft\\Windows\\INetCa | | | marmot, fax, or | che\\Content.Word\\Т | | | other. | ебетей.jpg](media/im | | | | age18.jpeg){width="1 | | | | .3451881014873142in" | | | | height="1. | | | | 5043482064741907in"} | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - тон (√: | Very thick and heavy | main entry and 1: | | ш[у]{.ul}ба) | winter fur coat. | | | | | ![ | | 1: (ичик \[√: | 1: (Another name for | C:\\Users\\Owner\\Ap | | ш[у]{.ul}ба\] | a *тон*.) | pData\\Local\\Micros | | | | oft\\Windows\\INetCa | | 2: (пальт[о]{.ul}) | 2: (Heavy winter | che\\Content.Word\\5 | | | coat.) | 02425.jpeg](media/im | | | | age19.jpeg){width="1 | | | | .8263888888888888in" | | | | height="2. | | | | 9305555555555554in"} | | | | | | | | \-\-- | | | | | | | | 2: | | | | | | | | ![sty | | | | oganoe-palto-s-yubko | | | | j-bezhevoe](media/im | | | | age20.jpeg){width="1 | | | | .8854166666666667in" | | | | height="2 | | | | .745138888888889in"} | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Кийим-кечеси жана м[о]{.ul}дасы XIX** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Кыргызча** | **Англис тилиндеги | **Сүрөт** | | | түшүндүрмө** | | +======================+======================+======================+ | - топу | Rounded head cap | main entry and 1: | | | worn by men. Looks | | | 1: | like a prayer or | ![](media/im | | (тюбет[е]{.ul}йка) | skullcap. It is | age21.jpeg){width="1 | | | considered to be a | .5652777777777778in" | | | part of traditional | heigh | | | Uzbek headwear. | t="1.782638888888888 | | | | 9in"}![C:\\Users\\Ow | | | 1: (Russian term for | ner\\AppData\\Local\ | | | this kind | \Microsoft\\Windows\ | | | | \INetCache\\Content. | | | of hat also in use | Word\\287341-INNERRE | | | in | SIZED600-600-Tubetei | | | | -adin3.jpg](media/im | | | Kyrgyz.) | age22.jpeg){width="1 | | | | .4956528871391077in" | | | | height="1. | | | | 6347823709536309in"} | | | | | | | | ![310 | | | | 4](media/image23.jpe | | | | g){width="1.44375in" | | | | height="1. | | | | 9215277777777777in"} | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - топч[а]{.ul}н | Trestle bed; futons | main entry and 1: | | | placed | | | 1: (секиче) | | ![55 | | | outside under a | bee4fcd7b0de5ff76227 | | | canopy to enjoy | 50810ebb43](media/im | | | summer weather. Seen | age24.jpeg){width="1 | | | throughout | .7868055555555555in" | | | Kyrgyzstan when the | height="2 | | | weather becomes | .547222222222222in"} | | | warmer in spring and | | | | summer. | | | | | | | | 1: (Term used in Osh | | | | for | | | | | | | | *топч[а]{.ul}н.*) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Кийим-кечеси жана м[о]{.ul}дасы XX** +--------------+--------------------------+--------------------------+ | **Кыргызча** | **Англис тилиндеги | **Сүрөт** | | | түшүндүрмө** | | +==============+==========================+==========================+ | - төшөк^3^ | Cushion for sitting on | ![1-760x450]( | | | floor, often long and | media/image25.jpeg){widt | | 1: (төшөкчө) | used to sleep on as | h="1.9638888888888888in" | | | well; bed. | height | | 2: (талпак) | | ="1.4638888888888888in"} | | | 1: (diminuitive of the | | | 2a: (бастек) | above;\ | \-\-- | | | a small or beloved | | | 3: (алтыгат) | | 1: | | | *төшөк.*) | | | | | ![C:\\Users\\Owner\\App | | | 2: (Small cushion used | Data\\Local\\Microsoft\\ | | | for | Windows\\INetCache\\Cont | | | | ent.Word\\144023_g.jpg]( | | | sitting made from dried | media/image26.jpeg){widt | | | | h="1.9739129483814524in" | | | colt hide.) | heigh | | | | t="0.921738845144357in"} | | | 2a: (Same as term 2, but | | | | used | \-\-- | | | | | | | in Osh.) | 2/2a: | | | | | | | 3: (Long, rectangular | ![04997f | | | төшөк | ff207f25ef53385798cece]( | | | | media/image27.jpeg){widt | | | used for sitting many | h="1.8805555555555555in" | | | | height | | | guests around a table.) | ="1.2708333333333333in"} | | | | | | | | \-\-- | | | | | | | | 3: | | | | | | | | ![image](media/image28 | | | | .jpeg){width="1.53125in" | | | | height | | | | ="2.0416666666666665in"} | +--------------+--------------------------+--------------------------+ | - тумак | Warm winter hat made out | ![C:\\User | | | of thick fur, often | s\\Owner\\AppData\\Local | | | mink. Different from a | \\Microsoft\\Windows\\IN | | | *тебетей* because of the | etCache\\Content.Word\\I | | | ear flaps. | MG_7498-Editzf_enl.jpg]( | | | | media/image29.jpeg){widt | | | | h="1.7637040682414697in" | | | | height | | | | ="1.6260870516185477in"} | +--------------+--------------------------+--------------------------+ **Кийим-кечеси жана м[о]{.ul}дасы XXI** +-------------------+-----------------------+-----------------------+ | **Кыргызча** | **Англис тилиндеги | **Сүрөт** | | | түшүндүрмө** | | +===================+=======================+=======================+ | - тыбыт | Down made from goat | ![47b6f4 | | | fur. | 201c1f1dbf19f19d91473 | | | | e3824](media/image30. | | | | jpeg){width="2.125in" | | | | height="1.59375in"} | +-------------------+-----------------------+-----------------------+ | - хижд[а]{.ul}б | Hijab, a veil worn by | ![C:\\Users\\Owne | | | some Muslim women in | r\\AppData\\Local\\Mi | | | the presence of any | crosoft\\Windows\\INe | | | male outside of their | tCache\\Content.Word\ | | | immediate family | \alva-morkgron-prakti | | | which usually covers | sk-hijab\--undersloja | | | the head and chest;\ | -327912-1.jpg](media/ | | | Generally: any haed | image31.jpeg){width=" | | | covering worn by | 2.1130435258092737in" | | | Muslim women that | height=" | | | confrorms to Islamic | 4.191303587051618in"} | | | standards of modesy. | | +-------------------+-----------------------+-----------------------+ **\ ** **Кийим-кечеси жана м[о]{.ul}дасы XXII** +--------------+--------------------------+--------------------------+ | **Кыргызча** | **Англис тилиндеги | **Сүрөт** | | | түшүндүрмө** | | +==============+==========================+==========================+ | - чапан | Long male tunic or robe | ![C:\\Users\\Owner\\App | | | of the Kyrgyz and Kazakh | Data\\Local\\Microsoft\\ | | 1: (алоча) | peoples. | Windows\\INetCache\\Cont | | | | ent.Word\\2908517.jpeg]( | | | 1: (Uzbek men's brightly | media/image32.jpeg){widt | | | | h="1.6264687226596675in" | | | coloured robe -- the | height | | | | ="2.1652176290463694in"} | | | Uzbek version of a | | | | | ![30068959_w640_ | | | *чапан.*) | h640_muzhskoj-chapan-s]( | | | | media/image33.jpeg){widt | | | | h="1.7215277777777778in" | | | | height | | | | ="2.0694444444444446in"} | | | | | | | | \-\-\-- | | | | | | | | 1: | | | | | | | | ![DSC_0076-700x700]( | | | | media/image34.jpeg){widt | | | | h="1.8693186789151357in" | | | | heigh | | | | t="1.521738845144357in"} | +--------------+--------------------------+--------------------------+ | - чачпак | Jewelry in the shape of | ![C:\\Users\\ | | | tassles woven into a | Owner\\AppData\\Local\\M | | | woman's hair for | icrosoft\\Windows\\INetC | | | decoration. | ache\\Content.Word\\3673 | | | | 9727_277316103031553_778 | | | | 4950471101251584_n.jpg]( | | | | media/image35.jpeg){widt | | | | h="1.7041666666666666in" | | | | height | | | | ="2.1305555555555555in"} | +--------------+--------------------------+--------------------------+ **Кийим-кечеси жана м[о]{.ul}дасы XXIII** +--------------+--------------------------+--------------------------+ | **Кыргызча** | **Англис тилиндеги | **Сүрөт** | | | түшүндүрмө** | | +==============+==========================+==========================+ | - чокой | Warm fur boots similar | ![C:\\Users\\Owner\ | | | to Uggs. They are the | \AppData\\Local\\Microso | | | Kyrgyz equivalent of the | ft\\Windows\\INetCache\\ | | | Russian | Content.Word\\435b7d61ae | | | *в[а]{.ul}ленки*. | c2ab5879628d2889b3.jpeg] | | | | (media/image36.jpeg){wid | | | | th="1.738632983377078in" | | | | height | | | | ="1.2434787839020123in"} | | | | | | | | ![1 | | | | 8927154_2](media/image37 | | | | .jpeg){width="1.71875in" | | | | height="1.1875in"} | +--------------+--------------------------+--------------------------+ | - шөкүлө | Ornate cone-shaped | ![C:\\Users\ | | | woman's head piece with | \Owner\\AppData\\Local\\ | | | cascading veil and | Microsoft\\Windows\\INet | | | sometimes a frilly | Cache\\Content.Word\\7b1 | | | pompom. | 2fc2a1d97c274f360bfecfa0 | | | | 38206.jpg](media/image38 | | | | .jpeg){width="1.95625in" | | | | heigh | | | | t="2.078472222222222in"} | +--------------+--------------------------+--------------------------+ | - шырдак | Traditional Kyrgyz | ![C:\\Users\\Owner\\ | | | carpet made from dyed | AppData\\Local\\Microsof | | | sheep wool. | t\\Windows\\INetCache\\C | | | | ontent.Word\\98427d28390 | | | | f411e1318c66477bf.jpeg]( | | | | media/image39.jpeg){widt | | | | h="1.7131944444444445in" | | | | height | | | | ="2.2868055555555555in"} | +--------------+--------------------------+--------------------------+ | - элечек | A woman's head | ![C:\\Users | | | decoration consisting of | \\Owner\\AppData\\Local\ | | | a round, drum-like body | \Microsoft\\Windows\\INe | | | and a scarf that wraps | tCache\\Content.Word\\13 | | | under the chin. | 74664.1.1491377531.jpg]( | | | Traditionally worn | media/image40.jpeg){widt | | | during Nooruz. | h="1.6347222222222222in" | | | | height | | | | ="1.8611111111111112in"} | +--------------+--------------------------+--------------------------+ **Кийим-кечеси жана м[о]{.ul}дасы XXIV** [Notes Pertaining to Traditional Kyrgyz, Central Asian, Russian, and Islamic Dress]{.ul} ^1^ *Ак жоолук* lends itself to a famous Kyrgyz proverb: *Биринчи байлык -- ден-соолук,* *Экинчи байлык -- ак жоолук.* Meaning roughly "Health first, marriage second," it shows the importance that Kyrgyz people place on getting married. ^2^ Also referred to as *ак калпак. Калпак* is also metaphorically used to mean "the role one plays in society," similar to the English idiomatic expression "to wear many hats." ^3^ *Төшөк* is often used to refer a bed, as many Kyrgyz people's "beds" are these type of cushions positioned on the ground; and, indeed, instead of matresses, many families put *төшөкs* on top of the bed frame. **Кийим-кечеси жана м[о]{.ul}дасы XXV** +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | **Сын Атоочтор жана Тактоочтор** | | +==================================+==================================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - bald^a^ | таз (*баш)* | | | | | 1: (balding \[still has some | 1: (кашка \[*баш*\]) | | hair, but it's going\]) | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - blonde | сары | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - braided (hair) | өрүлгөн (чач) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - checkered (design); plaid | чакмактуу | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - conservative (of dress) | жабык (*кийин-*) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - cosmetic | косм[е]{.ul}тикалык | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - dry | кургак | | | | | 1: (dried up; shriveled up) | 1: (кургаган) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - elastic; stretchy (of | чоймо салынган | | waisteband, pants) | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - elastic; stretchy (of | рез[и]{.ul}нка салынган | | waisteband, pants) | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - elegant (clothing) | көркөм | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - fashiony; pertaining to | м[о]{.ul}далуу | | fashion;\ | | | attributive of fashion | 1: (м[о]{.ul}дный) | | | | | 1: (Russian word for fashionable | 2: (саркеч) | | also used) | | | | 3: (сонун) | | 2: (sharp-looking \[military | | | uniform, etc\]; | 4: (тыкан \[*тыкан кийинип | | | жүрөт*\] | | fashionable) | | | | | | 3: (chic; magnificent | | | \[fashion\]; fashionable | | | | | | \[slang term; Kyrgyz for | | | *шик[а]{.ul}рный*\]) | | | | | | 4: (always dressed very nicely; | | | "put together") | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - floral (print; pattern) | гүлдүү | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - gaudy; ostentatious; | өтө эле кызыл-тазыл | | eye-catching (outfit) | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - heeled (shoes) | такалуу | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - inside-out | тескерисинче | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - knitted | токулма | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - knotted; tangled up | түйүндүү | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - long (style of fit) | узун | | | | | 1: (long sleeved) | 1: (жеңи узун) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - loose-fitting; too big | чоң | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - low-cut (dress) | ачык | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - moth-eaten | күбө жеген | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - moth-eaten | күбөлөгөн | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - naked | жылаңач | | | | | 1: (barefoot) | 1: (жылаңаяк) | | | | | 2: (bare headed; without a head | 2: (жылаңбаш) | | covering) | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ **Кийим-кечеси жана м[о]{.ul}дасы XXVI** +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | **Сын Атоочтор жана Тактоочтор** | | +==========================================+==========================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - pertaining to clothes that fit | чак | | | | | 1: (fitting perfectly; like a glove) | 1: (жарашыктуу) | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - printed; patterend (design)^b^ | саймалуу | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - professional; business (attire) | расмий | | | | | 1: (professional (attire); business | 1: (класс[и]{.ul}ческий) | | (attire); | | | | | | *нарядный* \[used with word *шым*\] | | | | | | *\[Russian\]*) | | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - puffy^c^ | көөп | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - red-haired | р[ы]{.ul}жий | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - red-haired | кызыл чачтуу | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - red-haired | сары | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - short (style of fit) | кыска | | | | | 1: (short sleeved) | 1: (жеңи кыска) | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - slim-fit; skinny (jeans); | кыналып турган | | body-hugging | | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - slim-fit; skinny (jeans); | кыналма | | body-hugging | | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - slovenly; messy (appearance) | шалтак | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - small-fitting; too small | кичине(кей) | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - soft | жумшак | | | | | 1: (softened) | 1: (жумшартылган) | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - soft and refined; elegant\ | назик | | (*often in reference to womanly | | | grace*) | | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - spotless; unstained; stainless; | кемчиликсиз | | unsoiled; unsullied | | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - straight (hair) | түз | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - stretchy; supple (material) | чоюлгак | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - striped (fabric) | в пол[о]{.ul}ску | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - striped (fabric) | жол-жол | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - thick; heavy; durable (fabric or | калың | | material) | | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - thin (fabric, material, or hair) | жука | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - thin (fabric; material); easily | ажыракай | | rippable | | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - tied up (hair); tied (shoelace) | байланган | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - tight fitting | тар | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - wavy (hair) | тармал | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ **\ ** **Кийим-кечеси жана м[о]{.ul}дасы XXVII** [Notes on Adjectives and Adverbs Pertaining to Clothing and Fashion]{.ul} ^a^ Both *таз* and *кашка* can be used alone, but they are often said modifying the word *баш*: *Ал* *таз баш*. = He's bald. ^b^ *Саймалуу* is a very general, non-descript word. Normally, the pattern itself will be stated in Kyrygz. For example, for "patterned curtains," if the curtain is patterend with flowers, *гүлдүү* *пардалар* would be used over *саймалуу пардалар.* ^c^ *Көөп* (puffy) is always used with the verb *турат*: *Анын к[у]{.ul}рткасы көөп турат*. = Her coat is puffy. **Кийим-кечеси жана м[о]{.ul}дасы XVIII** [Other Adjectives and Adverbs Pertaining to Clothing and Fashion]{.ul} \*The suffix *чн* is added to a noun and yields an adjective that means "having...on one's person", "wearing...", or "being dressed in...". It cannot be used with every clothing-related noun, so see the list below for all the ways I have observed the suffix being used: +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Кыргызча** | **Англис тилинин | **Мисал** | | | которулушу** | | +======================+======================+======================+ | - | in a tie; wearing a | *Г[а]{.ul}лстукчан | | г[а]{.ul}лстукчан | tie | бизнесм[е]{.ul}н* | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - дамбалчан | in boxers; wearing | *Күйөөм дамбалчан | | | boxers | себеби бүгүн менин | | | | туулган күнүм.* | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - жоолукчан | in a headscarf; | *Жоолукчан | | | | депут[а]{.ul}т* | | | wearing a headscarf | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - калпакчан | in a kalpak; wearing | *Ак калпакчан жаш | | | a kalpak | азаматтар* | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - кийимчен | clothed (as opposed | *Күйөөм кийимчен | | | to naked);\ | себеби бүгүн менин | | 1: (баш кийимчен) | in clothes; wearing | туулган күнүм эмес.* | | | clothes | | | 2: (жазгы | | 1: | | кийимчен)^a^ | 1: (in headwear; | (*Орнам[е]{.ul}нттүү | | | | баш* | | 2а: (жайкы | wearing headwear; | | | кийимчен)^a^ | | *кийимчен ханзада*) | | | in a headdress; | | | 2б: (күзгү | | 2: (*Жазгы киймчен | | кийимчен)^a^ | wearing a headdress) | балдар* | | | | | | 2в: (кышкы | 2: (being dressed | *эшикте ойноп* | | кийимчен)^a^ | for spring) | | | | | *жатышат*) | | | 2a: (being dressed | | | | all | 2а: (*Жайкы кииймчен | | | | эс* | | | summery) | | | | | *алуучулар көлдө | | | 2б: (being dressed | күнгө* | | | for autumn | | | | | *күйүптөр*) | | | or in autumn | | | | clothing) | 2б: (*Ал* *күзгү | | | | кийимчен кыз* | | | 2в: (being dressed | | | | all wintery) | *токулма | | | | св[и]{.ul}тер* | | | | | | | | *кийинип жүрөт*) | | | | | | | | 2в: (*Ал бала кышкы* | | | | | | | | *кийимчен; анын* | | | | | | | | *тебетейи, кол | | | | каптары* | | | | | | | | *жана моюн орогучу | | | | бар.*) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - кост[ю]{.ul}мчан | suited; in a suit; | *кост[ю]{.ul}мчан | | | wearing a suit | коомдук ишкер* | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - к[о]{.ul}фтачан | in a cardigan; | *к[о]{.ul}фтачан бир | | | | айым* | | | wearing a cardigan | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - көйнөкчөн | in a dress (woman);\ | *Көйнөкчөн аял тойдо | | | in a dress shirt | бийлеп жатат.\ | | | (man); | Көйнөкчөн эркек | | | | жакшы көрүнөт.* | | | wearing a dress | | | | (woman); | | | | | | | | wearing a dress | | | | shirt (man) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - м[а]{.ul}йкачан | in an undershirt | *Taӊ каларлыгы | | | (wifebeater);\ | м[а]{.ul}йкачан | | | wearing an | шүмшүк жигит мени | | | undershirt | урган жок.* | | | (wifebeater) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - м[а]{.ul}скачан | masked; in a mask; | *м[а]{.ul}скачан | | | | каракч* | | | wearing a mask | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Кийим-кечеси жана м[о]{.ul}дасы XXIX** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Кыргызча** | **Англис тилинин | **Мисал** | | | которулушу** | | +======================+======================+======================+ | - мурутчан | mustachioed; | *Мага мурутчан эркек | | | | жагат.* | | | having a mustache | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - | in headphones; | *Тигил | | на[у]{.ul}шникчен | | на[у]{.ul}шникчен | | | wearing headphones; | бала м[у]{.ul}зыка | | | | угуп жүгүрөт.* | | | having headphones in | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - носк[и]{.ul}чен | in socks; wearing | *Носк[и]{.ul}чен | | | socks | балдар үйгө | | | | киришти.* | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - очк[и]{.ul}чен | wearing glasses;\ | *Бир очк[и]{.ul}чен | | | having glasses | кемпир менин | | | | капчыгымды уурдады.* | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - сакалчан | bearded; having a | *Сакалчан айым* | | | beard | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - ф[о]{.ul}рмачан | in a uniform; | *Ар бири | | | | ф[о]{.ul}рмачан | | | wearing a uniform | эркекти жакшы | | | | көрөт.* | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - хал[а]{.ul}тчан | in a robe or | *Ак хал[а]{.ul}тчан | | | doctor's coat;\ | дарыгер мага «Рак | | | wearing a robe or | дартыӊыз бар» деп | | | doctor's coat | маалымдады.* | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - чапанчан | in a chapan; wearing | *Чапанчан молдо* | | | a chapan | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - шакекчен | wearing a ring; | *Ариана Гранде | | | having a ring | шакекчен.* | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - ш[о]{.ul}ртачан | in shorts; wearing | *Ш[о]{.ul}ртачан | | | shorts | балдар* | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - шымчан | in pants; wearing | *Шымчан бөбөк ыйлап | | | pants | чыкты.* | | 1: (дж[и]{.ul}нсы | | | | жымчан) | 1: (in jeans; | 1: (*Дж[и]{.ul}нсы | | | wearing jeans) | шымчан* | | | | | | | | *өспүрүмдөр*) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ ^a^ You can use the season words with the verbs *кий/кийин*- as well to create this meaning. Note also that the words above are often used in conjunction with colours:\ *ак кийимчен = all dressed in white* *кара көйнөкчөн = in a black dress* **Кийим-кечеси жана м[о]{.ul}дасы XXX** [Other Adjectives and Adverbs Pertaining to Clothing and Fashion]{.ul} \*The fabric from which an article of clothing is made may be adjectivized and used with the 3^rd^ person possessed genitive form of another noun. An alternative way to express this is ...+*abl жасалган* which means "made from...": +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | **Kыргызча** | **Англис | **Мисал** | **Алтерн | | | тилинин | | ат[и]{.ul}вдүү | | | которулушу** | | ф[о]{.ul}рма** | +================+================+================+================+ | - | satin; made | *атил[е]{.ul}с | *ат | | атил[е]{.ul}с | from satin | көйнөгү* | ил[е]{.ul}стен | | | | | жасалган | | | | a satin dress | көйнөк* | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - баркыт^а^ | velvet;\ | *баркыт | *баркыттан | | | made from | пардалары\ | жасалган | | 1: (чий | velvet | *velvet | пардалар* | | баркыт) | | curtains | | | | 1: | | 1: (*чий | | | (velveteen;\ | 1: (*чий | баркыттан* | | | made from | баркыт* | | | | | | *жасалган | | | velveteen;\ | *шымы*\ | шым*) | | | corduroy; | corduroy | | | | | pants) | | | | made from | | | | | | | | | | corduroy) | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - барча | brocade; | *барча | *барчадан | | | brocaded | кийим-кечеси* | жасалган | | | | | кийим-кече* | | | | brocaded | | | | | clothing | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - булгаары | leather; | *булгаары кол | *булгаарыдан | | | | каптары* | кол каптар* | | | made from | | | | | leather | leather gloves | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - жибек^b^ | silk; made | *жибек | *жибектен | | | from silk | көйнөгү* | жасалган | | 1: (торко) | | | көйнөк* | | | 1: (made from | a silk shirt | | | | *торко* | | 1: (*торкодон* | | | | 1: (*торко | | | | silk) | х | *жасалган | | | | ал[а]{.ul}ты*\ | хал[а]{.ul}т*) | | | | a *торко* silk | | | | | robe) | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - жүн | woolen; wool;\ | *жүн | *жүндөн | | | made from wool | с | жасалган | | | | в[и]{.ul}тери* | св[и]{.ul}тер* | | | | | | | | | a woolen | | | | | sweater | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - кебез | cotton; | *кебез | *кебезден | | | | футб | жасалган | | 1: (пахта) | made from | [о]{.ul}лкасы* | фу | | | cotton | | тб[о]{.ul}лка* | | | | a cotton | | | | 1: (cotton; | T-shirt | 1: (*пахтадан* | | | | | | | | made from | 1: (*пахта* | *жасалган* | | | cotton | | | | | | *футб | *фут | | | \[Southern | [о]{.ul}лкасы* | б[о]{.ul}лка*) | | | term\]) | | | | | | a cotton | | | | | T-shirt) | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - кийиз | felt; made | *кийиз | *кийизден | | | from felt | буюмдары* | жасалган | | | | | буюмдар* | | | | things/goods/ | | | | | | | | | | handicrafts | | | | | made from felt | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - | lace; made | * | *кр[ | | кр[у]{.ul}жево | from lace | кр[у]{.ul}жево | у]{.ul}жеводон | | | | көйнөгү* | жасалган | | | | | көйнөк* | | | | a lace dress | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - курак | patchwork | *курак | *курактан | | | | жаздыкчасы* | жасалган | | | | | жаздыкча* | | | | a patchwork | | | | | pillow | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ **Кийим-кечеси жана м[о]{.ul}дасы XXXI** +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | **Kыргызча** | **Англис | **Мисал** | **Алтерн | | | тилинин | | ат[и]{.ul}вдүү | | | которулушу** | | ф[о]{.ul}рма** | +================+================+================+================+ | - мех | fur; made from | *мех | *мехтен | | | fur | ш | жасалган | | 1: | | [а]{.ul}пкеси* | ш[а]{.ul}пке* | | (н[о]{.ul}рка) | 1: (mink; | | | | | | fur hat | 1: | | | made from mink | | (*н[ | | | | 1: | о]{.ul}ркадан* | | | fur) | (*н[о]{.ul}рка | | | | | тону*) | *жасалган | | | | | тон*) | | | | mink fur coat) | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - момосуй | flannel; | *момосуй | *момосуйдан | | | | бл | жасалган | | | made from | [у]{.ul}зкасы* | бл[у]{.ul}зка* | | | flannel | | | | | | flannel blouse | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - по | polyester;\ | *по | *поли[ | | ли[э]{.ul}стер | made from | ли[э]{.ul}стер | э]{.ul}стерден | | | polyester | футб | жасалган | | | | [о]{.ul}лкасы* | фу | | | | | тб[о]{.ul}лка* | | | | a polyester | | | | | T-Shirt | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - таар | burlap;\ | *таар мүшөгү* | *таардан | | | made from | | жасалган | | | burlap | a burlap sack | мүшөк* | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - тери | leather;\ | *тери | *териден | | | made from | ку | жасалган | | | leather | ртк[а]{.ul}сы* | к[у]{.ul}ртка* | | | | | | | | | a leather | | | | | jacket | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - тюль | tulle; made | *тюль үлпөт | *тюлдан | | | from tulle | көйнөгү* | жасалган үлпөт | | | | | көйнөк* | | | | tulle wedding | | | | | dress | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - чыт | chintz; | *чыт | *чыттан | | | | див[а]{.ul}ны* | жасалган | | | made from | | див[а]{.ul}н* | | | chintz | chintz couch | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - | spandex; | * | *эла | | эласт[а]{.ul}н | lycra; | эласт[а]{.ul}н | ст[а]{.ul}ндан | | | | ф | жасалган | | | made from | [о]{.ul}рмасы* | ф[о]{.ul}рма* | | | spandex; | | | | | | a lycra | | | | made from | uniform | | | | lycra | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ ^а^ Coordinate adjectives for "silk; made from silk" include: \- *жибектей* = silky (having the qualities of or feeling like silk) \* *жибектей жумшак* = silky soft ^b^ Coordinate adjectives for "velvet; made from velvet" include: \- *баркыттай* = velvety (having the qualities of or feeling like velvet) Also note that other nouns pertaining to clothing and fashion may be used attributively as well. In this case, the noun being modified is also in 3^rd^ person possessed genitive: +---------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Кыргызча** | **Англис тилинин | **Мисал** | | | которулушу** | | +=====================+======================+======================+ | - текст[и]{.ul}ль | textile; pertaining | *текст[и]{.ul}ль | | | to textiles | өнөр жайы*\ | | | | the textile industry | +---------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - чөнтөк | pocket-sized;\ | *чөнтөк дептери* | | | pertaining to | | | | pockets | a pocket notebook | +---------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **\ ** **Кийим-кечеси жана м[о]{.ul}дасы XXXII** [Other Adjectives and Adverbs Pertaining to Clothing and Fashion]{.ul} \*The suffix --*дуу* (or --*туу* if the last vowel is *а/я, ы, о/ё*, or *у/ю*) or alternatively *--дүү* (or --*түү* if the last vowel is *е/э, и, ө*, or *ү*) means "having (a lot of)...". It is used oftenly with clothing terms to signify that someone has (in their possession, at home, or even now on their person) a lot of that clothing item. For some words, the meaning is more general. +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Кыргызча** | **Англис тилинин | **Мисал** | | | которулушу** | | +======================+======================+======================+ | - билериктүү | having (a lot of) | *билериктүү кол* | | | bracelets | | | | | an arm that has | | | | (many) bracelets on | | | | it | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - | hooded; having a | *капюш[о]{.ul}ндуу | | капюш[о]{.ul}ндуу | hood | фуф[а]{.ul}йка* | | | | | | | | hoodie; a hooded | | | | sweatshirt | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - кийимдүү | having (a lot of ) | *кийимдүү сандык* | | | clothes | | | | | a trunk with lots of | | | | clothes | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - өтүктүү | having (a lot of) | *өтүктүү бай адам* | | | boots | | | | | a rich man with many | | | | boots | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - топчулуктуу | having button holes | *топчулуктуу шым* | | | for buttons | | | | | pants with button | | | | holes (instead of a | | | | zip fly) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - чачпактуу | having (many) | *чачпактуу кыз*\ | | | chachpaks | a girl with (many) | | | | chachpaks in her | | | | hair | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - чөнтөктүү | having (a lot of) | *чөнтөктүү көйнөк* | | | pockets | | | | | a dress with pockets | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Кийим-кечеси жана м[о]{.ul}дасы XXXIII** [Other Adjectives and Adverbs Pertaining to Clothing and Fashion]{.ul} \* The terms *айымдар/аялдар үчүн, мырзалар/эркектер үчүн,* and *балдар үчүн* can be used with *кийимдер* to mean "women's, men's, and children's clothing," respectively. **\ ** **Кийим-кечеси жана м[о]{.ul}дасы XXXIV** +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | **Этиштер** | | | | +================+================+================+================+ | **Англис | **Этиштин | **Инфи | **Жөндөмө жана | | Тили** | Уңгусу** | нит[и]{.ul}в** | Эскертүүлөр** | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to become | жумшар- | жумшаруу | Intransitive | | soft\ | | | reflexive | | /\ | / | / | | | to soften | | | / | | | жумшарт- | жумшартуу | | | | | | Takes nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to bleach\ | агар- | агаруу | Intransitive | | (become | | | Reflexive | | bleached) | / | / | | | | | | / | | > / | агарт- | агартуу | | | > | | | Takes nom/acc | | > to bleach | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | таң- | таңуу | *Көз* in | | blindfold | | | nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to braid | өр- | өрүү | Takes nom/acc | | (hair) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | щёткала- | щёткалоо | Takes nom/acc | | brush^а^ | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to button | топчула- | топчулоо | Takes nom/acc | | (up);\ | | | | | to fasten | 1: (топчулугун | 1: (топчулугун | 1: (Takes | | (trans) | | | nom/acc; | | | чыгар-) | чыгаруу) | топчулук is | | 1: (to | | | possessed) | | unbutton; | | | | | | | | | | to unbuckle) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to change | котор- | которуу | Takes nom/acc | | | | | | | (clothes, | | | | | bedsheets) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to comb | тара- | тароо | Takes nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to cover | жап- | жабуу | *Жууркан/ | | with a | | | оде[я]{.ul}ло* | | blanket;\ | 1: (жабын-) | 1: (жабынуу) | is in nom/acc | | to put a | | | | | blanket | | | 1: | | over | | | (*Жууркан/ | | | | | оде[я]{.ul}ло* | | 1: (to wrap | | | | | oneself up | | | is in nom/acc) | | | | | | | in a blanket) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to curl | тармалдат- | тармалдатуу | Takes nom/acc | | (hair) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to cut\ | ал- | алуу | Takes nom/acc | | (someone's | | | | | hair) | / | / | *Чач-тарач | | | | | чачымды алды.* | | > / | алдыр- | алдыруу | | | > | | | / | | > to get a | | | | | > haircut (you | | | Takes nom/acc\ | | > are subject) | | | *Менин чачымды | | | | | алдырышым | | | | | керек.* | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to cut\ | кырк- | кыркуу | Takes nom/acc\ | | someone's | | | *Чач-тарач | | hair\ | / | / | чачымды | | /\ | | | кыркты.* | | to get a | кырктыр- | кырктыруу | | | haircut\ | | | / | | (you are | | | | | subject) | | | Takes nom/acc\ | | | | | *Менин чачымды | | | | | кырктырайын | | | | | дегем* | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ **Кийим-кечеси жана м[о]{.ul}дасы XXXV** +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | **Этиштер** | | | | +================+================+================+================+ | **Англис | **Этиштин | **Инфи | **Жөндөмө жана | | Тили** | Уңгусу** | нит[и]{.ul}в** | Эскертүүлөр** | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to cut | быч- | бычуу | Takes nom/acc | | (out)\ | | | | | (clothing | | | | | pattern) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to darn;\ | тордоп жама- | тордоп жамоо | Takes nom/acc | | to mend | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to do | жасат- | жасатуу | Takes nom/acc: | | (hair, | | | Мен чачымды/\ | | nails);\ | 1: (ажарла-) | : (ажарлоо) | тырмактарымды | | to get | | | жасатайын | | one's | | | дедим эле. | | | | | | | (hair/nails) | | | 1: | | done^б^ | | | (Intransitive) | | | | | | | 1: (to do | | | | | one's face; | | | | | | | | | | to put face | | | | | make- | | | | | | | | | | up on) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to do | жасалгала- | жасалгалоо | Чачымды/\ | | (hair, | | | тырмактарымды | | nails);\ | | | | | to get | | | | | one's | | | | | | | | | | (hair/nails) | | | | | done^б^ | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to do | жаса- | жасоо | Чачымды/ | | (hair, | | | | | nails);\ | | | тырмактарымды | | to get | | | | | one's | | | | | | | | | | (hair/nails) | | | | | done^б^ | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to draw | тарт- | тартуу | парда can be | | curtain | | | nom/acc | | | 1: (ач-) | 1: (ачуу) | | | 1: (to open | | | 1: (парда | | curtain) | 2: (жап-) | 2: (жабуу) | nom/acc) | | | | | | | 2: (to close | | | 2: (парда | | curtain) | | | nom/acc) | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to dry | курга- | кургоо | Intransitive | | up;\ | | | | | to shrivel | / | / | / | | up | | | | | | кургат- | кургатуу | Takes nom/acc | | > / | | | | | > | | | | | > to dry;\ | | | | | > to wipe dry | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to dye | боё- | боёо | Takes nom/acc | | (hair);\ | | | | | to paint | | | | | (nails) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | сайма сай- | сайма саюу | Thing being | | embroider | | | embroidered is | | | | | in dat | | | | | | | | | | *дасторконго* | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to fix | жазан- | жазануу | Intransitive | | one's | | | reflexive;\ | | appearance | | | in mirror = | | | | | *күзгүгө* | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to fold | бүктө- | бүктөө | Takes nom/acc | | clothes | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to get | чечин- | чечинүү | Reflexive | | undressed | | | Intransitive | | | / | / | | | > /\ | | | / | | > to take off | чеч- | чечүү | | | > clothes | | | Takes nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ **Кийим-кечеси жана м[о]{.ul}дасы XXXVI** +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | **Этиштер** | | | | +================+================+================+================+ | **Англис | **Этиштин | **Инфи | **Жөндөмө жана | | Тили** | Уңгусу** | нит[и]{.ul}в** | Эскертүүлөр** | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to gird | курчан- | курчануу | Reflexive, but | | oneself | | | object can be | | | / | / | nom/acc | | > /\ | | | | | > to gird; to | курча- | курчоо | / | | > put a belt | | | | | > on | | | If transitive, | | | | | describes | | | | | someone else's | | | | | actions. Used | | | | | with a poss. | | | | | form of *бел:\ | | | | | Белин курчады* | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to go | тегерет- | тегеретүү | Intrans | | through | | | | | the washer | | | | | another | | | | | time^в^ | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to grow | узар- | узаруу | Intransitive | | longer; | | | reflexive | | | / | / | | | > to get | | | / | | > longer | узарт- | узартуу | | | > | | | Takes nom/acc | | > / | | | | | > | | | | | > to lengthen | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to hang | ил- | илүү | Takes nom/acc | | | | | | | 1: (to be | 1: (илинип | 1: (илинип | 1: (Passive | | hanging | тур-) | туруу) | | | | | | Construction) | | \[clothes, | 2: (жай-) | 2: (жаюу) | | | picture\]) | | | 2: (Takes | | | | | nom/acc) | | 2: (to hang | | | | | out to dry | | | | | | | | | | \[clothes on | | | | | line\]) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to hug the | кыналып тур- | кыналып туруу | Fabric/article | | body | | | of clothing is | | (skinny | | | subject; | | jeans, | | | *денеге* | | tight | | | | | fabric) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to iron;\ | үтүктө- | үтүктөө | Takes nom/acc | | to | | | | | straighten | | | | | hair (with | | | | | iron) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to knot | түй- | түйүү | Takes nom/acc | | (rope) | | | | | | 1: (түйүндү | 1: (түйүндү | 1: (Takes | | 1: (to undo a | ажырат-) | | nom/acc) | | knot;\ | | ажыратуу) | | | to untangle) | 2: (түйүндү\ | | 2: (түйүндү in | | | бекемде-) | 2: (түйүндү | acc) | | 2: (to knot | | | | | something | | бекемдөө) | | | | | | | | tight) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to layer | сал- | салуу | Takes nom/acc | | (clothing) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to look | көрүн- | көрүнүү | Used with | | | | | adjs: *Ал | | > (appearance) | 1: (кычыра-) | 1: (кычыроо) | жакшы/чыйрак | | | | | көрүнөт.* | | 1: (to look | | | | | awesome | | | 1: | | | | | (Intransitive) | | \[slang\]) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to make | сал- | салуу | Used with | | one's bed | | | *төшөк* | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ **Кийим-кечеси жана м[о]{.ul}дасы XXXVII** +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | **Этиштер** | | | | +================+================+================+================+ | **Англис | **Этиштин | **Инфи | **Жөндөмө жана | | Тили** | Уңгусу** | нит[и]{.ul}в** | Эскертүүлөр** | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to make | сулуулан- | сулуулануу | Intransitive | | oneself | | | Reflexive | | pretty;\ | | | | | to get all | | | | | dolled up | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to make | курак кура- | курак куроо | Set phrase | | patchwork | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to make | тарт- | тартуу | Takes nom/acc | | taunt;\ | | | | | to stretch | | | | | something | | | | | tight | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to pack | салыштыр- | салыштыруу | *жүк/ч | | | | | емод[а]{.ul}н* | | 1: (to unpack) | 1: | 1: | in possessed | | | (жайгаштыр-) | (жайгаштыруу) | accusative | | | | | | | | | | 1: | | | | | (*Нерсе/буюм/\ | | | | | оокат* in | | | | | | | | | | possessed | | | | | acc.) | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to pierce | көзө- | көзөө | Takes nom/acc | | (ears) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to pluck | каш тер- | каш терүү | *Каш* can be | | eyebrows | | | possessed | | | | | accusative | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to powder | сыйпа- | сыйпоо | Takes nom/acc | | (face) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to powder | сүйкө- | сүйкөө | Takes nom/acc | | (face) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to put a | жоолук салын- | жоолук салынуу | Reflexive | | headscarf | | | | | on oneself | / | / | /  | | | | | | | > / | жоолук сал- | жоолук салуу | Takes nom/acc | | > | | | | | > to put a | | | | | > headscarf on | | | | | > someone | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ **\ ** **Кийим-кечеси жана м[о]{.ul}дасы XXXVIII** +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | **Этиштер** | | | | +================+================+================+================+ | **Англис | **Этиштин | **Инфи | **Жөндөмө жана | | Тили** | Уңгусу** | нит[и]{.ul}в** | Эскертүүлөр** | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to put | кийин- | кийинүү | Use this verb | | clothes on | | | when you are | | | 1: (кийинт-) | 1: (кийинтүү) | the subject | | oneself;\ | | | *Мен | | to be dressed | / | / | к[у]{.ul}ртка | | in a | | | кийинип | | | кий- | кийүү | жатам*. Used | | certain | | | mainly with | | manner;\ | 2: (кийип | 2: (кийип | colours and | | to be wearing | көр-) | көрүү) | style, *жабык | | | | | = | | 1: (to dress a | 3: (кийгиз-) | 3: (кийгизүү) | co | | person) | | | nservatively;\ | | | 3a: (таажы | 3a: (таажы | жылуу = | | > / | кийгиз-) | кийгизүү) | warmly;* | | > | | | | | > to put on | | | *жеңил = | | > clothes;\ | | | lightly* | | > to get | | | | | > dressed;\ | | | 1: (Clothes | | > to wear | | | are in | | > (clothing); | | | | | > | | | nom/acc; | | > to have on | | | person in | | > (trans) | | | | | | | | dative) | | 2: (to try on | | | | | clothes) | | | / | | | | | | | 3: (to dress a | | | Takes nom/acc. | | person) | | | In progressive | | | | | (жат or тур) | | 3a: (to crown; | | | for to have | | | | | on. | | to coronate) | | | | | | | | 2: (Takes | | | | | nom/acc) | | | | | | | | | | 3: (The | | | | | clothes are in | | | | | | | | | | nom/acc; | | | | | | | | | | person in | | | | | dative) | | | | | | | | | | 3a: (The | | | | | clothes are | | | | | | | | | | nom/acc; | | | | | person | | | | | | | | | | in dative) | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to put on | тагын- | тагын- | Reflexive verb | | (accessory | | | -- done to | | items);\ | / | / | self | | to be | | | | | wearing | так- | тагуу | / | | | | | | | (accessories) | | | Takes nom/acc\ | | | | | (This verb is | | > / | | | used for | | > | | | belts, | | > to wear | | | seatbelts, | | > | | | ties, jewelry, | | (accessories) | | | and glasses) | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to sew | тик- | тигүү | Takes nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to shake | силк- | силкүү | Takes nom/acc | | off (like | | | | | dog or | | | | | from | | | | | clothes) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to shave | ал- | алуу | Takes nom/acc\ | | | | | *Сакалымды* | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ **\ ** **Кийим-кечеси жана м[о]{.ul}дасы XLIX** +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | **Этиштер** | | | | +================+================+================+================+ | **Англис | **Этиштин | **Инфи | **Жөндөмө жана | | Тили** | Уңгусу** | нит[и]{.ul}в** | Эскертүүлөр** | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | кыскар- | кыскаруу | Intranstive | | shorten;\ | | | Reflexive | | to become | / | / | | | short | | | / | | | кыскарт- | кыскартуу | | | > / | | | Takes nom/acc | | > | | | | | > to shorten | | | | | > (something, | | | | | > like dress)\ | | | | | > to trim | | | | | > (hair) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to soak | сууга чыла- | сууга чылоо | *Кирди* | | (clothes) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to spin | (жип) ийир- | (жип) ийирүү | The type of | | (thread) | | | thead being | | | | | spun can | | | | | replace | | | | | (*жип*); Can | | | | | take nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to starch | кр[ | кр[ | Takes nom/acc | | | а]{.ul}хмалда- | а]{.ul}хмалдоо | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to suit | жараш- | жарашуу | The person in | | (make one | | | dative; | | look nice) | | | article of | | | | | clothing in | | | | | nominative: | | | | | *Сага жарашат | | | | | экен!* | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to take in | рест[а] | реставр | Takes nom/acc | | clothes;\ | {.ul}врацияла- | [а]{.ul}циялоо | | | to restore | | | | | (clothes) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to take in | кабылына | кабылына | Takes nom/acc | | clothes;\ | келтир- | келтирүү | | | to restore | | | | | (clothes) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to tear | жырт- | жыртуу | Takes nom/acc | | clothing | | | | | | 1: (жыртылып | 1: (жыртылып | 1: | | 1: (to get a | кал-) | калуу) | (Intransitive) | | hole in | | | | | | | | | | something;\ | | | | | to wear a hole | | | | | in | | | | | | | | | | something) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to thread | тиз- | тизүү | | | | | | | | (together);\ | | | | | to string | | | | | (together) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to tie | байла- | байлоо | Takes nom/acc | | (shoes, | | | | | tie);\ | 1: (кысып | 1: (кысып | 1: (Takes | | to lace up | байла-) | байлоо) | nom/acc) | | (shoes) | | | | | | | | | | 1: (to tie | | | | | tightly) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to turn | оодарып сал- | оодарып салуу | Takes nom/acc | | clothing | | | | | inside out | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ **Кийим-кечеси жана м[о]{.ul}дасы XL** +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | **Этиштер** | | | | +================+================+================+================+ | **Англис | **Этиштин | **Инфи | **Жөндөмө жана | | Тили** | Уңгусу** | нит[и]{.ul}в** | Эскертүүлөр** | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | сөгүл- | сөгүлүү | *Сөгүлүп кет*- | | unravel;\ | | | for emphasis. | | to become | | | | | undone at | | | | | the seams | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to wash | кир жуу- | кир жуу | Set verb | | clothes;\ | | | phrase. Кир is | | to do the | 1: | 1: | in nom. | | laundry | (х[и]{ | (х[и]{ | | | | .ul}мтазала-;\ | .ul}мтазалоо;\ | 1: (Takes | | 1: (to | х[ | х[ | nom/acc) | | dry-clean) | и]{.ul}микалык | и]{.ul}микалык | | | | | | | | | тазала-) | тазалоо) | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to weave; | току- | токуу | Takes nom/acc | | to knit | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to wipe^г^ | сүрт- | сүртүү | Takes nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to wipe^г^ | аарчы- | аарчуу | Takes nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to wrap | орон- | оронуу | Reflexive, but | | oneself up | | | clothing | | in; to be | / | / | object can be | | wearing | | | nom/acc | | (scarf, | оро- | ороо | | | turban, | | | / | | etc)/ | | | | | | | | Takes nom/acc | | - to wrap | | | | | around; | | | | | | | | | | > to envelop | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to wring | сык- | сыгуу | Takes nom/acc | | out | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to wrinkle | бырыш- | бырышуу | Intransitive | | (become | | | Reflexive | | wrinkled)\ | / | / | | | /\ | | | / | | to crumple | бырыштыр- | бырыштыруу | | | (up)\ | | | Takes nom/acc | | (paper, | | | | | | | | | | clothing);\ | | | | | to wrinkle | | | | | (trans) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to zip; to | сыдыр- | сыдыруу | Takes nom/acc | | zip up | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ [\ ]{.ul} **Кийим-кечеси жана м[о]{.ul}дасы XLI** [Notes on Verbs Pertaining to Clothing and Fashion]{.ul} ^а^*Щёткалa*- can be used to describe brushing off things from one's clothes, but it must describe an action done with an actual brush. If you are using you hand to brush off dirt, etc., then *сүрт*- or *аарчы*- must be used instead. ^б^ *Жаса*-, *жасат*-, and *жасалгала*- can all be used interchangeably for "to do one's hair/nails." ^в^ *Тегерет-* means "to spin" and is so used with laundry because the washing machine spins the clothing around while it washes it. Thus, to say that the clothes need to go through the wash one more time, this verb is used. ^г^ *Бутуңду сүрт-/аарчы-* means to wipe your feet (i.e. before entering a home). **Кийим-кечеси жана м[о]{.ul}дасы XLII** [Other Verbs Pertaining to Clothing and Fashion]{.ul} \**Туура келбей кал*- is a verb phrase which means "not to have fit properly" and is used after trying on clothing:\ *Жаңы күрөң туфли кийип көрдүм, бирон анын размери туура келбей калды.* =\ I tried on some new brown shoes, but their size wasn't right/they didn't fit. \*Verbs pertaining to how a watch is running include: \- *Жүр-:* indicates how a watch is running. *Менин саатым туура эмес жүрүп жатат.* \- *Алдыга кет-*: indicates that a watch is running fast: *Менин саатым алдыга кетим жатат.* \- *Артка кал-* : indicates that a watch is running slow/behind:\ *Менин саатым артка калып жатат.* \*Using the verbal phrase *noun + болуп тур-* means "to be covered with/in:"\ *Тебетейиң кар болуп турат; силкип кой.* =\ Your tubeteika is covered with snow; shake it off. \*The verb *чык-* used with some material in ablative case is used to ask if some article of clothing can be made from that material:\ *Бул матери[а]{.ul}лдан шым чыгабы?* = Can pants be made from this fabric? \*The verb *жый*- is used for stacking and organizing *төшөкs*.\ *Төшөктөрдү жыйып салып, аларды бул жерге койгула. =* Stack the *төшөкs* and place them here. \**Килем как-* describes the action of beating a carpet with sticks (as one does in Krygyzstan). **Кийим-кечеси жана м[о]{.ul}дасы XLIII** > [Other Phrases Pertaining to Clothing and Fashion]{.ul} \*..*. өңү барбы*? means "Do you have it in... (colour)?" It is a useful phrase to use when you are out shopping and want a certain article of clothing in a different colour.\ *Бул көйнөк кызыл өңү барбы? =* Do you have this dress in red? **\ Алл[е]{.ul}ргиялары, ден-соолугу, дарысы, оорусу жана симпт[о]{.ul}мдору** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - ablution^1^ | даарат | X | | | | | | 1: (toilet | 1: (даараткана) | 1: (√: | | \[*place*\])^2^ | | туал[е]{.ul}т) | | | 1a: (даарат | | | 1a: (toilet paper) | кагаз\[ы\]) | 1a: (√: | | | | туал[е]{.ul}т | | 1б: (toilet bowl) | 1б: (күлтүк) | кагаз\[ы\] | | | | | | | | √: туал[е]{.ul}тный | | | | бум[а]{.ul}га | | | | | | | | \[*Both Kyrgyzised* | | | | | | | | *Russian*\]) | | | | | | | | 1б: (√: | | | | унит[а]{.ul}з) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - acne; zit | угр[и]{.ul} | Kyrgyzised Russian\ | | | | (*singular in | | | | Kyrgyz, but plural* | | | | | | | | *in Russian*) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - act of getting | (кеч) туруу | Х | | up (late) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - acupuncture | ийне менен дарылоо | √: | | | | иглотерап[и]{.ul}я | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - afterbirth | чөп | Х | | (animal) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - afterbirth | тон | Х | | (human) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - air freshener | аба тазалагыч(ы) | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - air freshener | аба сергиткич | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - alarm clock | ойготкуч | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - albinism | альбин[и]{.ul}зм | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - alcoholism | алкогол[и]{.ul}зм | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - allergy^3^ | *+ dat* | Already Russian Word | | | алл[е]{.ul}ргия | | | 1: (allergen) | | 1: (Already Russian | | | 1: (аллерг[е]{.ul}н) | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - aloe vera | ало[э]{.ul} | Already Russian Word | | | в[е]{.ul}ра | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - ambulance | (медиц[и]{.ul}налык) | √: ск[о]{.ul}рый | | | тез жардам | | | | | (*Kyrgyzised | | | | Russian)* | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - amnesia | амн[е]{.ul}зия | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - amputation | ампут[а]{.ul}ция | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - anaemia/anemia | кан аздык | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - anaesthesia | анезт[е]{.ul}зия | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (anaestesiology) | 1: | 1: (Already Russian | | | (ан | Word) | | | естезиол[о]{.ul}гия) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - andrology | андрол[о]{.ul}гия | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - antacid | кычкылтекти | √: | | | акырындаткыч | а | | | | нтиокисл[и]{.ul}тель | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - anthrax | Сиб[и]{.ul}р жарасы | Kyrgyzised Russian | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - anthrax | күйдүргү | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - antibiotic | антиби[о]{.ul}тик | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - antioxidant | кычкылданууга каршы | √: | | | заттар | антиоксид[а]{.ul}нт | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - antioxidant | кычкылдантпагыч | √: | | | | антиоксид[а]{.ul}нт | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Алл[е]{.ul}ргиялары, ден-соолугу, дарысы, оорусу жана симпт[о]{.ul}мдору II** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - antiperspirant | а | Already Russian Word | | | нтиперспир[а]{.ul}нт | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - aspirine | аспир[и]{.ul}н | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - asthma | [а]{.ul}стма | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - auto | синдр[о]{.ul}м | Already Russian Word | | immunodeficiency | приобретённого | | | syndrome (AIDS) | и | 1: (Already Russian | | | ммунодефиц[и]{.ul}та | Word) | | 1: (human | (СПИД) | | | immunodeficiency | | | | | 1: (в[и]{.ul}рус | | | virus \[HIV\]) | и | | | | ммунодеф[и]{.ul}цита | | | | | | | | челов[е]{.ul}ка | | | | \[ВИЧ\]) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - bacteria | бакт[е]{.ul}рия | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (microbe) | 1: (микр[о]{.ul}б) | 1: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - bags under the | көздүн алдындагы | Х | | eyes;\ | көгүлжүм | | | black eye | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - bandage (wrapped | бинт | Already Russian Word | | gauze) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - band-aid | (л | Already Russian Word | | | ейко)пл[а]{.ul}стырь | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - banya \~\> | мончо | √: б[а]{.ul}ня | | | | | | 1: (act of banyaing) | 1: (мончого түшүү) | 1: (√: б[а]{.ul}няга | | | | түшүү | | 2: (sauna \[Finnish | 2: (с[ау]{.ul}на) | | | banya\]) | | \[*Kyrgyz-Russian | | | | Mix*\]) | | | | | | | | 2: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - bathtub | в[а]{.ul}нна | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (bathroom -- room | 1: (в[а]{.ul}нна | 1: (√: | | with a | бөлмөсү) | в[а]{.ul}нная) | | | | | | tub) | 2: (в[а]{.ul}нналуу | 2: (√: | | | бөлмө) | в[а]{.ul}нная) | | 2: (bathroom -- room | | | | with a | 3: (жуунуучу бөлмө) | 3: (√: | | | | в[а]{.ul}нная) | | tub) | 4: (жуунчу бөлмө) | | | | | 4: (√: | | 3: (bathroom -- room | | в[а]{.ul}нная) | | with a | | | | | | | | tub) | | | | | | | | 4: (bathroom -- room | | | | with a | | | | | | | | tub) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - biomaterial | биоматери[а]{.ul}л | Already Russian Word | | (stool, blood, | | | | and urine | | | | collected for | | | | analysis) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - birth | төрөлүш | Х | | | | | | 1: (act of giving | 1: (төрөө) | 1: (Х) | | birth) | | | | | 2: (төрөт) | 2: (Х) | | 2: (childbirth; | | | | delivery) | 2а: (төрөт үйү) | 2а: (Х) | | | | | | 2а: (birthing house) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - birth mark | мең | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - birth mark | кал | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Алл[е]{.ul}ргиялары, ден-соолугу, дарысы, оорусу жана симпт[о]{.ul}мдору III** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - bite (bug; | чагуу | Х | | snake); beesting | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - blindness | сокурдук | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - blister (result | ыйлаак | Х | | of burn or | | | | walking too | | | | much) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - blood | кан | Х | | | | | | 1: (blood test) | 1: (кан | 1: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | | ан[а]{.ul}лиз) | Mix) | | 2: (blood pressure) | | | | | 2: | 2: (√: | | 2a: (high blood | (\ | давл[е]{.ul}ние) | | pressure) | [арт[е]{.ul}риялык\] | | | | кан басым) | 2а: (√: | | 2a^1^: | | давл[е]{.ul}ние) | | (hypertension) | 2а: (жогорку кан | | | | басым) | 2а^1^: (Already | | 3: (circulation -- | | Russian Word) | | of blood)^4^ | 2а^1^: | | | | (гипертенз[и]{.ul}я) | 3: (Х) | | 3a: (act of | | | | circulating blood) | 3: (кандын айланышы) | 3а: (Х) | | | | | | 4: (bleeding) | 3a: (кан айлануу) | 4: (Х) | | | | | | 4а: (nose bleed) | 4: (каноо) | 4а: (Х) | | | | | | | 4а: (мурунду каноо) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - botulism | ботул[и]{.ul}зм | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - braces | бр[е]{.ul}кеттер | Kyrgyzised Russian | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - broom | шыпыргы | Х | | | | | | 1: (sweepings; | 1: (шыпырынды) | 1: (Х) | | | | | | pile after sweeping) | 2: (калак) | 2: (Х) | | | | | | 2: (dustpan) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - bruise^5^ | көгөрүү | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - burn; scald; | күйүк | Х | | charred remains | | | | of something or | | | | blackened stain | | | | after fire | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cancer | рак | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (stage \[of | 1: (ст[е]{.ul}пень) | 1: (Already Russian | | cancer\]) | | Word) | | | 2: (ак кан) | | | 2: (leukemia) | | 2: (X) | | | 3: | | | 3: (carcinogen) | (канцерог[е]{.ul}н) | 3: (Already Russian | | | | Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cane; walking | таяк | X | | stick | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - care (i.e. skin | *+dat* кам көрүү | Х | | care, etc);\ | | | | act of taking | 1: (бетке кам көрүү) | 1: (Х) | | care of | | | | \[medically\] | 1a: (беттин терисин | 1а: (√: | | | терең | п[и]{.ul}линг) | | 1: (facial | | | | | тазалоо) | | | \[cosmedic | | | | procedure\]) | | | | | | | | 1a: (cosmetic | | | | procedure | | | | | | | | offering a deep | | | | cleaning | | | | | | | | of the face) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Алл[е]{.ul}ргиялары, ден-соолугу, дарысы, оорусу жана симпт[о]{.ul}мдору IV** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - castration | бычуу | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - CAT scan; | томогр[а]{.ul}фия | Already Russian Word | | tomography (the | | | | technology) | 1: | 1: (Already Russian | | | (томогр[а]{.ul}мма) | Word) | | 1: (CAT scan; | | | | tomography | 1а: | 1a: (Already Russian | | | (магн[и]{.ul}т | Word) | | \[resulting image\]) | о-резон[а]{.ul}нсная | | | | | | | 1a: (magnetic | томогр[а]{.ul}мма | | | resonance | \[МРТ\]) | | | | | | | imaging \[MRI\]) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cavity | кари[е]{.ul}с | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (filling of | 1: (пл[о]{.ul}мба) | 1: (Already Russian | | cavity) | | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - chapstick; lip | пом[а]{.ul}да | Already Russian Word | | balm | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - check-up; | кароо | √: медосм[о]{.ul}тр\ | | examination\ | | (*doctor check-up | | (*by doctor*);\ | | meaning* | | viewing; | | | | seeing;\ | | *only*) | | looking around\ | | | | (general | | | | meaning) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - chicken pox | суу чечек | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cigarette; | тамеки | √: сигар[е]{.ul}т | | tobacco | | | | | 1: (чайнама тамеки) | (*Kyrgyzised | | 1: (chewing tobacco) | | Russian,* | | | 2: (сиг[а]{.ul}ра) | | | 2: (cigar) | | *cigarette meaning | | | 3: (тамекинин | only*) | | 3: (cigarette butt) | калдыгы) | | | | | 1: (Х) | | 4: (snoos) | 4: (насв[а]{.ul}й) | | | | | 2: (Already Russian | | 5: (cigarette | 5: (чыпка) | Word) | | filter) | | | | | | 3: (√: сигареттин | | | | калдыгы | | | | | | | | \[*Kyrgyz-Russian | | | | Mix*\]) | | | | | | | | 4: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | | | | | | | | 5: (Х) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - circumcision | сүннөт | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cleaning up; | жыйноо | Х | | tidying up | | | | | 1: (чаң соргуч менен | 1: (Х) | | 1: (vacuuming \[act | | | | of\]) | жыйноо) | 2: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | | | Mix) | | 2: (vacuuming \[act | 2: (пылес[о]{.ul}с | | | of\]) | менен жыйноо) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cleanliness | тазалык | Х | | | | | | 1: (act of cleaning) | 1: (тазалоо) | 1: (Х) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - clinic | кл[и]{.ul}ника | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (outpatient | 1: (бейтапкана) | 1: (√: | | clinic) | | поликл[и]{.ul}ника) | | | 2: | | | 2: (outpatient | (амбулат[о]{.ul}рия) | 2: (Already Russian | | department) | | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cold (general | суук тийүү | Х | | disease) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Алл[е]{.ul}ргиялары, ден-соолугу, дарысы, оорусу жана симпт[о]{.ul}мдору V** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cold (general | суук тийген | Х | | disease) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - coldsore (on | учук | Х | | lip) | | | | | 1: (тибиртке) | 1: (Х) | | 1: (coldsore -- sore | | | | spot | | | | | | | | appearing on tongue) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - colour blindness | дальтон[и]{.ul}зм | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - complexion;\ | өң | X | | colour of one's | | | | face^6^ | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - conception (of | бойго бүтүү | Х | | child) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - concussion | мээ чайкалуу | √: сотряс[е]{.ul}ние | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - condition (of | а(кы)бал | Х | | person)^7^ | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - condition (of | ахвал | Х | | person)^7^ | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - condom | презерват[и]{.ul}в | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - consciousness | эс | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - constipation^8^ | зап[о]{.ul}р | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - contact lens(es) | кыналма | √: конт[а]{.ul}ктная | | | л[и]{.ul}нза(лар) | л[и]{.ul}нза\ | | | | (pl: | | | | конт[а]{.ul}ктные | | | | л[и]{.ul}нзы) | | | | | | | | (*кыналма | | | | л[и]{.ul}нза is | | | | Kyrgyz* | | | | | | | | *-Russian Mix*) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - corn; callice | чер | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cough | жөтөл | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - crown (on tooth) | кор[о]{.ul}нка | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - crutch | балдак | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cut (wound) | кесүү | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - dandruff | какач | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - death | өлүм | Х | | | | | | 1: (time approaching | 1: (ажал) | 1: (Х)\ | | one's | | 2: (Х) | | | 2: (өлүк) | | | death; time to | | | | die)^9^ | | | | | | | | 2: (corpse; dead | | | | body) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - defect | кемчилик | Х | | | | | | 1: (birth defect) | 1: (туулбаса | 1: (Х) | | | кемчилик) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - deficiency; a | жетишсиздик | Х | | lack of | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - delirium; | жөөлүү | Х | | ravings | | | | | | | | > (*of mad person*) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - dental floss | тиш жиби | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - dentistry^10^ | тиш дарылоо | √: | | | | стоматол[о]{.ul}гия | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - dentures | кийме тиштер | √: тиш | | | | прот[е]{.ul}зи | | | | | | | | (*Kyrgyz-Russian | | | | Mix*) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Алл[е]{.ul}ргиялары, ден-соолугу, дарысы, оорусу жана симпт[о]{.ul}мдору VI** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - dentures | жасалма тиштер | √: тиш | | | | прот[е]{.ul}зи | | | | | | | | (*Kyrgyz-Russian | | | | Mix*) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - deodorant | дезодор[а]{.ul}нт | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - dermatitis | дермат[и]{.ul}т | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - diarrhea | чычкак | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - dirt | кир | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - disability; | майып | Х | | special | | | | needs^11^ | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - disease^12^ | дарт | X | | | | | | 1: (diagnosis; | 1: (дарт аныктоо) | 1: (Х) | | prognosis) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - disease^12^; | оору | Х | | pain; sickness | | | | | 1: (тиш оору) | 1: (Х) | | 1: (toothache) | | | | | 2: (баш оору) | 2: (Х) | | 2: (headache; | | | | hangover) | 3: (жыныстык оору) | 3: (Х) | | | | | | 3: (STI; STD) | 4: (жүрөк оору) | 4: (X) | | | | | | 4: (heart attack; | 5: (ооруну басуу) | 5: (X) | | heart disease) | | | | | 6: (кулак оору) | 6: (Х) | | 5: (pain killer) | | | | | 7: (сары оору) | 7: (Х) | | 6: (earache) | | | | | 8: (деңиз оорусу) | 8: (Х) | | 7: (jaundice) | | | | | | | | 8: (seasickness) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - disorder | иретсиздик | X | | | | | | 1: (metabolic | 1: (зат алмашуу | 1: (X) | | disorder;\ | бузулган) | | | glandular disorder) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - dream (*in | түш | Х | | sleep*) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - drug addition | баңгилик | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - drunkenness | мастык | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - dust | чаң | X | | | | | | 1: (vacuum cleaner) | 1: (чаң соргуч) | 1: (√: | | | | пылес[о]{.ul}с) | | 2: (duster) | 2: (чаң сүрткүч) | | | | | 2: (Х) | | 3: (pollen) | 3: (чаңча) | | | | | 3: (Х) | | 4: (small particles | 4: (пыр) | | | of dust, etc | | 4: (Х) | | | | | | which can be seen | | | | floating | | | | | | | | in air) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - dysentery | дизентер[и]{.ul}я | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - ear wax | кулку | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - elderly home; | карылар үйү | Х | | | | | | > nursing home | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Алл[е]{.ul}ргиялары, ден-соолугу, дарысы, оорусу жана симпт[о]{.ul}мдору VII** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - | электр | Kyrgyzised Russian | | electrocardiography | -кардиогр[а]{.ul}фия | | | (EKG) | (ЭКГ) | (*электр-* *used | | | | instead of Russian | | 1: | 1: | эл[е]{.ul}ктро*) | | (electrocardiogram | (электр | | | \[EKG\] | -кардиогр[а]{.ul}мма | 1: (Kyrgyzised | | | | Russian | | \[image of heart | \[ЭКГ\]) | | | produced | | \[*электр*- *used | | | | instead of* | | from using above | | | | imaging | | *Russian электро*\]) | | | | | | technology\]) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - emaciation | арыктоо | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - endoscopy | эндоскоп[и]{.ul}я | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - essential oil | эф[и]{.ul}р майы | Kyrgyzised Russian | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - exema | саргарт | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - exhaustion | алсыроо | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - extraction | жулуу | √: экстр[а]{.ul}кт | | (*i.e. tooth*) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - face lift | л[и]{.ul}фтинг | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - falling down | жыгылуу | Х | | \[act of\] | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - fatigue | чарчоо | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - fatness; | семиздик | Х | | corpulence; | | | | obesity | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - fever; | ысытма | √: | | temperature^13^ | | температ[у]{.ul}ра | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - fingernail | тырмак алгыч | Х | | clipper | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - first aid | биринчи жардам | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - flu | сасык тумоо | √: грипп | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - fracture | сынык | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - gang green | гангр[е]{.ul}на | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - gauze | м[а]{.ul}рля | Already Russian | | | | Word\ | | | | (*In Kyrgyz usually | | | | the plural | | | | м[а]{.ul}рли is | | | | used*) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - geneticically | ген[е]{.ul}тикалык | Kyrgyzised Russian | | modified | жаткан | | | organism (GMO) | моди | | | | фик[а]{.ul}цияланган | | | | орган[и]{.ul}зм | | | | (ГМО) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - glaucoma | глаук[о]{.ul}ма | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - goiter | богок | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - guarana | гуар[а]{.ul}на | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - gunk; sleep (in | чылпак | Х | | eye) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - gynaecology | гинекол[о]{.ul}гия | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - hardening (act | катуу | X | | of);\ | | | | stiffening;\ | | | | act of becoming | | | | stiff | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - harm | зыян | Х | | | | | | 1: (harmfulness) | 1: (зыяндуулук) | 1: (Х) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Алл[е]{.ul}ргиялары, ден-соолугу, дарысы, оорусу жана симпт[о]{.ul}мдору VIII** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - health^14^ | ден(-)соолук | Х | | | | | | 1: (health | 1: (саламаттык) | 1: (Х) | | \[*official*\])^14^ | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - hearing | угуу | Х | | | | | | 1: (hearing aid) | 1: (угуу | 1: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | | аппар[а]{.ul}ты) | Mix) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - heartburn | зар(ы)на | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - hernia; rupture | чурку | Х | | (medical) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - hiccup | ыктытма | Х | | | | | | 1: (hiccupping \[act | 1: (ыктытуу) | 1: (X) | | of\]) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - hives | кызыл тактар | X\ | | | | (*plurale tantum*) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - hookah | чылым | √: каль[я]{.ul}н | | | | | | 1: (mouthpiece for | 1: (мундшт[у]{.ul}к) | 1: (Already Russian | | hookah) | | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - hospital | оорукана | √: больн[и]{.ul}ца | | | | | | 1: (small village | 1: | 1: (Kyrgyzised | | hospital)^15^ | (фельдш[е]{.ul}р | Russian) | | | дик-акуш[е]{.ul}рдик | | | 2: (small village | | 2: (Х) | | hospital)^15^ | пункт \[ФАП\] | | | | | 3: (Already Russian | | 3: (ward in a | 2: (эмкана) | Word) | | hospital) | | | | | 3: (пал[а]{.ul}та) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - household | тирчилик | Kyrgyz-Russian Mix | | cleaner | х[и]{.ul}миясы | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - hunchback | бүкүр | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - hygiene | гиги[е]{.ul}на | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (personal hygiene | 1: (жеке | 1: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | products) | гиги[е]{.ul}на | Mix) | | | | | | | каражаттары) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - immunity | иммунит[е]{.ul}т | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - implant | импл[а]{.ul}нт | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (implantation) | 1: | 1: (Already Russian | | | (имплант[а]{.ul}ция) | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - impotency | импот[е]{.ul}нзия | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - incision | кертмек | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - infection; | жугуш | Х | | contagion | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - infertility; | тукумсуздук | X | | barrenness; | | | | sterility | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - infertility; | төрөбөстүк | Х | | barrenness; | | | | sterility | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Алл[е]{.ul}ргиялары, ден-соолугу, дарысы, оорусу жана симпт[о]{.ul}мдору IX** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - inflammation | сезгенүү | Х | | | | | | 1: (inflammation of | 1: (\...сезгениши) | 1: (Х) | | the...) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - injection; a | ийне | √: ук[о]{.ul}л | | shot | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - inoculation; | эмдөө | X | | vaccination | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - IV^16^ | дары тамчылаткыч | √: к[а]{.ul}пельница | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - kidney stone | бөйрөктөгү таш | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - labour; | тогоо | Х | | contractions^17^ | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - laryngitis | ларинг[и]{.ul}т | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - latex | л[а]{.ul}текс | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - leeching | сүлүк коюу | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - leg brace | орт[е]{.ul}з | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - limp | аксоо | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - lying down (act | жатуy | Х | | of) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - malaria | безгек | √: маляр[и]{.ul}я | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - mammography | маммогр[а]{.ul}фия | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (mammogram) | 1: | 1: (Already Russian | | | (маммогр[а]{.ul}мма) | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - massage^18^ | ушалоо | √: масс[а]{.ul}ж | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - massage^18^ | укалоо | √: масс[а]{.ul}ж | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - medical service | медиц[и]{.ul}налык | Kyrgyz-Russian Mix | | | тейлөө | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - medication;\ | каражат | Х | | a specific | | | | preparation | 1: (ич алдыруучу | 1: (Х) | | for;\ | | | | | каражат) | 2: (Х) | | *ср[е]{.ul}дство* | | | | | 2: (сийдирүүчү | 3: (Х) | | 1: (laxative) | каражат) | | | | | | | 2: (diuretic) | 3: (бойго бала | | | | болтурбас | | | 3: (contraceptive) | | | | | каражат) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - medicine | дары | Х | | | | | | 1: (pharmacy) | 1: (дарыкана) | 1: (√: | | | | апт[е]{.ul}ка)\ | | 2: (medicine -- | 2: (мед[и]{.ul}цина) | 2: (Already Russian | | study of) | | Word) | | | 3: (дарылоо) | | | 3: (cure; treatment | | 3: (√: | | for) | 4: (чөп дары) | леч[е]{.ul}ние) | | | | | | 4: (herbal medicine) | 5: (эм) | 4: (Х) | | | | | | 5: (folk medicine; | | 5: (Х) | | | | | | shamanistic | | | | quackery) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - medicine cabinet | апт[е]{.ul}чка | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - menstration | айыз | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - midwifery; | акуш[е]{.ul}рство | Already Russian Word | | | | | | > baby delivering | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - miscarriage | бойдон түшүү | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Алл[е]{.ul}ргиялары, ден-соолугу, дарысы, оорусу жана симпт[о]{.ul}мдору X** +-------------------------------+---------------------+-----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +===============================+=====================+=======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +-------------------------------+---------------------+-----------------------+ | - mitigation | азайтуу | Х | +-------------------------------+---------------------+-----------------------+ | - mop | шв[а]{.ul}бра | Already Russian Word | +-------------------------------+---------------------+-----------------------+ | - morgue | морг | Already Russian Word | +-------------------------------+---------------------+-----------------------+ | - mould (north dialect)^19^ | көк (дат) | Х | | | | | | 1: (mould -- south dialect) | 1: (көпөлөк) | 1: (X) | +-------------------------------+---------------------+-----------------------+ | - mud | баткак | X | +-------------------------------+---------------------+-----------------------+ | - mud; dirty sediment^20^ | ылай | Х | +-------------------------------+---------------------+-----------------------+ | - mumijo^21^ | мумиё | Already Russian Word | +-------------------------------+---------------------+-----------------------+ | - mutagen | мутаг[е]{.ul}н | Already Russian Word | +-------------------------------+---------------------+-----------------------+ | - nail file | өгөө | Х | +-------------------------------+---------------------+-----------------------+ | - neurology | неврол[о]{.ul}гия | Already Russian Word | +-------------------------------+---------------------+-----------------------+ | - ointment | дары май | √: мазь | +-------------------------------+---------------------+-----------------------+ | - old age | карылык | Х | +-------------------------------+---------------------+-----------------------+ | - oncology | онк[о]{.ul}логия | Already Russian Word | +-------------------------------+---------------------+-----------------------+ | - operation | опер[а]{.ul}ция | Already Russian Word | +-------------------------------+---------------------+-----------------------+ | - orthodontics | ортод[о]{.ul}нтия | Already Russian Word | +-------------------------------+---------------------+-----------------------+ | - orthopedics; orthopaedics | ортоп[е]{.ul}дия | Already Russian Word | +-------------------------------+---------------------+-----------------------+ | - overexertion | аша чыӊалуу | Х | +-------------------------------+---------------------+-----------------------+ | - pacifier | упчу | √: пуст[ы]{.ul}шка | +-------------------------------+---------------------+-----------------------+ | - pancreatitis^22^ | уйку без оорусу | √: панкреат[и]{.ul}т | +-------------------------------+---------------------+-----------------------+ | - paralysis | парал[и]{.ul}ч | Already Russian Word | +-------------------------------+---------------------+-----------------------+ | - pediatrics | педиатр[и]{.ul}я | Already Russian Word | +-------------------------------+---------------------+-----------------------+ | - pharmacology | фармакол[о]{.ul}гия | Already Russian Word | +-------------------------------+---------------------+-----------------------+ | - phlegm (in throat);\ | какырык | Х | | lugie (on street) | | | +-------------------------------+---------------------+-----------------------+ | - phobia | ф[о]{.ul}бия | Already Russian Word | +-------------------------------+---------------------+-----------------------+ | - pipe (for smoking) | канжа | Х | +-------------------------------+---------------------+-----------------------+ | - plague; pestilience | чум[а]{.ul} | Already Russian Word | +-------------------------------+---------------------+-----------------------+ | - pneumonia | пневмон[и]{.ul}я | Already Russian Word | +-------------------------------+---------------------+-----------------------+ | - poison | уу | X | +-------------------------------+---------------------+-----------------------+ | - pollution | булгоо | √: загрязн[е]{.ul}ние | +-------------------------------+---------------------+-----------------------+ | - poop | заң | Х | | | | | | 1: (shit *\[!\]*) | 1: (бок) | 1: (X) | +-------------------------------+---------------------+-----------------------+ | - poop; manure | кык | Х | +-------------------------------+---------------------+-----------------------+ | - pregnancy | кош бойлуулук | Х | +-------------------------------+---------------------+-----------------------+ **Алл[е]{.ul}ргиялары, ден-соолугу, дарысы, оорусу жана симпт[о]{.ul}мдору XI** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - preparation\ | препар[а]{.ul}т | Already Russian Word | | (chemical or | | | | pharmaceutical) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - prescription | рец[е]{.ul}пт | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - probe | зонд | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - prophylaxis; | профил[а]{.ul}ктика | Already Russian Word | | medical | | | | preventive | | | | measures and | | | | precautions | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - prostatitis | простат[и]{.ul}т | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - prosthetics | прот[е]{.ul}з | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - puberty | өткөөл курак | √: перех[о]{.ul}дный | | | | в[о]{.ul}зраст | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - pulse | тамыр кагыш | √: пульс | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - purification; | тазартуу | Х | | filtration | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - puss | ириӊ | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - Q-tip | кулак чукугуч | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - radioactivity | рад | Kyrgyzised Russian | | | иоакт[и]{.ul}вдүүлүк | | | 1: (nuclear fallout) | | 1: (Kyrgyzised | | | 1: | Russian) | | | ( | | | | радиоакт[и]{.ul}вдүү | | | | заттардын | | | | | | | | жаашы) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - recovery; | айыгуу | Х | | convalescence | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - recovery; | сакаюу | Х | | convalescence | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - rejuvenation | жашартуу | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - resort (to | кур[о]{.ul}рт | Already Russian Word | | regain health, | | | | often in nature) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - resuscitation;\ | жандандыруу | √: реаним[а]{.ul}ция | | resuscitation | | | | department of | | | | hospital;\ | | | | resuscitation | | | | ambulance^23^ | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - rhinoplasty | мурунду түздөө | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - rot; act of | чирүү | X | | rotting or | | | | festering | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - rounds (of | обх[о]{.ul}д | Already Russian Word | | nurse, doctor) | | | | | | (*вр[а]{.ul}чтын | | | | кечки обх[о]{.ul}ду | | | | =\ | | | | the doctor's evening | | | | rounds*) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - rubbing alcohol | спирт | Already Russian Word | | | медиц[и]{.ul}нский | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sanatorium | санат[о]{.ul}рий | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - scalpel | ск[а]{.ul}льпель | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - scar | тырык | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Алл[е]{.ul}ргиялары, ден-соолугу, дарысы, оорусу жана симпт[о]{.ul}мдору XII** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - schizophrenia | шизофрен[и]{.ul}я | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - scratching\ | тырмоо | X | | (act of; | | | | symptom) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - scum; *накипь*; | көбүк | Х | | film (developed | | | | from dirt) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sensitivity | *+dat* сезимталдык | Х | | to... | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - septic system | с[е]{.ul}птик | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (septic tank) | 1: | 1: (Kyrgyzised | | | (с[е]{.ul}птикалык | Russian) | | | танк) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sewage system | канализ[а]{.ul}ция | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - shiver | калтырак | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - shock | шок | Already Russian Word | | | | | | (psychological)^24^ | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - shower | душ | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (act of | 1: (д[у]{.ul}шка | 1: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | showering) | түшүү) | Mix) | | | | | | 2: (shower gel) | 2: (душ г[е]{.ul}ли) | 2: (Kyrgyzised | | | | Russian) | | 2a: (shower cream) | 2a: (душ | | | | кр[е]{.ul}ми) | 2a: (Kyrgyzised | | | | Russian) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sigh; breath | дем алуу | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sink | р[а]{.ul}ковина | Already Russian Word | | | | | | | 1: | 1: (Kyrygzised | | | (умув[а]{.ul}льник) | Russian) | | | | | | | 2: (аптаба) | 2: (Х) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sinus infection | гаймор[и]{.ul}т | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - skinniness; | арыктык | Х | | leanness | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sleep | уйку | Х | | | | | | 1: (insomnia) | 1: (уйкусуздук) | 1: (Х) | | | | | | 2: (state of being | 2: (уйку аралаш) | 2: (Х) | | half asleep) | | | | | 3: (уктатуу) | 3: (Х) | | 3: (act of putting | | | | someone to | 3а: (терметип | 3а: (Х) | | | уктатуу) | | | sleep) | | 4: (Х) | | | 4: (уктоочу маал) | | | 3a: (act of rocking | | | | someone to | | | | | | | | sleep) | | | | | | | | 4: (bedtime)^25^ | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - slime | былжыр | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - smog | смог | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - smoke | түтүн | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - smoking (*act | (*тамеки*) тартуу | Х | | of*) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - smoking (*act | (*тамеки*) чегүү | Х | | of*) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sneeze | чүчкүрүк | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - snore; snoring | коңурук | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sclerosis | склер[о]{.ul}з | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Алл[е]{.ul}ргиялары, ден-соолугу, дарысы, оорусу жана симпт[о]{.ul}мдору XIII** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - snot; mucus | чимкирик | √: с[о]{.ul}пли | | | | | | 1: (snot \[*slang*\] | 1: (манка) | 1: (√: с[о]{.ul}пли) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - soap | самын | Х | | | | | | 1: (soap dish) | 1: (самын салгыч) | 1: (Х) | | | | | | 2: (shampoo)^26^ | 2: (суу самын) | 2: (√: | | | | шамп[у]{.ul}нь) | | 3: (toilet soap) | 3: (атыр самын) | | | | | 3: (Х) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - spit | түкүрүк | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - spit | шилекей | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - splint | шакшак | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sponge; loofah | жышкыч | √: г[у]{.ul}бка; | | | | моч[а]{.ul}лка | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - stare; staring | кадала тиктөө | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sterilization | стерилиз[а]{.ul}ция | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (act of | 1: | 1: (Х) | | sterilizing) | (сте | | | | рилиз[а]{.ul}циялоо) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - stethoscope | стетоск[о]{.ul}п | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - strep throat | анг[и]{.ul}на | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - stretcher | замбил | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - stye (in eye) | тирсек | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sunburn; suntan | күнгө күйүү | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sunscreen | күндөн коргоочу крем | √: | | | | с | | | | олнцезащ[и]{.ul}тный | | | | крем | | | | | | | | (*күндөн коргоочу | | | | крем is* | | | | | | | | *Kyrgyz-Russian | | | | Mix*) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - surgery | хирург[и]{.ul}я | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sweat; | тер | X | | perspiration | | | | | 1: (тердөө) | 1: (Х) | | 1: (sweating; | | | | perspiring | | | | | | | | \[*act of\])* | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - swelling; a | шишик | Х | | swollen area; | | | | bump; unknown | | | | growth | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - symptom | белги | √: симпт[о]{.ul}м | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - syndrome | синдр[о]{.ul}м | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - syphilis | с[и]{.ul}филис | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - syringe | шприц | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - syrup | сир[о]{.ul}п | Already Russian Word | | (medicinal) | | | | | 1: (жөтөлгө каршы | 1: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | 1: (cough syrup) | сир[о]{.ul}п) | Mix) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - tablet; pill | табл[е]{.ul}тка | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Алл[е]{.ul}ргиялары, ден-соолугу, дарысы, оорусу жана симпт[о]{.ul}мдору XIV** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - therapy | дарылоо | √: терап[и]{.ul}я | | | | | | 1: (physical | 1: | 1: (√: | | therapy) | ( | ф[и]{. | | | ф[и]{.ul}зиодарылоо) | ul}зиотерап[и]{.ul}я | | | | | | | | \[ | | | | *ф[и]{.ul}зиодарылоо | | | | is* | | | | | | | | *Kyrgyzised | | | | Russian*\]) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - toilet | ажа(а)ткана | √: туал[е]{.ul}т | | (place)^2^ | | | | | 1: (мырзалар | 1: (√: мырзалар | | 1: (men's toilet) | ажа\[а\]тканасы) | туал[е]{.ul}ти | | | | | | 2: (women's toilet) | 2: (айымдар | \[*Kyrgyz-Russian | | | ажа\[а\]тканасы) | Mix*\]) | | 3: (toilet and | | | | bathroom all in | 3: (сан[у]{.ul}зел) | 2: (√: айымдар | | | | туал[е]{.ul}ти | | one room) | | | | | | \[*Kyrgyz-Russian | | | | Mix*\]) | | | | | | | | 3: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - toothpaste^27^ | тиш п[а]{.ul}ста | √: з[у]{.ul}бный | | | | п[а]{.ul}ста\ | | | | (*Both are | | | | Kyrgyzised-* | | | | | | | | *Russian*) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - transplant | (орг[а]{.ul}нды) | √: | | | алмаштыруу | т | | | | рансплант[а]{.ul}ция | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - trauma (physical | тр[а]{.ul}вма | Already Russian Word | | or | | | | psychological) | 1: | 1: (Already Russian | | | (т | Word) | | 1: (traumatology) | равмат[о]{.ul}логия) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - treatment; | айыктыруу | √: процед[у]{.ul}ра | | procedure\ | | | | (for certain | 1: | 1: (Kyrgyzised | | infliction) | (процед[у]{.ul}ралык | Russian) | | | бөлмө) | | | 1: (operating room) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - tuberculosis | туберкулёз | Alrady Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - tweezers\ | пинц[е]{.ul}т | Already Russian Word | | (small for | | | | medicine) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - ultrasound | [у]{.ul}льтрадабыш | √: | | (technology)^28^ | | ультразв[у]{.ul}к\ | | | 1: | (*[у]{.ul}льтра came | | 1: (ultrasound | ([ | into Kyrgyz* | | appointment\ | у]{.ul}льтрадабыштык | | | \[to look at | | *from Russian*) | | baby\])^28^ | изилдөө \[УДИ\]) | | | | | 1: (√: | | | | [у]{.ul} | | | | льтразвуков[о]{.ul}е | | | | | | | | иссл[е]{.ul}дование | | | | \[[У]{.ul}ЗИ\]) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - urine | сийдик | X | | | | | | 1: (urination) | 1: (сийдик чыгаруу) | 1: (Х) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - urine | заара/саара | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - vasculitis | васкул[и]{.ul}т | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - virus | в[и]{.ul}рус | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Алл[е]{.ul}ргиялары, ден-соолугу, дарысы, оорусу жана симпт[о]{.ul}мдору XV** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - vitamin | витам[и]{.ul}н | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (pantothenic acid | 1: (пантот[е]{.ul}н | 1: (Kyrgyzised | | | кычкылы) | Russian) | | \[vitamin B5\]) | | | | | 2: | 2: (Already Russian | | 2: (pyridoxine | (пиридокс[и]{.ul}н | Word) | | hydrochloride | гидрохлор[и]{.ul}д | | | | | 3: (Already Russian | | \[vitamin B6\]) | \[витам[и]{.ul}н | Word) | | | В6\]) | | | 3: (inositol | | 4: (Already Russian | | \[vitamin B8\]) | 3: (иноз[и]{.ul}т | Word) | | | \[витам[и]{.ul}н | | | 4: (cobalamin | В8\]) | 5: (Kyrgyzised | | \[vitamin B12\]) | | Russian) | | | 4: | | | 5: (ascorbic acid | (ц | | | \[vitamin C\]) | ианокобалам[и]{.ul}н | | | | | | | | \[витам[и]{.ul}н | | | | В12\]) | | | | | | | | 5: (аскорб[и]{.ul}н | | | | кислот[а]{.ul}сы\ | | | | \[С | | | | витам[и]{.ul}ни\]) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - vomit | кусунду | Х | | | | | | 1: (act of vomiting) | 1: (кусуу) | 1: (Х) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - wet wipe | нымдуу кол аарчы | √: вл[а]{.ul}жная | | | | салф[е]{.ul}тка | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - wound | жараат | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - wound | жаракат | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - wrinkle (in | бырыш | Х | | skin) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - x-ray | р[е]{.ul}нтген | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (fluoroscopy) | 1: | 1: (Already Russian | | | (ре | Word) | | | нтгеноск[о]{.ul}пия) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - yawn; a yawning | эстөө | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Алл[е]{.ul}ргиялары, ден-соолугу, дарысы, оорусу жана симпт[о]{.ul}мдору XVI** [Notes on Nouns Pertaining to Allergies, Health, Medicine, Disease, and Symptoms]{.ul} ^1^ Ablution in the Muslim tradition is called *wudu* in English. It a daily ritualistic washing performed by adherent Musilms. The process consists of ten steps:\ 1) Make *niyyah,* or the expression of one's desire to perform an act for the sake of Allah 2\) Using your left hand, wash your right hand 3 times. Reverse the action washing your left\ hand 3 times using your right. 3\) Using your right hand, cup water into your mouth 3 times. Swish and expectorate. 4\) Using your right hand, cup water and inhale it into your nose 3 times. 5\) Wash your face 3 times by spreading your hands from your right year to your left, and from the hairline to the chin. 6\) Wash your lower arms from the writs to the elbows, washing your right arm first 3 times and then your left arm 3 times. 7\) Do the "masah," or the gentle cleaning of the head once, from the forehead to the back of the head. 8\) Wipe your ears inside and out (one time). 9\) Starting with your right foot and then moving to your left, wash each foot 3 times. 10\) After washing is completed, recite the *du'as* (a statement of faith whereby the adherent proclaims there is no other god worthy of worship besides Allah and that Muhammad \[Peace Be Upon Him\] is His messenger.) Note: If any of the above steps are done incorrectly or not in the proper order, the ablution (*wudu*) must be repeated from the first step. Although *wudu* is generally done once a day, it must be repeated after actions that nullify its effects. These actions include: natural discharges (urination, vomiting, defecation, excessive bleeding, flatulence) and sleep. Sexual intercourse also nullifies the effects, but another ablution known as *ghusl* must be performed instead of *wudu.* ^2^ There is no functional difference between *ажаткана* and *даараткана*. *Туал[е]{.ul}т* is also very commonly encountered. ^3^ *Алл[е]{.ul}ргия* is a loan word from Russian. The Russian language places the stress of the word on the third syllable (*ги*). However, in Kyrgyz the stress is usually found on the second syllable (*лер*). This is why *алл[е]{.ul}ргия* is listed in the above vocabulary tables as "Kyrgyzised Russian," because the pronunciation changes. ^4^ Adjectives describing how good (*туура*) or poor (*туура эмес*) one's circulation is go inbetween the two terms:\ *кандын туура эмес айланышы* = poor circulation. ^5^ The noun "bruise" is not often used in Kyrgyz; rather, a verb phrase will be used:\ *Колуң көгөрүп кетти.* = You have a bruise on your arm (lit: Your arm has been brusied).\ See verb section for more information. **Алл[е]{.ul}ргиялары, ден-соолугу, дарысы, оорусу жана симпт[о]{.ul}мдору XVII** ^6^ This word is used in phrases to inform someone that they "don't look so good" (i.e. that they look unwell): *Өңүң жаман экен.* = You don't look so good (lit: Your complexion/face colour is bad). ^7^ *Оор абалда* means "in serious condition": *Ал ооруканада оор абалда жатат*. The term can be *абал, акыбал,* or *ахвал* (all are Kyrgyzised versions of an Arabic loanword). ^8^ While Kyrgyz does not appear to have a noun that means "constipation" (the Russian noun *зап[о]{.ul}р* is used), there is a pure Kyrgyz way to say that one is constipated. Use a possessed form of *ич* plus *катып (ж)атат*:\ *Ичим катып жатат*. = I'm feeling constipated. (lit: My stomach is hardening). ^9^ *Ажал* is used in a few phrases related to how someone died:\ *Анын ажалы маш[и]{.ul}ннадан болду. =* S/he died in a car crash*\ Ажалы жетип өлдү.* = S/he died a natural death (Lit: His/her time having come, s/he died).\ *Ажал* technically means the time of one's death, making it different from *өлүм*. ^10^ The Russian *стоматол[о]{.ul}гия* is much more common than the Kyrgyz. ^11^ The construction possessed body part in locative + *майыбы* *бар* + noun is used to mean "that noun has a bad \: *Тиги ат бутунда майыбы бар. =* That horse has a bad leg. ^12^ *Дарт* is much less used than *оору*. ^13^ *Температ[у]{.ul}ра + possessed morphology + бар* or *дене + possessed morphology + ысык* are both possible ways of saying that one has a fever. *Жогору* (high) and *төмөн* are adjectives used to describe one's temperature. The Russian *температ[у]{.ul}ра* is more used than the Kyrgyz *ысытма.* ^14^ *Ден-соолук* is the word for "health" in most senses; *саламаттык* isn't really used for health save in the phrase *Саламаттык Сактоо Мин[и]{.ul}стрлиги =* Ministry of Health ^15^ A *ФАП* or an *эмкана* are small clinics located in little villages. Those who work there are qualified to set broken bones, take vitals, and administer shots, but for more serious emergencies one should be taken to an actual hospital. ^16^ The Russian is much more used than the Kyrgyz *дары тамчылаткыч.* ^17^ *Анын тогоосу башталды* or *Анын төрөтү башталды* mean "She's in labour" or "Her contractions have started." ^18^ *Масс[а]{.ul}ж* tends to be more used than *ушалоо* or *укалоо*, but it was seen in advertisements for massages in Bishkek and in the instructions for applying shampoo: *Жумшак ушалоо менен көбүртүңүз. =* Lather (shampoo) with a massaging motion. **Алл[е]{.ul}ргиялары, ден-соолугу, дарысы, оорусу жана симпт[о]{.ul}мдору XVIII** ^19^ Normally, *көк* is just nominalized to mean "mould". ^20^ *Ылай* is used instead of *баткак* to talk about the salutorious effects of mud, like mudbaths: *Ысык ылай ден-соолук үчүн пайдалуу*. ^21^ *Мумиё*, or mumijo, is a dark brown or black tarry deposit found in rock crevices in high altitudes like the Himalayas used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of diseases. ^22^ The medical term *панкреат[и]{.ul}т* is a more common and modern form of *уйку без оорусу.* ^23^ The Russian *реаним[а]{.ul}ция* is much more used, and the only one seen for the "resuscitation department of hospital" and "resuscitation ambulance" translations. ^24^ To be shocked is *шок болуп жат-.* To get schocked/scandalized is *шок болуп кал-:* *Ошону окуганда шок болуп калдым!* ^25^ *Уктоочу маалыӊ болду.* = It's your bedtime. ^26^ *Суу самын* is one of those "over-Kyrgyzisations." Everyone just uses *шамп[у]{.ul}нь.* ^27^ The Kyrgyzised Russian phrase *З[у]{.ul}бный п[а]{.ul}ста* tends to be more used than the Kyrgyz-Russian hybrid *тиш п[а]{.ul}ста* for "toothpaste". Note that Russian feminine morphology (as in Russian "toothpaste" would be *зубн[а]{.ul}я п[а]{.ul}ста*)is not kept in Kyrgyz. ^28^ *[У]{.ul}льтрадобуш* and *[У]{.ul}льтра Добуш Изилдөө* have been observed on a medical advertisement in Bishkek, but this might be erroneous as *добуш* means "vote." I have corrected it to *дабыш*, meaning "sound." Take this Kyrgyz entry with a grain of salt however; in speech, I have only ever heart the Russian *[У]{.ul}ЗИ* be used. **Алл[е]{.ul}ргиялары, ден-соолугу, дарысы, оорусу жана симпт[о]{.ul}мдору XIX** [Other Nouns Pertaining to Allergies, Health, Medicine, Disease, and Symptoms]{.ul} \*In Kyrgyz, there are multiple translations for the English word "life": 1\) *жашоо --* the most general meaning of "life" 2\) *өмүр* -- one's own life: *өмүрүмдө биринчи жолу =* for the first time in my life 3\) *тирүүлүк* -- state of being alive 4\) *тиричилик* -- everyday life \*The act, ability, or know-of of divining illnesses through feeling another person's pulse is called *тамырчылык.* The knowledge is shamanistic and not really practiced nowadays. \*Kyrgyz parents use a catheter-like device called a *шимек* with their infants. A *шимек* is a hollowed out tube made from primarily sheep bone that is attached to a baby laying in a cradle so that their urine drains out into a collecting device (read: repurposed soda bottle). \*Body odour has different terms in Kyrgyz depending on where the odour is coming from:\ - *шыбоо* = smelly feet (*\...сасып жатат/Бутум шыбоо болуп кетти*.) \- *колоңсоо* = smelly armpits (*\...жытанат/бар экен)* \*In Kyrgyzstan, you need a signed and stamped official letter from your doctor if you miss work for medical reasons. In true Kyrygz, this letter is called *эмгекке жарамсыздыгы үчүн* *баракча.* This, however, is quite a descriptive mouthful, so the Russian term *больн[и]{.ul}чный лист* tends to be more used. **Алл[е]{.ul}ргиялары, ден-соолугу, дарысыс, оорусу жана симпт[о]{.ul}мдору XX** [Other Nouns that are Traditional Kyrgyz Items Pertaining to Allergies, Health, Medicine, Disease, and Symptoms]{.ul} \*What follows is list of traditional Kyrgyz, Central Asian (Uzbek, Kazakh, and other Turkic peoples), and Russian items that are used for hygienic or medicinal purposes. Each descriptor is listed first in Kyrgyz followed by an explanation in English and an accompanying picture: +---------------------------+---------------------------+-----------+ | **Кыргызча** | **Англис тилиндеги | **Сүрөт** | | | түшүндүрмө** | | +===========================+===========================+===========+ | - умув[а]{.ul}льник\ | A type of outdoor | | | (*Kyrgyzised | washbasin stand that does | | | Russian)* | not have its own water | | | | connection. Water is | | | | pumped from an outside | | | | source in a bucket, and | | | | the bucket is but inside | | | | the cabinet-like holder. | | | | The used water drains | | | | into another bucket that | | | | must be emptied. | | +---------------------------+---------------------------+-----------+ | - чөөгүн | An ornate water pourer | | | | used for ritualistic | | | 1: (кумган) | washing of hands, often | | | | done after a large meal | | | | with guests. | | | | | | | | 1: (Archaic term for | | | | *чөөгүн*.) | | +---------------------------+---------------------------+-----------+ **\ ** **Алл[е]{.ul}ргиялары, ден-соолугу, дарысыс, оорусу жана симпт[о]{.ul}мдору XXI** +-------------------------------------+-------------------------------+ | **Сын Атоочтор жана Тактоочтор** | | +=====================================+===============================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | +-------------------------------------+-------------------------------+ | - able-bodied | жумушка жарактуу | +-------------------------------------+-------------------------------+ | - alive; living | тирүү | | | | | 1: (alive \[*adv*\]*;* pretending | 1: (тирүүлөй) | | to be alive; | | | | 1a: (тирүүлөй көмүлгөн) | | *живьём*) | | | | | | 1a: (buried alive) | | +-------------------------------------+-------------------------------+ | - allergenic; pertaining to | алл[е]{.ul}ргиялык | | allergies | | +-------------------------------------+-------------------------------+ | - anti-aging | карылыкка каршы | +-------------------------------------+-------------------------------+ | - antibacterial | антибакт[е]{.ul}риялык | +-------------------------------------+-------------------------------+ | - autistic | аут[и]{.ul}ст | +-------------------------------------+-------------------------------+ | - baren; sterile; infertile | төрөбөс | +-------------------------------------+-------------------------------+ | - baren; sterile; infertile | тукумсуз | +-------------------------------------+-------------------------------+ | - bathing (attributive) | жуунуучу | +-------------------------------------+-------------------------------+ | - bathing (attributive) | жуунчу | +-------------------------------------+-------------------------------+ | - blind^a^ | сокур | | | | | 1: (blind in both eyes)^a^ | 1: (азиз) | +-------------------------------------+-------------------------------+ | - carcinogenic | канцерог[е]{.ul}ндик | +-------------------------------------+-------------------------------+ | - chronic (disease) | өнөкөт (*оору*) | +-------------------------------------+-------------------------------+ | - circumcised; "cut" | кесилүү | +-------------------------------------+-------------------------------+ | - clean; dirtless | кирсиз | +-------------------------------------+-------------------------------+ | - clean; pure; sanitary | таза | | | | | 1: (unclean; dirty; unpure; untidy) | 1: (таза эмес) | +-------------------------------------+-------------------------------+ | - clinical | кл[и]{.ul}никалык | +-------------------------------------+-------------------------------+ | - contagious; infectious | жугуштуу | | | | | 1: (non contagious; non infectious) | 1: (жугушсуз) | +-------------------------------------+-------------------------------+ | - contraceptive | бойго бала болтурбас | +-------------------------------------+-------------------------------+ | - curable | айыгуучу | | | | | 1: (cured; healed) | 1: (айыктырылган) | | | | | 2: (incurable) | 2: (айыккыс) | +-------------------------------------+-------------------------------+ | - dead | каза\ | | | (*Ал бычакталып каза тапкан*) | | 1: (deceased) | | | | 1: (каза болгон) | +-------------------------------------+-------------------------------+ | - deaf | дүлөй | | | | | 1: (deaf-mute) | 1: (дүлөй-дудук) | +-------------------------------------+-------------------------------+ | - deceased; dead | өтүп кеткен | +-------------------------------------+-------------------------------+ **Алл[е]{.ul}ргиялары, ден-соолугу, дары, оорусу жана симпт[о]{.ul}мдору XXII** +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | **Сын Атоочтор жана Тактоочтор** | | +==================================+==================================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - deceased; dead; the late... | маркум | | (formal) | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - deep (breath; clean) | тереӊ (*дем алуу*) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - dental (pertaining to | стоматол[о]{.ul}гиялык | | dentistry) | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - describing someone suffering | н[е]{.ul}рви тез козголуучу\ | | from a nervous condition | (*Бул суусундук \... адамдарга | | \~\> | сунушталбайт)* | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - dirty | кир | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - dirty; smudgy (face, body ie | шалтак | | with dirt) | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - disordered | иретсиз | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - diuretic | сийдирүүчү | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - drunk | мас | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - dusty | чаңдуу | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - endoscopic | эндоскоп[и]{.ul}ялык | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - energizing | күч берүүчү | | | | | | (*\...энерг[е]{.ul}тикалык | | | суусундук)* | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - exhausted; racked with pain | кыйналган | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - fast (asleep); heavy | катуу | | (sleeper)^b^ | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - fat^c^ | семиз | | | | | 1: (fat \[polite\]; big-boned; | 1: (толук) | | stout)^c^ | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - filtered (*cigarettes*) | чыпкалуу | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - fresh (breath) | сергек (*дем алуу)* | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - gynaecological | гинекол[о]{.ul}гиялык | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - harmful; dangerous; | залалдуу | | deleterious | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - harmful; dangerous; | зыяндуу | | deleterious; caustic | | | | 1: (ден-соолук үчүн зыяндуу) | | 1: (bad for your health) | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - healthy (*lifestyle*) | дени сак | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - healthy; robust | чыйрак | | (*person*)^d^ | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - hernial; pertaining to | чуркулук | | hernias | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - hoarse (voice) | кыркыраган | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - hygenic | геги[е]{.ul}налык | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - invalid | майып | | | | | 1: (disabled) | 1: (майып болгон) | | | | | 2: (missing one or both of one's | 2: (чолок) | | hands or legs; | | | | | | stubby \[rude in Kyrgyz\]) | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - latex (*made from latex, | л[а]{.ul}текстен жасалган | | i.e. gloves*) | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - lifeless (*literally: | жансыз | | soulless*); inanimate | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - light (sleeper)^b^ | сак | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - long (life; *өмүр*) | узун | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - medical | медиц[и]{.ul}налык | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ **Алл[е]{.ul}ргиялары, ден-соолугу, дары, оорусу жана симпт[о]{.ul}мдору XXIII** +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | **Сын Атоочтор жана Тактоочтор** | | +==================================+==================================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - medical; medicinal | дарылык | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - mortal (*i.e. wound*) | ажалдуу | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - mouldy (*bread*); bruised | көгөргөн | | (*body part*) | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - muddy | баткактуу | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - mutagenic | мутаг[е]{.ul}ндик | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - mute (*can't speak)* | дудук | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - natal | төрөт учурдагы\ | | | *(энелердин төрөт учурдагы | | 1: (post-natal) | өлүмү)* | | | | | | 1: (төрөттөн кийинки) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - neurological | неврол[о]{.ul}гиялык | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - oncological | онкол[о]{.ul}гиялык | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - operating; attributive of an | процед[у]{.ul}ралык | | operation or a medical | | | procedure | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - orthopaedic | ортоп[е]{.ul}диялык | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - outpatient | амбулат[о]{.ul}риялык | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - painful (*death*) | азаптуу (*өлүм*) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - paramedic | фельдш[е]{.ul}рдик | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - pediatric | педиатр[и]{.ul}ялык | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - pertaining to midwifery or | акуш[е]{.ul}рдик | | birting babies | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - pertaining to sanatriums | санат[о]{.ul}рийлик | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - pertaining to tubs; having a | в[а]{.ul}нналуу | | tub | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - poisonous; venomous | уулуу | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - pregnant^e^ | кош бойлуу | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - prophylactic; preventative | профил[а]{.ul}ктикалык | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - radioactive | радиоакт[и]{.ul}вдүү | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - resort; pertaining to health | кур[о]{.ul}рттук | | resorts | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - revitalizing | сергитүүчү | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - sanitary | санит[а]{.ul}рдык | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - sensitive (*eyes, etc*) | сезимтал | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - sensitive (*eyes, etc)* | сезгичтүү | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - sensitive to cold;\ | үшүкчөөл | | describing one who gets cold | | | easily | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - septic | с[е]{.ul}птикалык | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - sick; ill (*predicative*) | оору\ | | | *(Мен оорумун)* | | 1: (sick; ill; diseased | | | \[*attributive*\]) | 1: (оорулуу) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ **\ ** **Алл[е]{.ul}ргиялары, ден-соолугу, дары, оорусу жана симпт[о]{.ul}мдору XXIV** +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | **Сын Атоочтор жана Тактоочтор** | | +==================================+==================================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - smoking (*attributive*); | тартылуучу\ | | meant for smoking | (*тартылуучу тамеки*) | | | | | 1: (meant to be smoked with a | 1: (канжа менен тартылуучу | | pipe; | \[*тамеки*\]) | | | | | pipe \[*tobacco\]*) | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - snotty | чимкириктүү | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - sober | соо | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - soundly (sleeping); fast | катуу | | (asleep)^b^ | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - sterile | стер[и]{.ul}лдүү | | | | | 1: (sterilized) | 1: (стерилиз[а]{.ul}цияланган) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - stethoscopic (describing a | стетоск[о]{.ul}п менен | | procedure done with a | | | stetoscope) | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - stiff; ossified | сенейген | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - stillborn; miscarried | чарчап калган | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - straight (standing) *(adv)* | тике (*тур)* | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - stressful; caused by | стр[е]{.ul}сстик | | stress;\ | | | pertaining to stress | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - sunburnt; tanned; browned | күнгө күйгөн | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - sweaty | тердүү | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - thin; slim (*scarily so*)^c^ | арык | | | | | 1: (thin; slim \[*healthy*\])^c^ | 1: (арыкчырай) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - tipsy | кызуу | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - traumatological | травматол[о]{.ul}гиялык | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - ultrasound (pertaining to | [у]{.ul}льтрадабыштык | | the procedure or the | | | technology)^f^ | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - unpleasant (breath; smell; | жагымсыз | | жыт) | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - urinary | сийдик | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - vital; pertaining to that | турмуштук | | which sustains life | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - weak; bad or frail | начар | | (*health*) | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - wrinkled (face, skin) | бырышкан | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ **Алл[е]{.ul}ргиялары, ден-соолугу, дары, оорусу жана симпт[о]{.ul}мдору XXV** > [Notes on Adjectives and Adverbs Pertaining to Allergies, Health, > Medicine, Disease, and Symptoms]{.ul} ^a^ Technically, in order to use the term *азиз* the person described must be blind in both eyes. To my knowledge, *сокур* is a general term for blind whereby a person could be blind in just one eye or both. The distinction is hardly ever important to make, so both *азиз* and *сокур* function mainly as synonyms to each other. ^b^ Both *катуу* and *сак* can be used as either adjectives or adverbs:\ Adjectives: \- *Менин уйкум катуу*. = I'm a heavy sleeper (literally: My sleep is hard) \- *Менин уйкум сак.* = I'm a light sleeper (literally: My sleep is light) Adverbs: \- *Мен катуу уктайм*. = I'm a heavy sleeper. \- *Мен сак уктайм*. = I'm a light sleeper. Aditionally, There are two ways to express that one is fast asleep: 1\) *Ал катуу уктап жатат* (Using the adverb *катуу*) 2\) *Ал тырп этпей уктап жатат.* (Using the verb phrase *тырп этпей*) ^c^ The spectrum of skinness to fatness ranges as follows: *арык* (skinny in like an anorexic way) -- *арыкчырай* (healthy thin) -- *толук* (big-boned; more heavier set; slightly chubby, or a polite way of saying "fat") -- *семиз* (fat). ^d^ *Чың* is an adjective which means "being in good health; healthy (said of a person; *чыйрак*)". The difference between *чыӊ* and *чыйрак* is that *чыӊ* is a term that is only used in wishes:\ *Сизге чың ден-соолук каалайм/Ден-соолугуңуз чың болсун!* ^e^ *Боюнда бар* is a verbal way of saying "to be pregnant." ^f^ *[У]{.ul}льтрадобуштук* has been observed on a medical advertisement in Bishkek, but this might be erroneous as *добуш* means "vote." I have corrected *добуш* to *дабыш*, meaning "sound." Take this entry with a grain of salt however. **Алл[е]{.ul}ргиялары, ден-соолугу, дары, оорусу жана симпт[о]{.ul}мдору XXVI** [Other Adjectives and Adverbs that Pertain to Allergies, Health, Medicine, Disease, and Symptoms]{.ul} \*The suffix *-сз* means "without". There are a few adjectives which can be made from it: \- *ГМОлорсуз = no GMOs* \- *жетишсиз* = deficient \**Катуу* (literally: loudly) is used to mean "badly" when pain is hurting you. \*Also note that nouns and verbs pertaining to allergies, health, medicine, disease, and symptoms may be used attributively as well. In this case, the noun being modified is also in 3^rd^ person possessed genitive: +---------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Кыргызча** | **Англис тилинин | **Мисал** | | | которулушу** | | +=====================+======================+======================+ | - айыз мезгилинин | menstrual | *айыз мезгилинин | | | | каны* | | | | | | | | menstrual blood | +---------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - в[и]{.ul}рус | viral | *в[и]{.ul}рус | | | | жугушу* | | | | | | | | viral infecton | +---------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - мончо | bath; banya;\ | *мончо сүлгү* | | | pertaining to baths | | | | or banyas | bath towel | +---------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - нымдоо | moisturizing;\ | *нымдоо | | | that which | эфф[е]{.ul}кти* | | | moisturizes | | | | | moisturizing effect | +---------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - хирург[и]{.ul}я | surgical; | *хирург[и]{.ul}я | | | | ооруканасы* | | | pertaining to | | | | surgery | surgical hospital | +---------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Алл[е]{.ul}ргиялары, ден-соолугу, дары, оорусу жана симпт[о]{.ul}мдору XXVII** +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | **Этиштер** | | | | +================+================+================+================+ | **Англис | **Этиштин | **Инфи | **Жөндөмө жана | | Тили** | Уңгусу** | нит[и]{.ul}в** | Эскертүүлөр** | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to adjust | көн- | көнүү | Intransitive | | | | | | | > (*eyes to | | | | | > darkness*) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | ампут | ампут | Takes nom/acc | | amputate | [а]{.ul}цияла- | [а]{.ul}циялоо | | | | | | 1: (Takes | | 1: (to cut off | 1: (кесип | 1: (кесип | nom/acc) | | \[*part*\]) | ташта-) | таштоо) | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to apply | сыйпа- | сыйпоо | Takes nom/acc | | (gel, | | | | | cream, | 1: (көбүрт-) | 1: (көбүртүү) | 1: (X) | | shampoo) | | | | | | | | | | 1: (to lather | | | | | shampoo) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to apply | сүйкө- | сүйкөө | Takes | | (gel, | | | nom/acc;\ | | cream, | | | Area applied | | shampoo) | | | to in dative | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to be born | төрөл- | төрөлүү | Usually in | | | | | *төрөлгөнмүн* | | > / | / | / | оr *төрөлгөм* | | > | | | ("was born") | | > to birth;\ | төрө- | төрөө | | | > to give | | | / | | > birth to | | | | | | | | Takes nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to be | үшү- | үшүү | Usually in | | cold;\ | | | progressive | | to suffer | 1: (үшүк ал-) | 1: (үшүк алуу) | with *жат*- or | | from the | | | *тур*- | | cold | | | | | | | | 1: | | 1: (to freeze | | | (Intransitive) | | to death;\ | | | | | to get | | | | | frostbite) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to be | жабырка- | жабыркоо | Intrans. Takes | | | | | *менен* | | contaminated | / | / | | | with;\ | | | / | | to be | жабыркат- | жабыркатуу | | | infested | | | Takes nom/acc | | with | | | for object | | | | | infeste | | > / | | | d/contaminated | | > | | | | | > to | | | Use менен for | | > contaminate | | | "*with*" | | > with;\ | | | | | > to infest | | | | | > with | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to be | жөөлү- | жөөлүү | Intransitive | | delirious | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to be good | сакта- | сактоо | Healing item | | for | | | in nom.\ | | | | | Disease in | | > (i.e. | | | ablative:\ | | > medicine | | | *Сарымсак | | > against a | | | грипптен | | > cold) | | | сактайт. =* | | | | | Garlic is good | | | | | for a cold. | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ **Алл[е]{.ul}ргиялары, ден-соолугу, дары, оорусу жана симпт[о]{.ul}мдору XXVIII** +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | **Этиштер** | | | | +================+================+================+================+ | **Англис | **Этиштин | **Инфи | **Жөндөмө жана | | Тили** | Уңгусу** | нит[и]{.ul}в** | Эскертүүлөр** | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to be hot | ысы- | ысуу | Often in | | | | | progressive: | | | | | *Ысып жатам*! | | | | | = I'm burning | | | | | up. | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to be | сезген- | сезгенүү | Intransitive | | inflamed | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to be | жараат ал- | жараат алуу | Abl is from | | injured | | | accident | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to be | уулан- | уулануу | Intransitive | | poisoned | | | Reflexive\ | | | / | / | What poisoned | | > / | | | by in ablative | | > | ууландыр- | ууландыруу | | | > to poison\* | | | / | | | | | | | | | | Transitive | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to be | оору- | ооруу | Usually in | | sick;\ | | | progressive | | to be in | 1: (ооруп кал) | 1: (ооруп | with жат- or | | pain;\ | | калуу) | тур- | | to be | /\ | | | | hurting | оорут- | / | 1: | | | | | (Intransitive) | | 1: (to become | | оортуу | | | sick;\ | | | / | | to get sick) | | | | | | | | Takes nom/acc | | /\ | | | | |   to hurt | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to be | отур- | отуруу | Does not have | | sitting;\ | | | a progressive | | to sit | 1: (мандаш | 1: (мандаш | form.\ | | down | толкун | толкун | Place where | | | | | one sits in | | 1: (to sit | отур-) | отуруу) | dat: *Бул | | crosslegged; | | | жерге отур*. | | | 2: (отургуз-) | 2: (отургузуу) | | | to sit criss | | | 1: | | cross | | | (Intransitive) | | | | | | | applesauce) | | | 2: (Takes | | | | | nom/acc) | | 2: (to make | | | | | someone | | | | | | | | | | sit; to sit | | | | | someone | | | | | | | | | | somewhere) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to be | тур- | туруу | Does not have | | standing;\ | | | a progressive | | to stand | 1: (тургуз-) | 1: (тургузуу) | form. | | up; | | | | | | | | 1: (*бурчта* | | > to get up | | | -- in the | | > | | | | | > (*in | | | corner) | | > morning*) | | | | | | | | | | 1: (to make | | | | | someone | | | | | | | | | | stand) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to be | кызы- | кызуу | *Ашказан | | upset | | | кызыйт.* | | | | | | | (*stomach*) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ **\ ** **Алл[е]{.ul}ргиялары, ден-соолугу, дары, оорусу жана симпт[о]{.ul}мдору XXIX** +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | **Этиштер** | | | | +================+================+================+================+ | **Англис | **Этиштин | **Инфи | **Жөндөмө жана | | Тили** | Уңгусу** | нит[и]{.ul}в** | Эскертүүлөр** | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to be | р[ | р[ | You are the | | x-rayed | е]{.ul}нтгенге | е]{.ul}нтгенге | subject of the | | | тарт- | тартуу | sentence | | > / | | | | | > | / | / | / | | > to have | | | | | > something | р[ | р[ | Doctors, etc. | | > x-rayed | е]{.ul}нтгенге | е]{.ul}нтгенге | are the | | | тарттыр- | тартыруу | subject, you | | | | | are the object | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to beat | сок- | согуу | Intransitive\ | | (heart);\ | | | (*Анын тамыры | | to pulsate | | | согуп жатат.*) | | (veins) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to become | алсыра- | алсыроо | Intransitive | | exhausted | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to become | кыркыра- | кыркыроо | Intransitive | | hoarse | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to become | тазар- | тазаруу | Intransitive | | pure;\ | | | reflexive | | to become | / | / | | | clean | | | / | | | тазарт- | тазартуу | | | > / | | | Takes nom/acc | | > | | | | | > to purify; | | | | | > to filter; | | | | | > to make | | | | | > clean | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to become | сенейип кал- | сенейип калуу | Intranstive | | stiff;\ | | | | | to | | | | | stiffen;\ | | | | | to ossify | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to become | чарча- | чарчоо | *Normally used | | tired | | | in past to | | | | | mean "tired": | | | | | Мен чарчадым. | | | | | = I'm tired.* | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to become | бырыш- | бырышуу | Intransitive | | wrinkled;\ | | | Reflexive | | to go all | | | | | wrinkly | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to become | жашар- | жашаруу | Intrans verb | | younger | | | | | | / | / | / | | > / | | | | | > | жашарт- | жашартуу | Takes nom/acc | | > to | | | | | > rejuvenate | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to bite | чак- | чагуу | Takes nom/acc | | (*bug, | | | | | snake*);\ | | | | | to sting | | | | | (*bee*) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to black | караңгыла- | караңгылоо | *Менин | | out;\ | | | көзүмдүн | | to go | | | алдында | | black | | | караңгылап | | (*before | | | кетти* | | eyes*) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to bleed | кана- | каноо | Intransitive | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ **Алл[е]{.ul}ргиялары, ден-соолугу, дары, оорусу жана симпт[о]{.ul}мдору XXX** +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | **Этиштер** | | | | +================+================+================+================+ | **Англис | **Этиштин | **Инфи | **Жөндөмө жана | | Тили** | Уңгусу** | нит[и]{.ul}в** | Эскертүүлөр** | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to blow | чимкир- | чимкирүү | Transitive; | | one's nose | | | need word for | | | | | nose | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to break | сын- | сынуу | Intrans: My | | bone | | | leg broke. | | (intrans | / | / | | | reflex) | | | / | | | сындырып ал- | сындырып алуу | | | > / | | | Trans: I broke | | > | 1: (сындыр-) | 1: (сындыруу) | my leg. | | > to break | | | | | > bone (trans, | | | 1: (Trans) | | > suddenly) | | | | | | | | | | 1: (to break | | | | | bone | | | | | | | | | | \[someone's on | | | | | | | | | | purpose\]) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to brush | тиш щёткала- | тиш щёткалоо | *Тиш* can be | | teeth | | | in nom/acc; | | | | | less used than | | | | | *тиш жуу*. | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to brush | тиш тазала- | тиш тазалоо | *Less used | | teeth | | | than тиш жуу; | | | | | тиш* can be in | | | | | nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to burn | күйгүз- | күйгүзүү | Takes nom/acc, | | (*body | | | often with | | part, | | | *ал*- to show | | oneself*) | | | sudden | | | | | ness/accident: | | | | | *Казанды | | | | | кармап, колун | | | | | күйгүзүп | | | | | алды.* | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to burp | кекир- | кекирүү | Intransitive | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | быч- | бычуу | Takes nom/acc | | castrate | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to catch | кезик- | кезигүү | The disease is | | an illness | | | in Dative | | | 1: (суук тий-) | 1: (суук | | | 1: (to catch a | | тийүү) | 1: (often | | cold) | | | *Мага суук* | | | | | | | | | | *тийиптир*) | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to choke;\ | чака- | чакоо | Often *чакап | | to choke | | | кет*- for | | on | | | warning: | | | | | You'll choke | | | | | on it: *чакап | | | | | кетесиң* | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | (анын) колун | (анын) колун | Often used | | | адалда- | адалдоо | with 3^rd^ | | circumcise\* | | | person | | | | | possessed acc. | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | сүннөт жаса- | сүннөт жасоо | Boy is in | | | | | dative | | circumcise\* | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | отургуз- | отургузуу | In acc: | | | | | *баланы* | | circumcise\* | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to clean | жыйна- | жыйноо | Takes nom/acc | | (up);\ | | | | | to tidy up | 1: (чаң | 1: (чаң | 1: (Takes | | | соргуч/ | соргуч/ | nom/acc) | | 1: (to vacuum) | | | | | | пылес[о]{.ul}с | пылес[о]{.ul}с | | | | менен | менен | | | | | | | | | жыйна-) | жыйноо) | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ **Алл[е]{.ul}ргиялары, ден-соолугу, дары, оорусу жана симпт[о]{.ul}мдору XXXI** +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | **Этиштер** | | | | +================+================+================+================+ | **Англис | **Этиштин | **Инфи | **Жөндөмө жана | | Тили** | Уңгусу** | нит[и]{.ul}в** | Эскертүүлөр** | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to cough | жөтөл- | жөтөлүү | Intranstive;\ | | | | | *Жөтөлүп | | 1: (to cough | 1: (кан | 1: (кан | калыптырсың* = | | up blood) | жөткүр-) | жөткүрүү) | You've caught | | | | | a cough! | | | | | | | | | | 1: (*кан* in | | | | | nom/acc) | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | майып кыл- | майып кылуу | Object in | | cripple; | | | dative | | | | | | | > to maim | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | аныкта- | аныктоо | Takes nom/acc | | diagnose | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | чыгарып ал- | чыгарып алуу | Takes nom/acc | | | | | | | dislocate\* | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to drown | сууга чөк- | сууга чөгүү | Intranstive | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to dust | чаң сүрт- | чаң сүртүү | *Чаң* usually | | | | | in nom; what | | | | | is dusted is | | | | | in genitive: | | | | | *ст[о]{ | | | | | .ul}лдун*\.... | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to extract | э | э | Takes nom/acc | | | кстр[а]{.ul}кт | кстр[а]{.ul}кт | | | | кыл- | кылуу | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to extract | жул- | жулуу | Takes nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to fall | уктап кал- | уктап калyy | Body part in | | asleep | | | nom. | | (*body | | | | | part*) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to fall | жыгыл- | жыгылуу | Intranstive | | down | | | | | | 1: (жыгылт-) | 1: (жыгылтуу) | 1: (Person in | | 1: (to make | | | acc) | | someone | 2: | 2: | | | | (үстөмөнүнөн | (үстөмөнүнөн | 2: | | fall) | | | (Intransitive) | | | кет-) | кетүү) | | | 2: (to | | | | | faceplant;\ | | | | | to fall head | | | | | first) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to fall | кула- | кулоо | Intransitive | | down\* | | | | | | 1: (кулап | 1: (кулап | 1: (Use | | 1: (to fall | түш-) | түшүү) | ablative: | | off;\ | | | | | to fall from) | | | *шатыдан* = | | | | | off the | | | | | | | | | | ladder) | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to fall | түш- | түшүү | Intransitive: | | out | | | *Анын чачы/сүт | | | | | тиштери түшүп | | > (hair, | | | жатат.* | | > teeth) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to fart | осур- | осуруу | Intransitive | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to feel | сез- | сезүү | Reflexive | | | | | pronouns are | | | | | used in | | | | | accusative; | | | | | often in | | | | | progressive | | | | | *сезип тур-:\ | | | | | өзүмдү жаман | | | | | сезип турам.* | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ **Алл[е]{.ul}ргиялары, ден-соолугу, дары, оорусу жана симпт[о]{.ul}мдору XXXII** +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | **Этиштер** | | | | +================+================+================+================+ | **Англис | **Этиштин | **Инфи | **Жөндөмө жана | | Тили** | Уңгусу** | нит[и]{.ul}в** | Эскертүүлөр** | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to file | өгөөлө- | өгөөлөө | Takes nom/acc | | nails | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to fill | пл[о]{.ul}мба | пл[о]{.ul}мба | Person in | | (cavity);\ | кой- | коюу | dative | | to put in | | | | | a filling | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to flush | (сууну) агыз- | (сууну) агызуу | Takes nom/acc | | (toilet) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to gain | толукта- | толуктоо | Often in | | weight;\ | | | resultative: | | to put on | | | *толуктап | | weight\* | | | кал-* | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to get | айык- | айыгуу | Intransitive | | better;\ | | | | | to | 1: (айыктыр-) | 1: (айыктыруу) | 1: (Takes | | recover;\ | | | nom/acc) | | to | 2: (айыгып | 2: (айыгып | | | | кет-) | кетүү) | 2: (From = | | recuperate\* | | | abl) | | | | | | | 1: (to cure; | | | | | to heal) | | | | | | | | | | 2: (to make a | | | | | full | | | | | | | | | | recovery) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to get | сакай- | сакаюу | Intransitive; | | better;\ | | | often *сакайып | | to | | | кет-* | | recover;\ | | | | | to | | | | | | | | | | recuperate\* | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to get | семир- | семирүү | Often with the | | fat;\ | | | helping verb | | to put on | 1: (семизде-) | 1: (семиздөө) | *кал*- to form | | weight\* | | | *семирип | | | | | кал*-. Used | | 1: (to suffer | | | esp. when want | | from the | | | to emphasize | | | | | the result. | | effects of | | | | | obesity)\* | | | 1: (See note | | | | | for usage) | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to get | арыкта- | арыктоо | Often with the | | skinny;\ | | | helping verb | | to lose | | | *кал*- to form | | weight | | | *арыктап кал*. | | | | | Used to focus | | | | | on result. | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to give a | ук | ук | Person in | | shot to | [о]{.ul}л/ийне | [о]{.ul}л/ийне | dative; | | | сай- | саюу | against | | > / | | | disease - | | > | / | / | *каршы* | | > to get a | | | | | > shot | ук | ук | / | | | [о]{.ul}л/ийне | [о]{.ul}л/ийне | | | | сайдыр- | сайдыруу | Person getting | | | | | shot is | | | | | subject | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to give | кан тапшыр- | кан тапшыруу | *Кан*, if | | blood | | | possessed, can | | | | | be in | | | | | accusative | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to go | паӊдап кет- | паӊдап кетүү | Intranasitive | | mouldy | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ **\ ** **Алл[е]{.ul}ргиялары, ден-соолугу, дары, оорусу жана симпт[о]{.ul}мдору XXXIII** +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | **Этиштер** | | | | +================+================+================+================+ | **Англис | **Этиштин | **Инфи | **Жөндөмө жана | | Тили** | Уңгусу** | нит[и]{.ul}в** | Эскертүүлөр** | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to go | көгөр(үп кет)- | көгөр(үп | Intransitive | | mouldy | | кет)үү | | | (bread, | 1: (көпөлөк | | 1: (Not | | etc.);\ | басып | 1: (көпөлөк | | | to become | | басып | understandable | | bruised | кет-) | | in | | (body | | кетүү) | | | part) | | | Naryn) | | | | | | | 1: (to go | | | | | mouldy\* | | | | | | | | | | \[*South*\]) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to grind | кычырат- | кычыратуу | Takes nom/acc | | teeth;\ | | | | | to gnash | | | | | teeth | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to groan\* | наалы- | наалуу | Intransitive | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to grow | ка(a)ры- | ка(a)руу | Intransitive | | old;\ | | | | | to get old | / | / | / | | | | | | | > / | картайт- | картайтуу | Takes nom/acc | | > | | | | | > to make | | | | | > old;\ | | | | | > to turn old | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to grow | улгай- | улгаюу | Intransitive; | | old;\ | | | often in | | to get old | | | resultative: | | | | | *улгайып кал* | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to harm | зыян кыл- | зыян кылуу | Object in | | | | | dative | | 1: (to harm\ | 1: (зыян | 1: (зыян | | | \[more | келтир-) | келтирүү) | 1: (object in | | formal\]) | | | dative) | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to have | чылпакта- | чылпактоо | *Көзүң | | gunk in | | | чылпактап | | one's eye | | | жатат.* | | \~\> | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to hiccup | ыктыт- | ыктытуу | Intransitive | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | пайда кыл- | пайда кылуу | Specific body | | infect;\ | | | part in | | to disease | | | genitive and | | | | | the disease is | | | | | in 3^rd^ | | | | | person morph. | | | | | accusative:\ | | | | | *Алле | | | | | рг[е]{.ul}ндер | | | | | дем алуу | | | | | жолдорунун | | | | | алле | | | | | рг[и]{.ul}ялык | | | | | оорусун пайда | | | | | кылат. = | | | | | Allergens | | | | | infect the | | | | | airways with | | | | | an allergenic | | | | | disease.* | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to itch | кычыш- | кычышуу | "to be itchy" | | | | | rendered by | | | | | the | | | | | progressive: | | | | | кычышып жатат | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to keep | таза карма- | таза кармоо | Takes nom/acc | | clean | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ **Алл[е]{.ul}ргиялары, ден-соолугу, дары, оорусу жана симпт[о]{.ul}мдору XXXIV** +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | **Этиштер** | | | | +================+================+================+================+ | **Англис | **Этиштин | **Инфи | **Жөндөмө жана | | Тили** | Уңгусу** | нит[и]{.ul}в** | Эскертүүлөр** | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to lean;\ | жөлөн- | жөлөнүү | On object = | | to | | | dative | | recline;\ | | | | | to lounge | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to leech | сүлүк кой- | сүлүк коюу | *сүлүк* can be | | blood | | | nom/acc; | | | | | person in | | | | | dative | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to lie | жат- | жатуу | Intranstive | | down\* | | | | | | 1: (боортоктоп | 1: (боортоктоп | 1: | | 1: (to lie | жат-) | | (Intranstive) | | face down;\ | | жатуу) | | | to lie on | 2: (үстөмөндөп | | 2: | | one's | жат-) | 2: (үстөмөндөп | (Intransitive) | | | | | | | stomach) | / | жатуу) | / | | | | | | | 2: (to lie | ж | / | Takes nom/acc | | face down;\ | аткыр-/жаткыз- | | | | to lie on | | жат | 1a: (*Баланы* | | one's | 1a: | кыруу/жаткызуу | | | | (боортоктотуп | | *боортоктотуп* | | stomach) | | 1a: | | | | жаткыр-/ | (боортоктотуп | *жатызып* | | > / | | | | | > | жаткыз-) | жаткыруу/ | *койдум*) | | > to lay | | | | | > someone down | 2a: | жаткызуу) | 2а: (Takes | | | (үстөмөндөп | | nom/acc) | | 1a: (to lay | | 2а: | | | someone | жаткыр-/ | (үстөмөндөп | | | | | | | | face down)\* | жаткыз-) | жаткыруу/\ | | | | | жаткызуу) | | | 2a: (to lay | | | | | someone | | | | | | | | | | face down) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to limp | акса- | аксоо | Intransitive | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to lose | эс жогот- | эс жоготуу | *эс* is in | | | | | possessed acc | | consciousness | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to make | самында- | самындоо | Verb not | | soapy;\ | | | really used by | | to suds up | 1: (самындап | 1: (самындап | itself; see | | | жуу-) | жуу)\ | *самындап жуу* | | 1: (to wash | | 1а: (самындап | | | with soap | 1а: (самындап | | 1: (Takes | | | | жуунуу) | nom/acc) | | \[dishes, | жуун-) | | | | etc\]) | | | 2: | | | | | (Intransitive | | 1a: (to wash | | | reflex) | | up with | | | | | | | | | | soap | | | | | \[person\]) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to massage | ушала- | ушалоо | Takes nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to massage | ма | ма | Takes nom/acc | | | сс[а]{.ul}жда- | сс[а]{.ul}ждоо | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to massage | укала- | укалоо | Takes nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | азай- | азаюу | Intransitive | | mitigate | | | Reflexive | | | / | / | | | | | | / | | | азайт- | азайтуу | | | | | | Takes nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | аша чыӊал- | аша чыӊалуу | Intransitive | | overexert | | | | | oneself | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ **Алл[е]{.ul}ргиялары, ден-соолугу, дары, оорусу жана симпт[о]{.ul}мдору XXXV** +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | **Этиштер** | | | | +================+================+================+================+ | **Англис | **Этиштин | **Инфи | **Жөндөмө жана | | Тили** | Уңгусу** | нит[и]{.ul}в** | Эскертүүлөр** | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to pinch | кыпчытып ал- | кыпчытып алуу | Needs to have | | (i.e. | | | the "mistake" | | finger in | | | helping verb | | door) | | | *ал. Кычыт-* | | | | | by itself not | | | | | really used. | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to piss; | сий- | сийүү | Intransitive | | to pee | | | | | | 1: (сийдик | 1: (сийдик | 1: (*сийдик* | | 1: (to | чыгар-) | чыгаруу) | generally | | urinate) | | | | | | 2: (сийдир-) | 2: (сийдирүү) | in nom.) | | 2: (to make or | | | | | cause | 3: (төшөккө | 3: (төшөккө | 2: (Person | | | сийип | сийип | caused to | | to pee) | | | | | | кой-) | коюу) | pee in dative) | | 3: (to wet the | | | | | bed) | | | 3: (Note төшөк | | | | | is in | | | | | | | | | | dative; Балам | | | | | | | | | | төшөккө сийип | | | | | | | | | | коёт) | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to poop; | заңда- | заңдоо | Intransitive | | to shit | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | жазып бер- | жазып берүү | *Дары* in | | prescribe | | | nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to prevent | алдын ал- | алдын алуу | Takes nom/acc | | (disease) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | жандандыр- | жандандыруу | Takes nom/acc | | | | | | | resuscitate;\ | 1: (тирилт-) | 1: (тирилтүү) | 1: (Takes | | to revive | | | nom/acc: | | | | | | | 1: (to | | | *өлгөндү | | animate;\ | | | тирилт*-) | | to bring back | | | | | from | | | | | | | | | | the dead) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | сергит- | сергитүү | Takes nom/acc | | | | | | | revitalize;\ | | | | | to | | | | | refresh;\ | | | | | to | | | | | invigorate | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to rinse | чайка- | чайкоо | Takes nom/acc | | (out) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to rot | чири- | чирүү | Intransitive | | (away);\ | | | reflexive | | to fester\ | | | | | (*dead | | | | | body, | | | | | wound*) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to scratch | тырма- | тырмоо | Takes nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to shiver | чыйрык- | чыйрыгуу | Often in | | | | | progressive | | | | | *чыйрыгып | | | | | тур*- | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to shiver; | калтыра- | калтыроо | Intransitive | | | | | | | > to shudder | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to sigh;\ | дем ал- | дем алуу | Intransitive | | to take a | | | | | breath | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ **Алл[е]{.ul}ргиялары, ден-соолугу, дары, оорусу жана симпт[о]{.ul}мдору XXXVI** +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | **Этиштер** | | | | +================+================+================+================+ | **Англис | **Этиштин | **Инфи | **Жөндөмө жана | | Тили** | Уңгусу** | нит[и]{.ul}в** | Эскертүүлөр** | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to sleep | укта- | уктоо | Intransitive | | | | | | | 1: (to nod | 1: (карайла-) | 1: (карайлоо) | 1: | | off) | | | (Intransitive) | | | 2: (уктап | 2: (уктап | | | 2: (to | кал-) | калуу) | 2: | | oversleep;\ | | | (Intransitive) | | to sleep in) | 3: (уктаганга | 3: (уктаганга | | | | кет-) | кетүү) | 3: | | 3: (to go to | | | (Intransitive; | | sleep) | 4: (уктат-) | 4: (уктатуу) | | | | | | usually in | | 4: (to put to | 4a: (терметип | 4а: (терметип | past) | | sleep) | уктат-) | | | | | | уктатуу) | 4: (Takes | | 4a: (to rock | | | nom/acc) | | to sleep) | | | | | | | | 4а: (Takes | | | | | nom/acc) | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to smoke | (*тамеки*) | (*тамеки)* | Takes nom/acc | | | тарт- | тартуу | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to smoke | (*тамеки*) | (*тамеки*) | Takes nom/acc | | | чек- | чегүү | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to sneeze | чүчкүр- | чүчкүрүү | Intransitive | | | | | | | 1: (to cause | 1: (чүчкүрт-) | 1: (чүчкүртүү) | 1: (Person | | to sneeze) | | | caused to | | | | | | | | | | sneeze in | | | | | dative) | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to snore | коңурук тарт- | коңгурук | Intransitive | | | | тартуу | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to spit | түкүр- | түкүрүү | Takes nom/acc | | | | | | | 1: (to spit | 1: (түкүрүп | 1: (түкүрүп | 1: (Takes acc) | | on/at) | булга-) | булгоо) | | | | | | 2: | | 2: (to hawk a | 2: (какырып | 2: (какырып | (Intransitive) | | lugie) | түкүр-) | | | | | | түкүрүү) | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | стерилиз | стерилиз | Takes nom/acc | | sterilize | [а]{.ul}цияла- | [а]{.ul}циялоо | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | кат- | катуу | Intransitive | | stiffen;\ | | | | | to harden | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to stink | сасы- | сасуу | *сасып жат- = | | | | | to be stinky* | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | кыйнал- | кыйналуу | Intransitive; | | suffer;\ | | | what suffered | | to tire | | | from in dative | | out | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to survive | тирүү кал- | тирүү калуу | Intransitive | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to sweat;\ | терде- | тердөө | Intransitive | | to | | | | | perspire | 1: (тердеп | 1: (тердеп | 1: | | | кет-) | кетүү) | (Intransitive) | | 1: (to break | | | | | out in a | 2: (көл шалдап | 2: (көл шалдап | 2: (Set | | | | | phrase) | | cold sweat) | терде-) | тердөө) | | | | | | | | 2: (to sweat | | | | | bullets;\ | | | | | to be sweating | | | | | a | | | | | | | | | | lot) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ **\ ** **Алл[е]{.ul}ргиялары, ден-соолугу, дары, оорусу жана симпт[о]{.ul}мдору XXXVII** +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | **Этиштер** | | | | +================+================+================+================+ | **Англис | **Этиштин | **Инфи | **Жөндөмө жана | | Тили** | Уңгусу** | нит[и]{.ul}в** | Эскертүүлөр** | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to sweep | шыпыр- | шыпыруу | Takes nom/acc | | | | | | | 1: (to sweep | 1: (желе ал-) | 1: (желе алуу) | 1: (Can take | | away | | | nom/acc, | | | | | | | cobwebs) | | | but usually | | | | | set | | | | | | | | | | phrase) | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to swell | шиши- | шишүү | *шишип кетти* | | | | | = to be | | | | | swollen | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to take | д[у]{.ul}шка | д[у]{.ul}шка | Set phrase | | (shower) | түш- | түшүү | | | | | | 1: (Set | | 1: (to banya) | 1: | 1: | phrase) | | | (б[а]{.u | (б[а]{.u | | | 2: (to take a | l}няга/мончого | l}няга/мончого | 2: (Set | | bath) | | | phrase) | | | түш-) | түшүү) | | | | | | | | | 2: | 2: | | | | ( | ( | | | | в[а]{.ul}ннага | в[а]{.ul}ннага | | | | түш-) | түшүү) | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to take | кам көр- | кам көрүү | *Ден-соолук* | | care of | | | can be in | | (one's | | | possessed | | health) | | | dative | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to take | (*дары*) ич- | (*дары*) ичүү | Takes nom/acc | | medicine | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to take | чене- | ченөө | *Темпе | | one's | | | рат[у]{.ul}ра* | | | | | in possessed | | temperature | | | acc. | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to tan;\ | күнгө күй- | күнгө күйүү | Intransitive | | to get | | | | | sunburnt | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to toss | чабалакта- | чабалактоо | Intransitive | | and turn | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to treat | дарылан- | дарылануу | Intransitive | | | | | reflexive | | (oneself);\ | / | / | | | to be | | | / | | treated | дарыла- | дарылоо | | | for\ | | | Takes nom/acc | | /\ | | | | | to treat | | | | | oneself | | | | | | | | | | (*disease*) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to twist\ | кайрып ал- | кайрып алуу | Takes | | (ankle; | | | nom/acc;\ | | arm) | | | *ал*- usually | | | | | in surprising | | | | | *алыптыр*- | | | | | past tense | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to undergo | даарат ал- | даарат алуу | Intransitive | | ablution | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to urinate | заара/саара | заара/саара | Intransitive | | | кыл- | кылуу | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | эмде- | эмдөө | Person in | | | | | dative; | | vaccinate;\ | | | against | | to | | | disease = | | inoculate | | | *каршы* | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to vomit;\ | кус- | кусуу | Intransitive | | to throw | | | | | up | 1: (кусуп | 1: (кусуп | 1: | | | сал-) | салуу) | (Intransitive) | | 1: (to throw | | | | | up) | 2: (кусуп | 2: (кусуп | 2: | | | ташта-) | таштоо) | (Intransitive) | | 2: (to throw | | | | | up) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ **Алл[е]{.ul}ргиялары, ден-соолугу, дары, оорусу жана симпт[о]{.ul}мдору XXXVIII** +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | **Этиштер** | | | | +================+================+================+================+ | **Англис | **Этиштин | **Инфи | **Жөндөмө жана | | Тили** | Уңгусу** | нит[и]{.ul}в** | Эскертүүлөр** | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to wake up | ойгон- | ойгонуу | Intransitive | | | | | | | > / | / | / | / | | > | | | | | > to wake up;\ | ойгот- | ойготуу | Transitive -- | | > to awake;\ | | | Don't wake me | | > to arouse | | | up | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to wash | жуу- | жуу | Takes nom/acc | | | | | | | > (i.e. hands) | 1: (жуун-) | 1: (жуунуу) | 1: (Reflex. | | | | | verb) | | 1: (to wash | 1a: (жуунт-) | 1а: (жуунтуу) | | | oneself;\ | | | 1а: (person in | | to bathe) | 2: (тиш жуу-) | 2: (тиш жуу) | dative; | | | | | | | 1а: (to make | 3: | 3: | body part in | | someone | (шв[а]{.ul}бра | (шв[а]{.ul}бра | acc: | | | менен | менен | | | was | | | *Анын апасы* | | themselves) | жуу-) | жуу) | | | | | | *бети-колун* | | 2: (to brush | 4: (жууп сал-) | 4: (жууп | | | teeth) | | салуу) | *жуунтту. = | | | | | His* | | 3: (to mop) | | | | | | | | *mom made him* | | 4: (to rinse | | | | | \[shampoo | | | *wash his | | | | | hands* | | from hair\]) | | | | | | | | *and face.)* | | | | | | | | | | 2: (Takes | | | | | nom/acc) | | | | | | | | | | 3: (пол in | | | | | nom/acc) | | | | | | | | | | 4: (Takes | | | | | nom/acc) | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to whine | кыңылда- | кыңылдоо | Often in | | | | | progressive | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to worsen | начарлан- | начарлануу | Intransitive | | (health);\ | | | reflexive | | to become | 1: (алсыздан-) | 1: | | | weak;\ | | (алсыздануу) | 1: | | to | / | | (Intransitive) | | | | / | | | deteriorate | начарла- | | / | | (health) | | начарлоо | | | | | | Transitive | | 1: (to be | | | | | weakend;\ | | | | | to have it | | | | | taken out | | | | | | | | | | of you) | | | | | | | | | | > / | | | | | > | | | | | > to weaken | | | | | > (trans) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to yawn\* | эсте- | эстөө | Intranstive | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ **Алл[е]{.ul}ргиялары, ден-соолугу, дары, оорусу жана симпт[о]{.ul}мдору XXXIX** [Notes on Verbs Pertaining to Allergies, Medicine, Health, Sickness, and Syptoms]{.ul} \**Тамактан уулан + past tense =* to have food poisoning. \**Сүннөт жаса-* is the most neutral term for "to circumcise." *Oтургуз-* and *колун адалда-* carry ritualistic, reglious connotations, with the latter literally meaning "to make his hand halal". \*Once a dislocated joint has been reset and is healing, sometimes a certain sudden action or jolt and renk the joint back out of the socket. This action in Kyrgyz is described with the verb phrase *ойноок болуп кал*- and can be used with any joints that pop back out of place (knees, elbow, leg, etc). \**Кулоо* and *жыгылуу* are equially synonymous when it means "to fall down." However, only *кулоо* is used for tears falling down \**Толуктап кал-* means "to have put on weight" with a connotation of having gotten healthier. *Семирип кал-* has a negative connotation: to have gained (a lot of) weight to the point of being fat, not healthy. \**Семизде-* is hardly used as a verb in its own right, occurring mainly in phrases such as *Семиздеп жүрбөй калды* = Having gotten so fat, he couldn't move. \**Көпөлөк байла-* is used in the south. Not many people otherwise know of it. The better variant is *көгөрүп кет*-. \**Наалы-* can also be used with old people who have become "to old to function;" that is, they're always complaining about everything and hurting: *Ал наалып калган турбайбы.* \**Жакшы жат*! (in the informal) is a way of saying "Good night; sleep well!" *Боортоктот-* is hardly used as a verb in its own right, occurring mainly in phrases such as *Баланы боортоктотуп жатызып койдум.* = I layed the child down on his stomach. \*There are many possible phrases for wishing someone a speedy recovery. Often *(Тезирээк) Сакаып кет!* is used, but *Айыгып кет!* and *Жакшы болуп кал!* may also be used. The equivalent of the Russian *Скорее выздоравливайте*, however, is *Тезирээк сакайып кет!* \*While *жат-* may be used to but *көр-* into the progressive tense, *тур-* may also be used. *Көрөөлө*- is used in the south. Not many people otherwise know of it. The better variant is *кара*. Also, the reflexive verb *доктурга/врачка көрүн-* is used to express "going to the doctor" or "getting checked up by the doctor": *Кечээ ал доктурга көрүндү.* = Yesterday he went to the doctor. The ominous "We shall see" is expressed by *көрөбүз;* whereas "We'll see each other (later)" is expressed with the reflexive reciprocal *көрүшөбүз*! \**Уйку сураган + possessed accusative араӊ токтот-* means "to be hardly able to stifle/suppress/hold back a yawn." *Уйку сураганын араӊ токтотту. =* He could hardly stifle his yawn. **Аллерг[и]{.ul}ялары, ден-соолугу, дары, оорусу жана симпт[о]{.ul}мдору XXXVI** [Other Verbs Pertaining to Allergies, Medicine, Health, Sickness, and Symptoms]{.ul} \*To express that one is nauseous, use\ 1) a possessed form of *жүрөк* and the progressive *айланып тур-: Жүрөгүм айланып турат.*or\ 2) a possessed from of *куск*- and *келип жат-:* *Кускуп келип жатат.* \*To express that one feels sleepy, use a possessed form of *уйку* and the progressive *келип тур-: Уйкум келип турат. = I'm sleepy.* \*The verbal expression *чарчап кал-* is used for babies instead of *өл-* for when they die. It can mean "to be stillborn" or "to miscarry" as well, but the subject is not the mother. Even after the child has been born successfully, this verb seems to be used for any child who has died too soon; I have heard this verb used to talk about the deaths of a 3 month old and a 5 year old. \*Using a dative subject with a 3^rd^ person singular or plural conjugated form of the verb жаса- means to have a medical operation or procedure performed: \- *МРТ жаса-* = to have an MRI (*Мага кечээ МРТ жасады = I had an MRI yesterday.*) \- *опер[а]{.ul}ция жаса-* = to have surgery; to have an operation \*To describe a temperature/fever, use *көтөрүл-* for "to raise/to go up"and *түш-* for "to lower/to go down." \**Чакыр-* is used over the expected *чал-* for "to call a doctor/ambulance". \**Төшөккө жат-* means "to remain in bed" (i.e. under bedrest). \**Шамал тийет!* is an exclamation similar to "It's drafty!" The Kyrgyz belief is that having wind blow on you could lead to various illnesses, so this phrase is often said to get someone to close a window on public transportation. \*The verb *чык-* means "to break out in" and is used with a variety of sicknesses which cause visible manifestations upon the skin, such as *учук чык-* (to get a coldsore), *суу чечек чык-* (to get chicken pox), *угр[и]{.ul} чык-* (to break out; to get acne), *кызыл тактар чык-* (to break out in hives), *тибиртке чык-* (to get a coldsore on one's tongue), and *тирсек чык-* (to get a stye in one's eye). The place on the body or the person who breaks out is in dative case: *Менин эриме учук чыкты; менин кызыма суу чечек чыкты.* One special verb phrase, *ыйлаактап чык-,* means "to develop a blister." \**Өмүр сүр-* is a verb phrase which means "to live one's life." Similar to *жаса-*, this verb phrase connotes going through the process of living: *Алар чогуу өмүр сүрүшөт. =* They will live together (do their life together). *Мага көп мастар тийишкендиктен, бул айылда өмүр сүрө албайм.* = Since so many drunk people harass me, I can't even live my life in this village. \**Шалдыра-* is a fun little verb that describes ennui or the feeling of not wanting to do anything: *Шалдырап жатам.* It can also be used to tell someone that they look exhausted (or simply not into doing whatever they're doing): *Шалдырап жатат экенсиз.* = You look exhausted; (sarcastically) You look like you're having fun. \**Бел оорутуп иште-* or *талбай иште-* both mean "to work onself to the point of exhaustion;" "to work oneself to death;" "to work until one can't work no more." +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to die | өл- | өлүү | Intransitive | | | | | | | 1: (to pass | 1: (каза бол-) | 1: (каза | 1: | | away) | | болуу) | (Intransitive) | | | 2: (өтүп кет-) | | | | 2: (to pass | | 2: (өтүп | 2: | | away;\ | 3: (дүйнө | кетүү) | (Intransitive) | | to pass on) | сал-) | | | | | | 3: (дүйнө | 3: | | 3: (to pass | 4: (көз жум-) | салуу) | (Intransitive) | | away | | | | | | 5: (дүйнөдөн | 4: (көз жумуу) | 4: | | \[*literary; | кайт-) | | (Intransitive; | | poetic\]*) | | 5: (дүйнөдөн | lit: to | | | 6: (кайтыш | кайтуу) | | | 4: (to pass | бол-) | | close one's | | away | | 6: (кайтыш | eyes; | | | | болуу) | | | \[*literary; | | | *көз* can be | | poetic\]*) | | | | | | | | possessed) | | 5: (to pass | | | | | away;\ | | | 5: | | to pass on | | | (Intransitive) | | | | | | | \[ | | | 6: | | *connotation:* | | | (Intransitive) | | | | | | | *return to | | | | | one's* | | | | | | | | | | *maker*\]) | | | | | | | | | | 6: (to pass | | | | | away;\ | | | | | to pass on | | | | | | | | | | \[ | | | | | *connotation:* | | | | | | | | | | *return to | | | | | one's* | | | | | | | | | | *maker*\]) | | | | +================+================+================+================+ | - to see\* | көр- | көрүү | Takes nom/acc | | | | | | | 1: (to look | 1: (кара-) | 1: (кароо) | 1: (Takes | | at;\ | | | nom/acc) | | to watch | 2: (көрөөлө-) | 2: (көрөөлөө) | | | \[*North\]*) | | | 2: (Takes | | | 3: (кадала | 3: (кадала | nom/acc) | | 2: (to look | тикте-) | тиктөө) | | | at;\ | | | 3: (At person | | to watch | 4: (телмирип | 4: (телмирип | = acc) | | \[*South*\])\* | тикте-) | тиктөө) | | | | | | 4: (At person | | 3: (to stare | 5: (телмирип | 5: (телмирип | = acc) | | at) | кара-) | кароо) | | | | | | 5: (At person | | 4: (to stare | 6: (түш көр-) | 6: (түш көрүү) | = acc) | | at) | | | | | | 7: (өзүнө | 7: (өзүнө | 6: (түш in | | 5: (to stare | көрүн-) | көрүнүү) | nom/acc) | | at) | | | | | | 8: (өзүн | 8: (өзүн | 7: (Takes dat | | 6: (to dream) | каран-) | карануу) | | | | | | reflexive and | | 7: (to look at | 9: (көрүш-) | 9: (көрүшүү) | dat | | | | | | | oneself)\* | | | for in: | | | | | | | 8: (to look at | | | *Ал өзүнө | | oneself) | | | күзгүгө* | | | | | | | 9: (to see | | | *көрүнөт*) | | \[another | | | | | | | | 8: (Takes acc | | person | | | reflex | | later\]) | | | | | | | | pro. and | | | | | ablative | | | | | | | | | | for in: *Ал | | | | | өзүн* | | | | | | | | | | *күзгүдөн | | | | | каранды.*) | | | | | | | | | | 9: | | | | | (Reciprocal) | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ **Аллергиялары, Ден-Соолугу, Дары, Оорусу, жана Симптому XXXVII** > [Other Phrases Pertaining to Allergies, Medicine, Health, Sickness, > and Symptoms]{.ul} \**Aк чүч* = Bless you (after sneeze) \*The following are all appropriate responses to *Ден-с[оо]{.ul}лугуң(уз) канд[а]{.ul}й?* (How is your health?) > \- *Түзүк*.\ > - *Ойдогудай*. (Оi.do.u.dai)\ > - *Баары жайында*. > > \- *Жакшы, Кудайга шүгүр*. \*To say that someone has a deficiency in something, put the subject in dative case; then, use the verb *жетишпейт: Ага витамин* *жетишпейт* = He has a vitamin deficiency \**Ээси мооду* is a colloquial way to say that one is exceedingly, dog tired. \**Мурундан суу куюп жатат.* = to have a runny nose. \**Жакшы болуп кал(ыңыз)!* = Get better!; Feel better! \**Аба жутуп келбейлиби?* = Let's get some fresh air. \**Кантип калдың(ыз)?* can be used to ask someone how they are feeling now if you know they've been feeling ill. \**Жаткан жери жайлуу болсун.* = (May s/he) Rest in Peace. \**Биринчи байлык -- ден-соолук! --* Phrase similar to "safety first." (You're health is the most important thing). \*Asking someone *Сизге/Сага эмне болду* means "What's wrong with you?" (both emphatically and in the medical sense). **Тамак-aшы жана cуусундуктары** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - a bite of | тиштем (эт) | Х | | (usually, meat) | | | | | 1: (тиштөө/тиштеген) | 1: (Х) | | 1: (biting \[act | | | | of\]; biting off) | 2: (кесек) | 2: (Х) | | | | | | 2: (a big piece \[of | | | | meat\]) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - act of enriching | байытуу | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - addition (of | кошуу/кошкон | Х | | ingredients) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - additive | (тамак-аш) | Х | | (artificial to | кошунду(су) | | | food) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - agent which | көбүктүрүүчү | Х | | causes something | | | | to foam/froth up | | | | \~\> | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - albumen | жумуртканын агы | √: альб[у]{.ul}мин | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - alcohol | шарап | √: алког[о]{.ul}ль | | | | | | 1: (whiskey) | 1: (в[и]{.ul}ски) | 1: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | | 2: (sake) | 2: (сак[э]{.ul}) | | | | | 2: (Already Russian | | 3: (gin) | 3: (джин) | Word) | | | | | | 4: (brandy) | 4: (бр[е]{.ul}нди) | 3: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | | | | | | | | 4: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - almond | бадам | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - antioxidant | кычкылдантпагыч | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - apple | алма | Х | | | | | | 1: (apple slicer; | 1: (алма кескич) | 1: (Х) | | apple corer) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - apricot | өрүк | Х | | | | | | 1: (plum) | 1: (кара өрүк) | 1: (√: сл[и]{.ul}ва) | | | | | | 1а: (prune) | 1a: | 1а: (Already Russian | | | (черносл[и]{.ul}в) | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - asparagus | сп[а]{.ul}ржа | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - avocado | авок[а]{.ul}до | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - bacon | бек[о]{.ul}н | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - baking powder | көптүргүч | √: | | | | разрыхл[и]{.ul}тель | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - baking soda | тамак-аш содасы | Kyrgyz-Russian Mix | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - baking tray | көмөчтан | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - baklava\* | баклав[а]{.ul} | See Usage Note | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - ball; puff\ | ш[а]{.ul}рик | Already Russian Word | | (like cheese | | | | ball) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - banana | бан[а]{.ul}н | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - bar | бар | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (sports bar) | 1: (спорт бары) | 1: (Kyrgyzised | | | | Russian) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - barley | арпа | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - basil | райкан | √: базил[и]{.ul}к | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - batch (of food) | нөөмөт | √: п[а]{.ul}ртия | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - artichoke | артиш[о]{.ul}к | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - act of | бузулуу | Х | | spoiling;\ | | | | act of going bad | 1: (ирүү) | 1: (Х) | | (meat) | | | | | 2: (чирүү) | 2: (Х) | | 1: (act of spoiling: | | | | | | | | act of going bad | | | | \[milk\]) | | | | | | | | 2: (act of spoiling: | | | | | | | | act of going bad; | | | | rotting\ | | | | \[fruit, vegetable, | | | | fish\]) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - banquet | банк[е]{.ul}т | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (reception with | 1: (фурш[е]{.ul}т) | 1: (Already Russian | | light | | Word) | | | | | | refreshments eaten | | | | whilst | | | | | | | | standing) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Тамак-aшы жана cуусундуктары II** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - bay leaf | лавр жалбырагы | √: л[а]{.ul}вровый | | | | лист\ | | | | (*лавр жалбырагы* is | | | | | | | | Kyrgyz-Russian mix) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - beer\* | сыра | √: п[и]{.ul}во | | | | | | 1: (act of beer | 1: (сыра чыгаруу) | 1: (√: п[и]{.ul}во | | brewing) | | чыгаруу;\ | | | 2: (с[у]{.ul}сло) | Kyrgyz-Russian Mix) | | 2: (beer wort | | | | \[liquid extract | | 2: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | | from ground malt and | | | | grain | | | | | | | | soaked in hot water | | | | used in | | | | | | | | brewing\]) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - beet | кызылча | Х | | | | | | 1: (sugar beet) | 1: (кант кызылчасы) | 1: (Х) | | | | | | 2: (beet growing) | 2: (кызылчачылык) | 2: (Х) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - berry\* | мөмө(-жемиш) | X | | | | | | 1: (raspberry)\* | 1: (дан | 1: (√: | | | куурай/танкуурай) | мал[и]{.ul}на) | | 2: (buckthorn berry) | | | | | 2: (чычырканак) | 2: (Х) | | 3: (cranberry) | | | | | 3: (кл[ю]{.ul}ква) | 3: (Already Russian | | 4: (strawberry) | | Word) | | | 4: (кулпунай) | | | 4а: (wild | | 4: (√: | | strawberry) | 4a: (кызылгат) | кл[у]{.ul}бника) | | | | | | 5: (blackberry) | 5: (бүлдүркөн) | 4а: (√: | | | | земл[я]{.ul}ника) | | 6: (barberry) | 6: (бөрү каражат) | | | | | 5: (Х) | | 7: (blueberry) | 7: (черн[и]{.ul}ка) | | | | | 6: (√: | | 8: (lingonberry) | 8: (брусн[и]{.ul}ка) | барбар[и]{.ul}с) | | | | | | 9: (rowanberry) | 9: (четин) | 7: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | | 10: (gooseberry) | 10: (жемиштүү бадал) | | | | | 8: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | | | | | | | | 9: (√: | | | | ряб[и]{.ul}на) | | | | | | | | 10: (√: | | | | крыж[о]{.ul}вник) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - beta-karotine | б[е]{. | Already Russian Word | | | ul}та-карот[и]{.ul}н | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - blackened | күйүк | Х | | burned-on stain | | | | on the bottom of | | | | pots and pans | | | | after repeated | | | | use on high heat | | | | \~\> | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - blender; egg | м[и]{.ul}ксер | Already Russian Word | | beater | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - body (heftiness | экс | Kyrgyzised Russian | | and depth of | тракт[и]{.ul}вдүүлүк | | | alcoholic | | 1: (Kyrgyzised | | beverages like | 1: (башкы | Russian) | | beer and wine) | с[у]{.ul}сулонун | | | | | | | 1: (body of beer | экстр | | | based on the | акт[и]{.ul}вдүүлүгү) | | | | | | | original | | | | barley/hops/beer | | | | | | | | wort content) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - bottle | бөтөлкө | √: бут[ы]{.ul}лка | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - bowl; basin | чара | X | | | | | | 1: (little bowl) | 1: (кесе) | 1: (Х) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Тамак-aшы жана cуусундуктары III** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - bread | нан | Х | | | | | | 1: (baguette) | 1: (бат[о]{.ul}н) | 1: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | | 2: (bakery) | 2: (наабайкана) | | | | | 2: (Х) | | 3: (toast) | 3: (кургатылган нан) | | | | | 3: (Х) | | 4: (loaf of bread) | 4: (бөлкө) | | | | | 4: (Х) | | 5: (baked good) | 5: (токоч) | | | | | 5: (√: | | 5а: (pastry; bun) | 5a: (таттуу токоч) | в[ы]{.ul}печка) | | | | | | | | 5a: (√: | | | | б[у]{.ul}лочка) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - breakfast\* | эртең мененки тамак | √: з[а]{.ul}втрак | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - breastfeeding | (эмчек) эмизүү | Х | | (act of) | | | | | 1: (эне-бала | 1: (Х) | | 1: (breastfeeding | бөлмөсү) | | | room) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - broccoli | бр[о]{.ul}кколи | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - bucket (think | баск[е]{.ul}т | Already Russian Word | | fast food, KFC) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - buckwheat | гр[е]{.ul}чка | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cabbage\* | керем | √: кап[у]{.ul}ста | | | | | | 1: (sauerkraut) | 1: (ачыктан керем) | 1: (√: ачыктан | | | | кап[у]{.ul}ста; | | 2: (cauliflower) | 2: (гүлдүү керем) | | | | | Kyrgyz-Russian Mix) | | 3: (cauliflower) | 3: (түстүү керем) | | | | | 2: (√: гүлдүү | | | | кап[у]{.ul}ста; | | | | | | | | Kyrgyz-Russian Mix) | | | | | | | | 3: (√: түстүү | | | | кап[у]{.ul}ста; | | | | | | | | Kyrgyz-Russian Mix) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - café | каф[е]{.ul} | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (Internet café) | 1: (Интерн[е]{.ul}т | 1: (Already Russian | | | каф[е]{.ul}) | Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cafeteria | кафет[е]{.ul}рий | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - caffeine | кофе[и]{.ul}н | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cake; tort | торт | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (sponge cake) | 1: (бискв[и]{.ul}т) | 1: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - calory | кал[о]{.ul}рия | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - can opener;\ | ачкыч | √: открыв[а]{.ul}шка | | bottle opener | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - candy\* | момпосуй | √: конф[е]{.ul}т | | | | | | 1: (candy coated | 1: (драж[е]{.ul}) | (Kyrgyzised Russian) | | with | | | | | | 1: (Already Russian | | chocolate shell, | | Word | | like M&Ms) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - canned goods;\ | конс[е]{.ul}рва | Already Russian Word | | food in a can | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cannibalism | мыкаачылык | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - caramel | карам[е]{.ul}ль | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - carbohydrate | көмүртек | √: углев[о]{.ul}д | | | гидрокычкылы | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cardamom | кардам[о]{.ul}н | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - carbonation | газ | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Тамак-aшы жана cуусундуктары IV** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - carrot | сабиз | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cashew | к[э]{.ul}шью | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - caviar | икр[а]{.ul} | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - celery | сельдер[е]{.ul}й | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - chamomile | ром[а]{.ul}шка | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - champaigne | шампан | Kyrgyzised Russian | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cheese | сыр | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (cottage cheese) | 1: (быштак) | 1: (X) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cherry | алча | Х | | | | | | 1: (cherry, smaller | 1: (чие) | 1: (Х) | | and sourer) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - chewing | чайноо/чайнаган | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - chewing gum; | сагыз | Х | | chews;\ | | | | gummy candy | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - chili | ч[и]{.ul}ли | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - chocolate | шокол[а]{.ul}д | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (milk chocolate) | 1: (сүт шоколад) | 1: (Kygyz-Russian | | | | Mix) | | 2: (chocolate bar) | 2: (шоколад | | | | бат[о]{.ul}нчик/ | 2: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | 2а: (Snickers) | | Mix) | | | шоколад батончиги) | | | 3: (cocoa) | | 2а: (Already Russian | | | 2a: (сн[и]{.ul}керс) | Word) | | | | | | | 3: (как[а]{.ul}о) | 3: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - chopstick | таякча | √: п[а]{.ul}лочка | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cilantro | к[и]{.ul}нза | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cinnamon | кор[и]{.ul}ца | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cloves | гвозд[и]{.ul}ка | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - coagulant;\ | коюланткыч | √: | | thickening agent | | загуст[и]{.ul}тель | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cocktail | кокт[е]{.ul}йль | Already Russian Word | | (alcohol and | | | | seafood, fruit) | 1: (п[и]{.ul}на | 1: (Already Russian | | | колада) | Word) | | 1: (pina colada) | | | | | 2: (мокт[е]{.ul}йль) | 2: (Already Russian | | 2: (mocktail) | | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - coconut | кок[о]{.ul}с | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - catering | к[е]{.ul}йтеринг | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **\ ** **Тамак-aшы жана cуусундуктары V** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - coffee | к[о]{.ul}фе | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (coffee | 1: (коф[е]{.ul}йник) | 1: (Already Russian | | pot/maker) | | Word) | | | 2: (к[о]{.ul}фе үйү) | | | 2: (coffee house)\* | | 2: (√: | | | 2a: (к[о]{.ul}фе | коф[е]{.ul}йня) | | 2а: (coffee shop)\* | ш[о]{.ul}бу) | | | | | 2а: (Kyrgyzised | | 3: (coffee break) | 3: | Russian) | | | (к[о]{ | | | 4: (percolator) | .ul}фе-бр[е]{.ul}йк) | 3: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | | 5: (instant coffee) | 4: (к[о]{.ul}фе | | | | кайнаткыч) | 4: (√: | | 5a: (instant coffee) | | кофев[а]{.ul}рка) | | | 5: (эритме | | | 6: (americano) | к[о]{.ul}фе) | 5: (√: | | | | раств[о]{.ul}римый | | 7: (cappuccino) | 5a: (ээриме | к[о]{.ul}фе | | | к[о]{.ul}фе) | | | 8: (espressio) | | \[*эритме | | | 6: | к[о]{.ul}фе* is | | 9: (latte) | (америк[а]{.ul}но) | | | | | Kyrgyz-Russian | | | 7: (капуч[и]{.ul}но) | Mix\]) | | | | | | | 8: (эспр[е]{.ul}ссо) | 5а: (√: | | | | раств[о]{.ul}римый | | | 9: (л[а]{.ul}тте) | к[о]{.ul}фе | | | | | | | | \[*эритме | | | | к[о]{.ul}фе* is | | | | | | | | Kyrgyz-Russian | | | | Mix\]) | | | | | | | | 6: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | | | | | | | | 7: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | | | | | | | | 8: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | | | | | | | | 9: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cognac | конь[я]{.ul}к | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cola | к[о]{.ul}ла | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - colander | чөөлү | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - concentrate | концентр[а]{.ul}т | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - concentration | концентр[а]{.ul}ция | Already Russian Word | | (of liquid); | | | | concentrate | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cookie | печ[е]{.ul}нье | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cooking (act of) | бышыруу/бышырган | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cooking (act of) | (тамак) | X | | | жасоо/жасаган | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cooking (act | (тамак) | Х | | of);\ | даярдоо/даярдаган | | | food preparation | | 1: (Х) | | | 1: (даярдоо ыкмасы) | | | 1: (cooking | | | | instructions) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cooling-down | муздоо/муздаган | X | | (act of) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - coriander | кори[а]{.ul}ндр | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cork | тыгын | √: пр[о]{.ul}бка | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - corkscrew; wine | шт[о]{.ul}пор | Already Russian Word | | opener | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - corn | жүгөрү | √: кукур[у]{.ul}за | | | | | | 1: (corn \[Osh, | 1: (мака) | 1: (√: | | J-Bad\]) | | кукур[у]{.ul}за) | | | 2: (жүгөрү | | | 2: (corn | үлпүлдөк\[төр\]) | 2: (√: | | flake\[s\])\* | | хл[о]{.ul}пья) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cotton candy | в[а]{.ul}та | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cracker | кр[е]{.ul}кер | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cream | каймак | Х | | | | | | 1: (processed cream | 1: (камкаймак) | 1: (Х) | | \[i.e. used | | | | | 2: (майлуулуктагы | 2: (Х) | | in making | каймак) | | | ice-cream\]) | | 3: (Already Russian | | | 3: (смет[а]{.ul}на) | Word) | | 2: (whipped cream) | | | | | | | | 3: (sour cream) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - crème | крем | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - crème brûlée | кр[е | Already Russian Word | | | ]{.ul}м-брюл[е]{.ul} | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Тамак-ашы жана суусундуктары VI** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - crusty bits that | кырмычык | Х | | get burnt on to | | | | the bottom of a | | | | pan \~\> | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cucumber\* | бадыраң | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cumin; caraway | зире | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cup | ч[а]{.ul}шка | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cupboard | серв[а]{.ul}нт | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cupcake; fruit | кекс | Already Russian Word | | cake; muffin\* | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - curing (meat | сүрсүтүү/сүрсүткөн | Х | | preparation) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - currant | карагат | Х | | | | | | 1: (black currant) | 1: (кара карагат) | 1: (Х) | | | | | | 2: (red currant) | 2: (кызыл карагат) | 2: (Х) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - curry | к[а]{.ul}рри | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cutlet; meatball | котл[е]{.ul}т | Kyrgyzised Russian | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cutting board | тактай | √: доск[а]{.ul} | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - delicacy\* | чүйгүн | √: деликат[е]{.ul}с | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - dessert | дес[е]{.ul}рт | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - diet\* | ди[е]{.ul}та | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - digestion | сиӊириш | Х | | (resultative) | | | | | 1: (\[тамак\] | 1: (Х) | | 1: (digestion \[act | сиңирүү) | | | of\]) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - dill | аш(-)көк | √: укр[о]{.ul}п | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - dinner\* | кечки тамак | √: [у]{.ul}жин | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - dish; vessel\* | и(й)диш | Х | | | | | | 1: (general term for | 1: (и\[й\]диш-аяк) | 1: (Х) | | dishes\*) | | | | | 2: (и\[й\]диш | 2: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | 2: (kitchen cabinet; | салуучу шкаф) | Mix) | | cupboard; | | | | | 3: (и\[й\]диш-аяк | 3: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | pantry) | шкаф) | Mix) | | | | | | 3: (kitchen cabinet; | 4: (чоюн и\[й\]диш) | 4: (Х) | | cupboard; | | | | | 5: (с[оу]{.ul}с | 5: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | pantry) | куюучу и\[й\]диш) | Mix) | | | | | | 4: (cast-iron dish) | | | | | | | | 5: (gravey boat; | | | | sauce pourer) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - dough | камыр | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - dressing (for | припр[а]{.ul}ва | Already Russian Word | | salad);\ | | | | rub (for BBQ) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **\ ** **Тамак-ашы жана суусундуктары VII** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - drink; beverage | суусундук | Х | | | | | | 1: (alcoholic | 1: (ичкилик) | 1: (Х) | | beverage; | | | | | 2: (ичимдик) | 2: (X) | | "adult" beverage) | | | | | 3: (энергетикалык | 3: (Х) | | 2: (alcoholic | | | | beverage;\ | суусундук) | 3а: (Already Russian | | "adult" beverage) | | Word) | | | 3a: | | | 3: (energy drink) | (энерг[е]{.ul}тик) | | | | | | | 3a: (slang for | | | | energy drink) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - drop (of liquid) | тамчы | Х | | | | | | 1: (dripping \[act | 1: | 1: (X) | | of\]) | ( | | | | тамчылоо/тамчылаган) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - eating (act of; | тамак ичүү/ичкен | Х | | hobby) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - éclair | экл[е]{.ul}р | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - egg \[*North*\] | жумуртка | Х | | | | | | 1: (egg \[*South*\]) | 1: (тукум) | 1: (Х) | | | | | | 2: (yolk) | 2: (жумуртканын | 2: (Х) | | | сарысы) | | | 3: (fried eggs)\* | | 3: (√: | | | 3: (куурулган | я[и]{.ul}чница) | | | жумуртка) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - eggplant | баклаж[а]{.ul}н | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - emulsifier | эмульг[а]{.ul}тор | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - extract | маӊыз | √: экстр[а]{.ul}кт | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - fastfood | тез татым | √: фастф[у]{.ul}д | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - fattiness; fat | семиздүүлүк | Х | | content (meat) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - feast | той | √: пир | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - feeding trough | ноо | Х | | | | | | 1: (wooden box | 1: (акыр) | 1: (Х) | | feeding | | | | | | | | trough) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - feijoa | фейх[о] | Already Russian Word | | | {.ul}а/фейхо[а]{.ul} | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - fennel | ф[е]{.ul}нхель | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - fibre | була | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - fig | анжыр/анжир | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - filet | филе | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - filling | салынма | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - first course\* | биринчи | Х | | | | | | 1: (second course) | 1: (экинчи) | 1: (Х) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - flavour | татым | X | | | | | | 1: (flavouring | 1: (татымдуулук) | 1: (√: | | | | ароматиз[а]{.ul}тор) | | \[added or | | | | artificial\]) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - flavour; taste | даам | Х | | of | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - flavouring | жыт бергич(и) | √: | | | | ароматиз[а]{.ul}тор | | > (added, | | | | > artificial) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - flask | бакл[а]{.ul}жка | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Тамак-ашы жана суусундуктары VIII** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - flavouring | жыпарланткыч | √: | | | | ароматиз[а]{.ul}тор | | > (added; | | | | > artificial) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - flavouring; | жыпар жыт | √: | | aroma | | ароматиз[а]{.ul}тор | | | | | | > (added, | | | | > artificial) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - flour | ун | Х | | | | | | 1: (flour made from | 1: (талкан) | 1: (Х) | | grinding | | | | | 2: (жүгөрү уну) | 2: (Х) | | barley) | | | | | 3: (күрүч уну) | 3: (Х) | | 2: (cornmeal; corn | | | | flour) | | | | | | | | 3: (rice flour) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - fodder (animal | тоют | Х | | food) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - food colouring | түс бергич | √: крас[и]{.ul}тель | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - food colouring; | тамак боёгуч | √: крас[и]{.ul}тель | | | | | | > food dye | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - food colouring;\ | боёк | √: крас[и]{.ul}тель | | food dye | | | | | 1: (к[о]{.ul}лер | 1: (Aleady Russian | | 1: (dye \#\...) | №\...) | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - food web; food | азыктануу тизмеги | Х | | chain | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - food wrap | тамак-аш плёнкасы | Kyrgyz-Russian Mix | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - food; cuisine; | тамак | Х | | dish; meal | | | | | 1: (тамак-аш) | 1: (Х) | | 1: (general term for | | | | food) | 2: (жеңил тамак) | 2: (Х) | | | | | | 2: (snack) | 3: (бүгүнкүгө | 3: (Kyrgyzised | | | ф[и]{.ul}рмалык | Russian) | | 3: (daily special; | | | | | тамак) | | | dish of the day; | | | | ...du jour) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - fork | в[и]{.ul}лка | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - freeze-dried, | күлазык/ | Х | | dehydrogenated | | | | food used for | гүлазык | | | rations, travel, | | | | etc | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - French fry | (картөшкө) фри | Kyrgyzised Russian | | | | if *картөшкө* | | | | present | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - fruit; berry\* | жемиш | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - frying pan | көмөч казан | √: сковор[о]{.ul}дка | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - garlic | сарымсак | √: чесн[о]{.ul}к | | | | | | 1: (garlic press) | 1: (сарымсак | 1: (чесн[о]{.ul}к | | | майдалагыч) | майдалагыч | | | | | | | | \[*Kyrgyz-Russian | | | | Mix)* | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - gelatin | желат[и]{.ul}н | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - ginger | имб[и]{.ul}рь | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - ginsing | женьш[е]{.ul}нь | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **\ ** **Тамак-ашы жана суусундуктары IX** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - glass (for | стак[а]{.ul}н | Already Russian Word | | drinking) | | | | | 1: (бок[а]{.ul}л) | 1: (Already Russian | | 1: (wine glass or | | Word) | | other ornate | 2: | | | | (однор[а]{.ul}зовый | 2: (Already Russian | | glass) | стак[а]{.ul}н) | Word) | | | | | | 2: (plastic cup) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - glutamate | глутам[а]{.ul}т | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - gluten | гл[ю]{.ul}тен | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - grain | дан | X | | | | | | 1: (whole grain) | 1: (бүтүн дан) | 1: (Х)\ | | | | 2: (Kyrgyzised | | 2: (multigrain) | 2: | Russian) | | | (м[у]{.ul}льтидан) | | | 3: (bulgur -- wheat | | 3: (Already Russian | | grains that | 3: (булг[у]{.ul}р) | Word -- | | | | | | have been steamed, | | but from Turkic | | dried, | | origins) | | | | | | and crushed; a | | | | staple of | | | | | | | | Middle Eastern | | | | cuisine) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - grape | жүзүм | Х | | | | | | 1: (vineyard) | 1: (жүзүмдүк) | 1: (Х) | | | | | | 2: (viniculture) | 2: (жүзүмчүлүк) | 2: (X) | | | | | | 3: (muscat) | 3: (муск[а]{.ul}т) | 3: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - grapefruit | грейпфр[у]{.ul}т | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - grater (cheese, | тёрка | Already Russian Word | | etc) | | | | | 1: (жаргылчак) | 1: (Х) | | 1: (hand grater | | | | \[for grains\]) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - grill; grill | гриль | Already Russian Word | | house; | | | | | 1: (манг[а]{.ul}л) | 1: (Already Russian | | > grilled food (as | | Word) | | > collective) | | | | | | | | 1: (portable camp | | | | grill; | | | | | | | | brazier) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - ground beef/meat | фарш | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - guava | гу[а]{.ul}ва | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - hamburger | г[а]{.ul}мбургер | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (cheeseburger) | 1: | 1: (Already Russian | | | (ч[и]{.ul}збургер) | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - handful (of) | учтам | Х\ | | | | (*бир учтум туз*) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - harvest | түшүм | X | | | | | | 1: (bountiful | 1: (мол түшүм) | 1: (X) | | harvest) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - heating up (i.e. | ысытуу/ысыткан | Х | | of food) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - herb | чөп-чар | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - herb | аш-көк/ашкөк | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - honey | бал | X | | | | | | 1: (Southern term | 1: (асел) | 1: (Х) | | for honey) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - hops | кулмак | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - horseradish | хрен | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (wasabi | 1: (вас[а]{.ul}би) | 1: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | | \[Japanese | | | | horseradish\]) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Тамак-ашы жана суусундуктары X** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - hummus | х[у]{.ul}мус | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - hunger | ачкалык | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - husk; hull; pell | кебек | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - ice cream | балмуздак | √: мор[о]{.ul}женый\ | | | | (Kyrgyzised Russian) | | 1: (fudge pop-like | 1: (эским[о]{.ul}) | | | ice cream) | | 1: (Already Russian | | | 2: (мүйүзчө) | Word) | | 2: (ice cream cone) | | | | | | 2: (√: рож[о]{.ul}к) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - icing | глаз[у]{.ul}рь | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - ingredient | кошулма | √: ингреди[е]{.ul}нт | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - irrigation\* | сугаруу | √: ирриг[а]{.ul}ция | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - jam\* | кыям | √: вар[е]{.ul}нье | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - jar; can (of | б[а]{.ul}нка | Already Russian Word | | soda, etc) | | | | | 1: (чанач) | 1: (X) | | 1: (jar made from | | | | animal skin) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - jug | карапа | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - juice | шире | √: сок | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - karotine | карот[и]{.ul}н | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (beta-karotine) | 1: | 1: (Already Russian | | | (б[е]{.u | Word) | | | l}та-карот[и]{.ul}н) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - kazan, big iron | казан | Х | | pot for cooking | | | | \~\> | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - kernel; seed | данек | Х | | (inside fruit) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - ketchup | к[е]{.ul}тчуп | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - kitchen; | ашкана | √: к[у]{.ul}хня, for | | cafeteria | | 'kitchen' | | | | | | | | √: стол[о]{.ul}вая, | | | | for 'school | | | | | | | | cafeteria' | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - kiwi | к[и]{.ul}ви | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - knife | бычак | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - ladle; dipper; | чөмүч | Х | | scoop | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - ladle; dipper; | сузгу | Х | | scoop | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - lecithin | лецет[и]{.ul}н | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - lectin | лект[и]{.ul}н | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - lemon | лим[о]{.ul}н | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (lemonade; soda) | 1: (лимон[а]{.ul}д) | 1: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | | 2: (citric acid) | 2: (лим[о]{.ul}н | | | | кычкылы) | 2: (√: лим[о]{.ul}н | | 3: (citric acid) | | кислот[а]{.ul}сы; | | | 3: (лим[о]{.ul}н | | | 4: (lemon press) | кычкылдыгы) | Kyrgyz-Russian Mix) | | | | | | | 4: (лим[о]{.ul}н | 3: (√: лим[о]{.ul}н | | | сыккычы) | кислот[а]{.ul}сы; | | | | | | | | Kyrgyz-Russian Mix) | | | | | | | | 4: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | | | Mix) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - lentils | жасмык | √: ч[е]{.ul}чевица | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - lid; cap (on | капкак | X | | bottle) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - leftovers (any | түбү | Х | | non-eaten food | | | | or undrunk drink | | | | remains)\* | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Тамак-ашы жана суусундуктары XI** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - lime | лайм | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - liquid; fluid | суюктук | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - liquour | ликёр | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (absinthe) | 1: (абс[е]{.ul}нт) | 1: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - lollipop; sucker | ч[у | Already Russian Word | | (colloquial) | ]{.ul}па-ч[у]{.ul}пс | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - lunch\* | түшкү тамак | √: об[е]{.ul}д | | | | | | 1: (working lunch; | 1: | 1: (Already Russian | | discussing | (б[и]{. | Word) | | | ul}знес-л[а]{.ul}нч) | | | business over lunch; | | | | | | | | special discount | | | | given by | | | | | | | | restaurants over | | | | lunch time | | | | | | | | aimed at | | | | professionals) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - majoram | душ[и]{.ul}ца | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - malt | угут | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - maltodextrin | м | Already Russian Word | | | альтодекстр[и]{.ul}н | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - mango | м[а]{.ul}нго | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - margarine | маргарин | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - marinade | марин[а]{.ul}д | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - marmalade | мармел[а]{.ul}д | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - mayonnaise | майон[е]{.ul}з | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - meat buillion\* | чык | √: буль[о]{.ul}н | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - meat mincer | эт туурагыч | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - melon | коон | Х | | | | | | 1: (pumpkin, | 1: (коондук) | 1: (Х) | | watermelon, or | | | | | | | | other melon patch) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - menu | мен[ю]{.ul} | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - microwave | микроволн[о]{.ul}вка | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - milk | сүт | Х | | | | | | 1: (condensed milk) | 1: (коюлтулган сүт) | 1: (√: сгущёнка) | | | | | | 2: (whey) | 2: (сүттүн сары | 2: (√: | | | суусу) | с[ы]{.ul}воротка) | | 3: (milkcan) | | | | | 3: (бид[о]{.ul}н) | 3: (Already Russian | | 4: (pouring dish one | | Word) | | puts milk\ | 4: (сүт куйгуч) | | | in) | | 4: (Х) | | | 5: (сүттүү | | | 5: (milkshake) | кокт[е]{.ul}йль) | 5: (Kyrgyzised | | | | Russian) | | 6: (milkshake) | 6: (сүт | | | | кокт[е]{.ul}йли) | 6: (Kyrgyzised | | | | Russian) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - milking a cow | саан | X | | (act of)\* | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - millet | таруу | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - mint; peppermint | жалбыз | √: м[я]{.ul}та | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - molasses; | п[а]{.ul}тока | Already Russian Word | | treacle | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - monosodium | монон[а]{.ul}трий | Already Russian Word | | glutamate | глутам[а]{.ul}т | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - mouthful\* | ашам | Х\ | | | | (*бир ашам эт*) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - muffin\* | м[а]{.ul}ффин | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - mug | кр[у]{.ul}жка | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - mushroom\* | козу карын | √: гриб[ы]{.ul} | | | | | | 1: (champignon;\ | 1: (шампинь[о]{.ul}н | 1: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | button mushroom) | козу карыны) | Mix) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Тамак-ашы жана суусундуктары XII** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - mustard | сары кычы | √: горч[и]{.ul}ца | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - müеsli \~\> | м[ю]{.ul}сли | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - napkin | кол сүргүч | √: салф[е]{.ul}тка | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - napkin | майлык | *√*: салф[е]{.ul}тка | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - noodle | кесме | Х | | | | | | 1: (hard, dried | 1: (китлап) | 1: (Х) | | noodles that | | | | | | | | look like ramen | | | | before its | | | | | | | | cooked) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - nougat | н[у]{.ul}га | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - nut | жаңгак | X | | | | | | 1: (peanut\*) | 1: (жер жаңгак) | 1: (√: | | | | ар[а]{.ul}хис) | | 2: (nutcracker) | 2: (жаңгак чаккыч) | | | | | 2: (Х) | | 3: (hazelnut) | 3: (токой жаӊгагы) | | | | | 3: (√:фунд[у]{.ul}к) | | 4: (chestnut) | 4: (кашт[а]{.ul}н) | | | | | 4: (Already Russian | | 5: (nutmeg) | 5: (муск[а]{.ul}т | Word) | | | жаңгак) | | | 6: (walnut) | | 5: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | | 6: (Гр[е]{.ul}ция | Mix) | | | жаӊгагы) | | | | | 6: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | | | Mix) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - nutrition; | там | Х | | nourishing | актануу/тамактанган\ | | | | тамактандыруу/ | (First is based on | | > (act of) | | intrans verb, second | | | тамактандырган | if someone is | | 1: (fast food) | | listed: Мектеп | | | 1: (тез тамактануу) | курагындагы балдарды | | 2: (food pyramid) | | \... үчүн) | | | 2: (тамактануу | | | | пирам[и]{.ul}дасы) | 1: (Х) | | | | | | | | 2: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | | | Mix) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - nutrition; | азык | √: прод[у]{.ul}кты | | sustenance; | | | | product (in | 1: (азык-түлүк) | (*"product" meaning | | plural, like | | only*) | | milk products)\* | 1a: (азык-түлүк | | | | дүкөнү) | 1: (√: | | 1: (groceries) | | прод[у]{.ul}кты) | | | 1б: (БУУнун дүйнөлүк | | | 1a: (grocery store) | азык- | 1a: (√: | | | | прод[у]{.ul}кты | | 1б: (UN World Food | түлүк | дүкөнү ; | | | прогр[а]{.ul}ммасы | | | Programme \[UNWFP\]) | | Kyrgyz-Russian Mix) | | | \[БУУ ДАП\]) | | | 2: (milk products) | | 1б: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | | 2: (сүт азыктар) | Mix) | | 3: (cereals) | | | | | 3: (дандуу азыктар) | 2: (√: сүт | | | | прод[у]{.ul}ктылар; | | | | | | | | Kyrgyz-Russian Mix) | | | | | | | | 3: (X) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - oat; oats | сулу | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - olive | зайтун | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - omlet | омл[е]{.ul}т | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - onion | пияз | Х | | | | | | 1: (head of an | 1: (баш пияз) | 1: (Х) | | onion) | | | | | 2: (көк пияз) | 2: (√: пор[е]{.ul}й) | | 2: (leek) | | | | | 3: (пияз шакекчеси) | 3: (X) | | 3: (onion ring) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Тамак-ашы жана суусундуктары XIII** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - orange | апельс[и]{.ul}н | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (mandarin orange) | 1: (мандар[и]{.ul}н) | 1: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - order (in | буйрутма | √: зак[а]{.ul}з | | restaurant) | | | | | 1: (зак[а]{.ul}з | 1: (Kyrgyzised | | 1: (number you call | л[и]{.ul}ниясы) | Russian) | | to order | | | | | | | | food) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - oregano | орег[а]{.ul}н | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - oven | дух[о]{.ul}вка | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (tandoor oven) | 1: (танд[ы]{.ul}р) | 1: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - papaya | пап[а]{.ul}йя | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - parsley | петр[у]{.ul}шка | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - parsnip | пастерн[а]{.ul}к | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - passionfruit | марак[у]{.ul}йя | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - pasta (general | макар[о]{.ul}н | Kyrgyzised Russian | | term);\ | | | | macaroni | 1: | 1: (Already Russian | | | (вермиш[е]{.ul}ль) | Word) | | 1: (vermicelli) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - pasteurization | пастериз[а]{.ul}ция | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - peach | шабдалы | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - pear | алмурут | Х | | \[Northern\] | | | | | 1: (нак) | 1: (Х) | | 1: (pear | | | | \[Southern\]) | 2: (д[ю]{.ul}шес) | 2: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | | 2: (variety of pear | | | | used as | | | | | | | | flavouring a lot) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - peas; beans | буурчак | √: гор[о]{.ul}х; | | (general) | | фас[о]{.ul}ль | | | 1: (төө буурчак) | | | 1: (string bean; | | 1: (√: | | edamame) | 2: (фас[о]{.ul}ль) | фас[о]{.ul}ль) | | | | | | 2: (green bean) | 3: (нут) | 2: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | | 3: (garbanzo beans; | 4: (ноя) | | | chickpeas) | | 3: (Already Russian | | | | Word | | 4: (Talas dialect | | | | for peas or | | 4: (√: гор[о]{.ul}х; | | | | фас[о]{.ul}ль) | | beans) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - pectin | пект[и]{.ul}н | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - peeler (potato, | тазалагыч | Х | | etc) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - pepper | мурч | Х | | (seasoning) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - pepper | калемпир | √: п[е]{.ul}рец | | (vegetable) | | | | | 1: (таттуу калемпир) | 1: (√: | | 1: (paprika) | | папр[и]{.ul}ка) | | | 2: (кызыл калемпир) | | | 2: (red pepper) | | 2: (Х) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - persimmon; date | курма | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - picnic | пикн[и]{.ul}к | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - pie | пир[о]{.ul}г | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - pineapple | анан[а]{.ul}с | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - pistachio | мисте | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - order (in a | тапшырык | √: зак[а]{.ul}з | | restaurant) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Тамак-ашы жана суусундуктары XIV** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - pizza | п[и]{.ul}цца | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (pizzeria) | 1: (пиццер[и]{.ul}я) | 1: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - plate | табак | √: тар[е]{.ul}лка | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - pomegranate | анар | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - popcorn | попк[о]{.ul}рн | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - portion\* | п[о]{.ul}рция | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - pot | мискей | √: кастр[ю]{.ul}ля | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - pot holder | туткуч | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - potato | картөшкө | √: карт[о]{.ul}шка | | | | | | 1: (mashed potatoes) | 1: (картөшкөдөн | 1: (√: картошкадан | | | жасалган | жасалган | | 2: (potato chip\*) | | | | | пюр[е]{.ul}) | пюр[е]{.ul}; | | | | | | | 2: (кытырактар) | Kyrgyz-Russian mix) | | | | | | | | 2: (√: | | | | карт[о]{.ul}шка | | | | ч[и]{.ul}псы; | | | | | | | | картөшкө | | | | ч[и]{.ul}псы | | | | | | | | Russian-Kyrgyz Mix) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - pouring (act | куюу/куйган | Х | | of); bottling | | | | (act of) | 1: (төгүү/төккөн) | 1: (Х) | | | | | | 1: (act of pouring | | | | out) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - powder (edible) | упа | √: порош[о]{.ul}к | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - powder (edible) | күлмайда | √: порош[о]{.ul}к | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - powder | күкүм | √: порош[о]{.ul}к | | (edible);\ | | | | crumbs | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - preservative | коргогуч | √: консерв[а]{.ul}нт | | | | | | 1: (anti-spoiling | 1: (чирүүгө каршы | 1: (Х) | | agent) | зат) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - protein | бел[о]{.ul}к | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - pub | п[и]{.ul}вокана | √: паб | | | | | | | | (*п[и]{.ul}вокана* | | | | is Kyrgyz- | | | | | | | | Russian Mix) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - puff tart; puff | пир[о]{.ul}жное | Russian Word | | pastry | | declines like | | | 1: (зав[а]{.ul}рное | Russian Adjective; | | 1: (puff pastry | \[пир[о]{.ul}жное\]) | Plural: | | filled with | | *пир[о]{.ul}жные* | | | 2: | | | cream; | (тартал[е]{.ul}тка) | 1: (Russian Word | | シュークリーム) | | declines like | | | | | | 2: (tartlet) | | Russian Adjective; | | | | Plural: | | | | | | | | *зав[а]{.ul}рные* | | | | \[ | | | | *пир[о]{.ul}жные*\]) | | | | | | | | 2: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - pulp | жемиш эти | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - pulp | жумшак (эт\[и\]) | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - pumpkin | ашкабак | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Тамак-ашы жана суусундуктары XV** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - purée | ботко | √: пюр[е]{.ul} | | | | | | 1: (apple sauce) | 1: (алма | 1: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | | пюр[е]{.ul}си) | Mix) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - quiche | киш | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - quince | айв[а]{.ul} | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - radish | чамгыр | √: ред[и]{.ul}ска; | | | | ред[и]{.ul}с | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - radish | шалгам | √: ред[и]{.ul}ска; | | | | ред[и]{.ul}с | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - raisin | мейиз | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - ratatouille | ратат[у]{.ul}й | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - ration | раци[о]{.ul}н | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - receipe | рец[е]{.ul}пт | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - refrigerator | муздаткыч | √: | | | | холод[и]{.ul}льник | | 1: (big trunk where | 1: (баккан) | | | salted | | 1: (Х) | | | | | | meat is kept cool in | | | | yurts | | | | | | | | or in times before | | | | | | | | refrigerators) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - resin; gum resin | чайыр | √: кам[е]{.ul}дь | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - restaurant | рестор[а]{.ul}н | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - rhubarb | ышкын | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - riboflavin | рибофлав[и]{.ul}н | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - rice | күрүч | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - risotto | риз[о]{.ul}тто | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - rolling pin | үбөлүк | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - rosemary | розмар[и]{.ul}н | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - saffron | заапаран | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sage | шалф[е]{.ul}й | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - salad; lettuce | сал[а]{.ul}т | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (Cesar salad) | 1: (сал[а]{.ul}т | 1: (Already Russian | | | "Ц[е]{.ul}зарь") | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - salt | туз | Х | | | | | | 1: (salinity) | 1: (туздуулук) | 1: (Х) | | | | | | 2: (desalination | 2: (тузсуздануу) | 2: (Х) | | \[process\]) | | | | | 3: (туз салгыч) | 3: (Х) | | 3: (salt shaker; | | | | salt cellar) | 4: (кайнатма туз) | 4: (Х) | | | | | | 4: (culinary salt; | | | | | | | | *поваренная соль)* | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - salting (of | туздоо/туздаган | Х | | food) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sandwich | с[э]{.ul}ндвич | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sausage | колбас[а]{.ul} | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (wiener sausages) | 1: (сос[и]{.ul}ска) | 1: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | | 1а: (pigs in a | 1a: (камырга оролуп | | | blanket) | | 1а: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | | бышырылган | Word) | | | сос[и]{.ul}ска) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - scent; smell | жыт | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sediment\*\ | тунма | Х | | (stuff that goes | | | | to bottom of | | | | some drinks) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - quality (of | сорт | Already Russian Word | | ingredient) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **\ ** **Тамак-ашы жана суусундуктары XVI** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - seeds (edible) | урук | X | | | | | | 1: (sunflower seeds) | 1: (күн караманын | 1: (√: | | | уругу) | с[е]{.ul}мечки) | | 2: (poppy seeds) | | | | | 2: (кызгалдактын | 2: (√: мак) | | 3: (seasame seeds) | уругу) | | | | | 3: (√: | | 4: (chia seeds) | 3: (күнжүт) | кунж[у]{.ul}т\ | | | | \[*Maybe Russian | | | 4: (ч[и]{.ul}а | word* | | | уруктары) | | | | | *кунж[у]{.ul}т | | | | adopted from* | | | | | | | | *Kyrgyz or maybe | | | | vice-* | | | | | | | | *versa\]*) | | | | | | | | 4: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | | | Mix) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - selection of;\ | \... түрлөрү | X | | an assortment | | | | of;\ | | | | ...plate (like | | | | cheese plate) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - serving tray | патнус | √: подн[о]{.ul}с | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - shot glass | р[ю]{.ul}мка | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - side dish | гарн[и]{.ul}р | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sieve; sifter | элек | X | | | | | | 1: (much larger | 1: (калбыр) | 1: (Х) | | sifter used for | | | | | 2: (элөө) | 2: (Х) | | grains on a farm | | | | \[looks like | | | | | | | | stretcher with mesh | | | | in the | | | | | | | | middle\]) | | | | | | | | 2: (sieving; | | | | sifting) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - skin (of apple, | кабык | Х | | etc);\ | | | | rind (of | | | | melon);\ | | | | shell (of egg) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - slice | тилим | Х | | | | | | 1: (slice of; piece | 1: (кесим) | 1: (X) | | of \[bread\]) | | | | | 1a: (сындырым) | 1a: (X) | | 1а: (hunk of bread | | | | \[that you | | | | | | | | just tear off\]) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - smacking and | тамшануу/тамшанган | Х | | licking one's | | | | lips | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - smoking of meat | ыштоо/ыштаган | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - soup | сорпо | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - soy | с[о]{.ul}я | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - spaghetti | спаг[е]{.ul}тти | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - spatula | күрөк | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - spice; seasoning | курчутма | √: сп[е]{.ul}ций | | | | (*специйлер* seen) | | 1: (seasoning) | 1: (татымал) | | | | | 1: (Х) | | 1а: (sauce) | 1a: (татымал | | | | \[суюктук\]) | 1а: (√: с[оу]{.ul}с) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - spice; spiciness | ачуу | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - spinach | шпин[а]{.ul}т | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Тамак-ашы жана суусундуктары XVII** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - spoon | кашык | Х | | | | | | 1: (tea spoon) | 1: (чай кашык) | 1: (Х) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sprinkling (act | чачуу/чачкан | Х | | of) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - squash | кабач[о]{.ul}к | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - starch | крахм[а]{.ul}л | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - stew | раг[у]{.ul} | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - storehouse for | кампа | Х | | food; grainary; | | | | silo | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - stove (for | пл[и]{.ul}тка | Already Russian Word | | cooking);\ | | | | stove top | 1: (газ | 1: (Kyrgyzised | | | плит[а]{.ul}) | Russian) | | 1: (gas stove) | | | | | 2: (электро | 2: (Kyrgyzised | | 2: (electric stove) | плит[а]{.ul}) | Russian) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - stove (for | меш | √: п[е]{.ul}чка | | heating or | | | | buring | | | | coal/wood) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - straw (for | түтүк(чө) | X | | drinking) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - succade (dried | цук[а]{.ul}ттар | Kyrgyzised Russian | | and candied | | | | chuks or peel of | | | | fruit) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sucking up; | соруу/соргон | Х | | inhalation; | | | | absorbtion | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sugar (cubed) | кант | √: с[а]{.ul}хар | | | | | | 1: (glucose) | 1: (глюк[о]{.ul}за) | 1: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | | 2: (fructose) | 2: (фрукт[о]{.ul}за) | | | | | 2: (Already Russian | | 3: (lactose) | 3: (лакт[о]{.ul}за) | Word) | | | | | | 4: (cane sugar) | 4: (к[а]{.ul}мыш | 3: (Already Russian | | | канты) | Word) | | 5: (dextrose) | | | | | 5: | 4: (Х) | | | (декстр[о]{.ul}за) | | | | | 5: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sugar (fine) | шекер | √: с[а]{.ul}хар | | | | | | 1: (granulated | 1: (кумшекер) | 1: (√: с[а]{.ul}хар) | | sugar) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - supermarket | суперм[а]{.ul}ркет | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sweetener | таттууландыргыч | Х | | | | | | 1: (aspartame) | 1: (аспарт[а]{.ul}м) | 1: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sweetener | таттуу кылуучу зат | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sweetness | шириндик | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sweetness; | таттуу | Х | | confectionary;\ | | | | sweets (in | 1: (птиф[у]{.ul}р) | 1: (Already Russian | | plural) | | Word) | | | | | | 1: (pétit four) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - syrup | сир[о]{.ul}п | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - tablecloth\* | дасторкон | Х | | | | | | 1: (tablecloth \[Ы-К | 1: (тасмал) | 1: (Х) | | dialect\]) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - tannin | тан[и]{.ul}н | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - tapioca | тапи[о]{.ul}ка | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - tabbouleh | таб[у]{.ul}ле | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - steak | бифшт[е]{.ul}кс | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - star d'anis | жылдыздуу | Kyrgyzised Russian | | | ан[и]{.ul}с | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Тамак-ашы жана суусундуктары XVIII** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - taste; flavour\* | даам | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - taste; flavour\* | татым | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - tasting (of | татуу | X | | food/wine) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - taurine | таур[и]{.ul}н | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - tea (drink or | чай | Already Russian Word | | meal) | | | | | 1: (көк чай) | 1: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | 1: (green tea) | | Mix) | | | 2: (кызыл чай) | | | 2: (black tea) | | 2: (Kygyrz-Russian | | | 3: (чайкана) | Mix) | | 3: (tea place/café) | | | | | 4: (чайнек) | 3: (√: | | 4: (teapot)\* | | ч[а]{.ul}йхана) | | | 4a: (чорго) | | | 4а: (spout -- of | | 4: (Kyrgyzised | | teapot) | 5: (сүзгүч) | Russian) | | | | | | 5: (tea strainer; | 6: (баштыкча) | 4а: (X) | | laddle) | | | | | 7: (кечки тамакка | 5: (X) | | 6: (tea bag) | чейинки | | | | | 6: (Х) | | 7: (high tea) | чай) | | | | | 7: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | 8: (herbal tea) | 8: (чөп чай) | Mix) | | | | | | 9: (dregs; leftover | 9: (чайдын чамасы) | 8: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | leaves or | | Mix) | | | | | | particles at bottom | | 9: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | of cup) | | Mix) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - teriyaki | тери[я]{.ul}ки | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - terragon; | эстраг[о]{.ul}н | Already Russian Word | | estragon | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - thermos; | т[е]{.ul}рмос | Already Russian Word | | reusable water | | | | bottle | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - thyme | тимь[я]{.ul}н | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - tiramisu | тирамис[у]{.ul} | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - toaster | т[о]{.ul}стер | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - tomato (fresh | помид[о]{.ul}р | Already Russian Word | | fruit) | | | | | 1: (том[а]{.ul}т) | 1: (Already Russian | | 1: (tomato -- | | Word) | | canned, | 1a: (том[а]{.ul}т | | | | ч[е]{.ul}рри) | 1а: (Already Russian | | processed, or paste) | | Word) | | | | | | 1а: (cherry tomato) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - tongs | кычкач | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - toothpick | тиш чукугуч | √: зубоч[и]{.ul}стка | | | | | | 1: (traditional | 1: (данданку) | 1: (Х) | | toothpick made | | | | | | | | of bone) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - Tupperware; | конт[е]{.ul}йнер | Already Russian Word | | to-go box; small | | | | plastic | | | | container | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - turmeric | курк[у]{.ul}ма | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - turnip | түрп | √: р[е]{.ul}пка | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - vanilla | ван[и]{.ul}ль | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (vanillin) | 1: (ванил[и]{.ul}н) | 1: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - vegetable | жер жемиш | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - vegetable; | жашылча | X | | greens\* | | | | | 1: (жашылчачылык) | 1: (Х) | | 1: (vegetable | | | | growing) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - vegetarianism | вегетарианчылык | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - vegetarianism | эт жебөөчүлүк | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - ventilation | в[ы]{.ul}тяжка | Already Russian Word | | hood\ | | | | (*thing in big | | | | restaurant's | | | | kitchen over | | | | large grill that | | | | allows all the | | | | smoke to go | | | | out*) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Тамак-ашы жана суусундуктары XIX** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - vinegar | укс[у]{.ul}с | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - vodka; Turkish | арак | в[о]{.ul}дка | | *rakı* | | universally | | | 1: (жинди суу) | understood, but | | 1: (comedic name for | | you\'ve crossed the | | vodka) | 2: (араккана) | threshold of | | | | Kyrgyzised Russian | | 2: (saloon; place | | and are just using | | for drinking) | | Russian. | | | | | | | | 1: (Х) | | | | | | | | 2: (Х) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - waffle; wafer\* | в[а]{.ul}фля | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - warming up (act | жылытуу/жылыткан | Х | | of) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - water | суу | Х | | | | | | 1: (boiling water) | 1: (кайнак суу) | 1: (√: | | | | кипят[о]{.ul}к) | | 2: (mineral water) | 2: | | | | (минер[а]{.ul}лдуу | 2: (Kyrgyzised | | 3: (mineral water) | суу) | Russian) | | | | | | 4: (mineral water) | 3: | 3: (Kyrgyzised | | | (минер[а]{.ul}лдык | Russian) | | | суу) | | | | | 4: (X) | | | 4: (ак суу) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - watermelon | дарбыз | √: арб[у]{.ul}з | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - well (for water) | кудук | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - wheat\* | буудай | Х | | | | | | 1: (rye) | 1: (кара буудай) | 1: (Х) | | | | | | 1а: (bits of rye | 1a: (урпак) | 1а: (Х) | | grain baked | | | | | 2: (буудайдын башы) | 2: (Х) | | whole into bread) | | | | | 3: (саман) | 3: (Х) | | 2: (ear of wheat) | | | | | | | | 3: (wheat stalk) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - wheat\* | эгин | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - wine | (жүзүмдүү) шарап | √: вин[о]{.ul} | | | | | | 1: (muscat) | 1: (муск[а]{.ul}т) | 1: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | | 2: (chardonnay) | 2: (шардон[е]{.ul}) | | | | | 2: (Already Russian | | 3: (sauvignon) | 3: (совинь[о]{.ul}н) | Word) | | | | | | 4: (port) | 4: (портв[е]{.ul}йн) | 3: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | | | | | | | | 4: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - yeast | ачыткы | √: закв[а]{.ul}ска; | | | | др[о]{.ul}жжи | | 1: (yeast for milk | 1: (уютку) | | | | | 1: (Х) | | \[making cheese\]) | 2: | | | | (пр[е]{.ul}сстелген | 2: (Kyrgyzised | | 2: (compressed | ачыткы) | Russian) | | yeast) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - yogurt | й[о]{.ul}гурт | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - yuzu | [ю]{.ul}дзу | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ [\ ]{.ul} **Тамак-ашы жана суусундуктары XX** [Notes on Nouns Pertaining to Food and Beverage]{.ul} \**Баклав[а]{.ul}* exists in Russian, but is more rarely used than the Russianized form *пахлав[а]{.ul}.* Kyrgyz favours the more Turkic pronunciation *баклав[а]{.ul}* for the confection. \*Russian *п[и]{.ul}во* much more common than the Kyrgyz *сыра* for "beer." \*"For" breakfast, lunch, or dinner is expressed via the dative case: *Кечки тамакка эмне тамак ичебиз?* \**Керем* is pure Kyrgyz, but not widely understood or used; the Russian *кап[у]{.ul}ста* is the general term for "cabbage." \*For older speakers this might be pronounces as "*конпет*." \*The Russian *коф[е]{.ul}йня* appears to be more in use than *к[о]{.ul}фе үйү. К[о]{.ul}фе ш[о]{.ul}бу* might also not be readily understood, as I have only witnessed it once in the name of a coffee shop in Bishkek. \*Many people have never heard of the phrase *жүгөрү үлпүлдөктөр*. I found it in the description of an Alpin Gold milk chocolate and cornflakes-flavoured candy bar. *Хл[о]{.ul}пья* is generally understood. \**Бадыраң* is often pronounced as though it were only two syllables: *"ба.драң".* \**Кекс* is more used and generally understood than *м[а]{.ul}ффин* for the Western concept of a muffin. *М[а]{.ul}ффин* has only been seen in a few coffeeshops in Bishkek frequented by expats and is not generally understood in the villages. \*Generally speaking, *жемиш* by itself can mean "berry"; to specify, however, *мөмө(-жемиш)* is used. Although purely Kyrgyz, the term *дан куурай* seems to be not understandable. The Russian *мал[и]{.ul}на* is used. One teacher hypothesized that the former term refers to the raspberry bush and the latter to the actual berry.\ Also, just like English, *жемиш* can be used figuratively: *эмгегимдин жемиштери* = the fruits of my labour. \*The Russian is much more used than the Kyrgyz *чүйгүн.* \**Мен диетадамын* = I'm on a diet. \*An alternative spelling of *идиш* is *ийдиш*, but it is rarely seen. *Идиш-аяк* is an all encompassing term for every sort of dish or vessel; thus, it is often seen as a section heading in grocery stores and the like for the section that sells dishes. \*For those unfamiliar with Russian, the *ч* in *я[и]{.ul}чница* is pronounced like *ш*. \*To say "for the first/second/etc course, use the 3^rd^ form possessed genitive: *Биринчисине: шорпо, борщ.* \**Ирриг[а]{.ul}ция*, the Russian loan word variant of *сугаруу*, is a technical term used in agroscience and may not be readily understood by a Kyrgyz person less literate in Russian. \*The Russian *вар[е]{.ul}нье* is much more used than the Kyrgyz *кыям.* \*In Kyrgyz culture there is a superstition that whoever eats or dinks the leftovers of someone else, then that person will develop the characteristics of the person after whom they ate or drank. \*Meat stock or meat bullion is called *чык* in pure Kyrgyz, but often the Russian *буль[о]{.ul}н* is used instead. Also, I have seen the word *чык* being used as a translation for the word sauce in the ingredients list for a tuna sandwich produced by the Kyrgyz food company *Баатыр.* This most likely is an over-Kyrgyzisation, as *чык* is a word that describes meat-based sauces, and the sauce for the tuna sandwich contained no meat. **Тамак-ашы жана суусундуктары XXI** \*One can use the phrase *Саан сүттүү болсун!* to encourage someone on as they milk a cow. \**Ашам* is not a common word; *ооз + poss + толтура* is more generally used to mean "mouthful:" *Анын оозу толтура эт*! = He has a mouthful of meat \*The Kyrgyz *козу карын* is much more used than the Russian *гриб[ы]{.ul}*; the later is mainly used by Kyrgyz speakers who have lost their vocabulary to Russian's influence. \*The Russian *ар[а]{.ul}хис* was seen only once in the ingredients for Snickers. It may have been a mistranslation, because *жер жаңгак* has been seen in the ingredients for other foods. \*Whatever one is ordering simply follows the word *п[о]{.ul}рция* in nominative case: *Мага бир п[о]{.ul}рция ашламфу берчи.* \**Ч[и]{.ul}псы* is already plural in Russian, but it is singular in Kyrygz. It is possible to pluralize it to *ч[и]{.ul}псылар*. \*Rarely, *өнүм* (see the "Items and Tools" vocabulary section) has been seen to mean "food product," but normally *азык* is used for edible products, like dairy products or meat products. \**Тунмасы болушуна жол берет* is Kyrgyz for *Допускается естественный осадок*, which informs buyers that the drink they have purchased can sometimes form sediment at the bottom. \*A home's *дасторкон* is culturally very important, as it symbolizes wealth in food and thus the ability for the family to provide for itself adequately. When sitting, it is impolite to pass someone by going between them and the tablecloth, and stepping on the tablecloth is also rude. \**Даам* is much more used than *татым*. The phrase *даамына жараша* is used in recipes to mean "according to taste." *Даамына жараша туз, татымалдарды кошуп, 5-6 мүнөт бышыруу керек.* \**Чөөгүн* is an archaism for *чайнек*. \**Жашылча* is usually found in the plural: *жашылчалар* \*Although the plural *вафлялар* is to be expected, Russian morphology seems to be kept: *в[а]{.ul}фли*. \**Буудай* is the processed grain of wheat and *эгин* is the name of the plant. **Тамак-ашы жана суусундуктары XXII** [Other Nouns Related to Food and Beverage]{.ul} \**Май* is a very versatile word in Kyrgyz. It can mean "butter," "oil," "grease," or "animal fat which one consumes/fat inherent in foods." There are many coordinate terms:\ *- Maй* meaning "butter":\ *сл[и]{.ul}вочный май* = specifically, butter *жер жаӊгак майы* = peanut butter *как[а]{.ul}о май =* cocoa butter *май бышуу/бышкан* = act of churning butter *сары май* = form of homemade butter I find revolting eaten on everything, even sometimes in tea, purported to have health benefits *сызык =* clarified butter or melted fat \- *Май* meaning "oil" or "grease": *балык майы =* fish oil *зайтун майы =* olive oil > *Extra Virgin* *зайтун майы =* Extra Virgin olive oil *кок[о]{.ul}с майы =* coconut oil *күн карама майы =* sunflower oil *майлоо/майлаган =* act of greasing *өcүмдүк майы* = vegetable oil *п[а]{.ul}льма майы* = palm oil *рапс майы* = canola oil *суу май* = specifically, cooking oil \- *Май* meaning "edible animal fat" or "fats inherent in food": *каймак май =* cream fat *каныккан май =* saturated fat *каныккан май кычкылдык =* lipid; fatty acid *тоң май* = specifically, animal fat that is edible *трансмай* = trans fat *уча* = horse fat from a *тай* served to very honoured guests **\ ** **Тамак-aшы жана cуусундуктары XXIII** \*The Kyrgyz word for "meat" is *эт* (*гөш in Southern dialect*)*.* This word combines with animal names to make the various types of meat available for consumption: \- *жылкынын эти* = horse meat \- *койдун эти* = sheep meet; veal; mutton \- *улактын эти* = veal, specifically \- *куштун эти* = poultry \- *тооктун эти* = chicken \- *канат* = chicken wing \- *сан эти =* drumstick \- *стрипс* = chicken strip\* > \- *төш* = breast meat \- *топоздун эти* = yak meat \- *төөнүн эти =* camel meat \- *уйдун эти* = beef \- *музоонун эти* = veal \- *чочконун эти* = pork \- *ветчин[а]{.ul} =* ham > Note that colloquially the names of animals without genitive > morphology can be used: *уй эти*. Even though the word *стрипс* comes > from the English word "strips," a plural noun, in Kyrgyz (and Russian) > is is singular and can be pluralized: *стр[и]{.ul}пстер.* There exists > a superstition (that Kyrgyz people will adamantly claim to be > scientific fact) that if a pregnant woman or the baby's father eat > camel meat during the pregnancy, the woman will carry the baby for 10 > months rather than 9. \**Чий көбүк* is the name for the white foam that develops and rises to the top when one cooks meat or other things in water. In some parts of Naryn, this is also called *иткели.* \**Күнүмдүк оокат/тамак* means "our daily bread" (i.e. in the religious sense). \*The figurative meaning of "fuel," referring to anything consumed that gives energy, can be described in Kyrgyz as *күч-кубат берген (тамак/нерсе).* **Тамак-aшы жана cуусундуктары XXIV** +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | **Culinary Reader of Kyrgyz, | | | Central Asian, and Slavic | | | Cuisine** | | +==================================+==================================+ | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Англис Тилиндеги | | | Түшүндүрүүсү** | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - адж[и]{.ul}ка \~\> | Adjika, a hot, spicy but subtly | | | flavoured paste often used to | | | flavour food, mainly in the | | | Caucasian regions of Abhazia and | | | Samegrelo. | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - азу \~\> | Tartar dish of boiled beef and | | | vegetables, such as onions and | | | cucumbers. | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - айр[а]{.ul}н \~\> | Sour milk mixed lightly with | | | water; Kyrgyz kefir. *(Word | | 1: (чалап) | adopted into Russian.)* | | | | | 1a: (тан) | 1: (Salty айран/kefir mixed with | | | more water, uncarbonated) | | 2: (к[е]{.ul}фир) | | | | 1a: (Carbonated чалап) | | | | | | 2: (Russian term also used in | | | Kyrgyz) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - аш \~\> | A jam made from buckthorn | | | berries. | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - ашлян-фу/ашлям-фу \~\> | Spicy, cold soup of Dungan | | | cuisine with thin noodles, | | | cucumber, meat, and tomato. | | | Signature dish of Issyk-Kul. | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - бадырак \~\> | Puffed wheat or other grains | | | eaten for breakfast, similar to | | | American cereal | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - базарлык \~\> | Treats given to friends and | | | family after visting a bazar; | | | お土産 | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - бастурм[а]{.ul} \~\> | Highly seasoned, air-dried cured | | | beef of Ottoman cuisine | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - бел[я]{.ul}ш \~\> | A fried meat pie of Bashkir and | | | Tartar cuisine with a | | | characteristic whole for steam | | | to release at the top. | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - бешбармак\* \~\> | Oily, fatty dish consisting of | | | noodles that are wider than they | | 1: (шорпо) | are long and meat (usually | | | horse). | | 1а: (ак серке) | | | | 1: (Very oily broth given to | | | drink on the side, often served | | | | | | with *бешбармак*.) | | | | | | 1а: (*Айран* mixed with *шорпо* | | | served with *бешбармак*.) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - бл[и]{.ul}нчик \~\> | Russian crepes (*Declines like | | | Russian*) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - б[о]{.ul}бы \~\> | A beer snack that is a bean | | | heated until the inside pops and | | | is salted | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - боорсок \~\> | Small fried pieces of dough | | | prepared in abundance for a той. | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - борщ \~\> | Russian beet soup. | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - бриз[о]{.ul}ль \~\> | Russian dish similar to Japanese | | | オムライス | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - быжы \~\> | A kind of sausage stuffed with | | | rice and finely diced meat | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - дымдама \~\> | Dish of steamed cabbage, | | | carrots, potatoes, and meat. | | 1: (жаткан төө) | | | | 1: (A dish similar to *дымдама* | | | but having cooked dough | | | | | | wrapped throughout it in a | | | circular pattern.) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - жаа бөйрөк \~\> | Whole roasted carcass of goat or | | | lamb; think "rotisserie | | | chicken," but with goat/lamb. | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - жамбаш \~\> | The bone given to the most | | | honoured guest. | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - жусай \~\> | Chinese chives (member of the | | | garlic family found indigenously | | | in Central Asia). | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - занса/заӊса \~\> | Long, stringy fried and crispy | | | wonton-like snacks made for | | | parties. | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - зоор\* \~\> | The pre-dawn meal eaten around | | | 3:00 a.m. during Ramadan. | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - каттама \~\> | Layered, flakey bread | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - ватр[у]{.ul}шка \~\> | Russian confection like a Danish | | | but with *тв[о]{.ul}рог* (dryish | | | cottage cheese-like milk | | | product) as filling | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - калама \~\> | Round, unleavened bread rolled | | | very thinly cooked in an oven | | | (*меш*). Also called *таптама*. | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ **Тамак-aшы жана cуусундуктары XXV** +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | **Culinary Reader of Kyrgyz, | | | Central Asian, and Slavic | | | Cuisine** | | +==================================+==================================+ | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Англис Тилиндеги | | | Түшүндүрүүсү** | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - к[а]{.ul}ша \~\> | Russian rice porridge mixed with | | | warm milk. | | 1: (ботко) | | | | 1: (Kyrgyz porridge.) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - квас \~\> | kvass, a type of traditional | | | Russian no- or low-alcohol | | | beverage made from fermented | | | bread. Very sweet. | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - козин[а]{.ul}к(и) \~\> | A traditional Georgian | | | brittle-like confection of nuts | | | sliced into small pieces, | | | usually walnuts or sunflower | | | seeds, fried in honey. | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - кол[о]{.ul}нка \~\> | Public water pump in villages. | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - куймак \~\> | Little, round pancakes; *оладьи* | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - куйрук \~\> | Literally meaning "tail," it is | | | the meat and fat taken from the | | | tail, usually of a sheep, and | | | sliced sashimi-style. It can be | | | smoked with spices. | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - курут \~\> | Disgustingly sour and | | | spoiled-milk-tasting hard candy. | | 1: (эзме курут) | | | | 1: (Finely chopped курут that is | | | boiled and drunk like tea. | | | | | | Supposed to be helpful for | | | pregnant woman.) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - куурдак \~\> | Fried meat (usually lamb). | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - күрүч\* \~\> | The Kyrgyz name for the dish | | | commonly known as "plov," | | 1: (плов) | literally meaning rice: a type | | | of rice pilaf dish. | | 1а: (палоо) | | | | 1: (The Russian name for the | | 2: (аш) | dish; often used in place of the | | | | | | Kyrgyz.) | | | | | | 1а: (Kyrgyzised form of the | | | Russian name, used in the South) | | | | | | 2: (The Uzbek term for the dish; | | | used in Osh and Jalal-Abad | | | | | | where Uzbek influence is | | | prominent.) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - кымыз \~\> | Fermented mare's milk; often | | | associated with and drunk in | | 1: (көөкөр) | summer; koumiz. | | | | | 2: (кымызкана) | 1: (Wineskin cask made from | | | camel hide used to store | | 3: (бишкек) | | | | koumiss.) | | 4: (саамал) | | | | 2: (A stall or stand where | | | koumiss is specifically sold) | | | | | | 3: (Large stick used for | | | churning koumiz) | | | | | | 4: (unripened koumiz) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - лагм[а]{.ul}н \~\> | A soup and noodle dish where the | | | noodles are thick, often topped | | 1: | with meat and peppers. Can be | | (лагм | fried. *(Word adopted into | | [а]{.ul}нкана/лагм[а]{.ul}нхана) | Russian)* | | | | | | 1: (A restaurant or other | | | establishment that specializes | | | in | | | | | | *lagman*) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - л[а]{.ul}за \~\> | Spicy red chili pepper paste | | | used in Dungan cuisine. | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - л[е]{.ul}чо \~\> | Hungarian national dish. Wet | | | salad consisting of tomatoes, | | | red peppers, and onion. | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - максым \[Chui\] \~\> | Fermented wheat drink | | | | | 1: (жарма \[Naryn, Ы-К\]) | 1: (Fermented wheat drink, said | | | in Naryn and Issyk-Kul) | | 2: (бозо) | | | | 2: (Fermented white wheat | | | drink.) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - манты \~\> | Central Asian dumplings of | | | steamed dough filled with | | 1: (мантыкана) | various stuffings. | | | | | | 1: (A restaurant or other | | | establishment specializing in | | | such | | | | | | dumplings) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ **Тамак-aшы жана cуусундуктары XXVI** +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | **Culinary Reader of Kyrgyz, | | | Central Asian, and Slavic | | | Cuisine** | | +==================================+==================================+ | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Англис Тилинде Түшүндүрүүсү** | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - катырык нан \~\> | Snack food made by drying out | | | chunks of rye bread in the oven | | 1: (сух[а]{.ul}рик) | until they from hard, dry | | | croutons. Often seasoned with | | | different flavours like potato | | | chips. | | | | | | 1: (The Russian term for this | | | snack which is more often used | | | | | | than the pure Kyrygz.) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - мастава \~\> | Rice based soup made with cut up | | | meat and sour milk. | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - набат/нават \~\> | Hard, rock candy-like sugar | | | clump that one can soak in tea. | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - олобо \~\> | Kyrgyz traditional delicacy of | | | sheep or goat lung submersed in | | | a concoction of milk, oil, and | | | salt and cooked in the | | | *каз[а]{.ul}н.* | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - оромо \~\> | A roulette of dough filled | | | (usually) with meat. | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - пирож[о]{.ul}к \~\> | Russian savoury, flaky pie | | | (*Declines like Russian*) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - пр[я]{.ul}ник \~\> | a: Gingerbread | | | | | | b: A type of baked scone with a | | | frosted glazed outer covering; | | | | | | not overly sweet and eaten with | | | tea. | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - самоор\* \~\> | A large urn for brewing tea. | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - самсы \~\> | Similar to Indian samosas; fried | | | triangular dough shells with | | 1: (самасакана) | various fillings. | | | | | | 1: (Restaurant specializing in | | | these.) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - согум \~\> | Meat prepared and stored for the | | | impending winter. | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - сүзмө \~\> | Solidified milk curds, used in | | | Kyrgyz cuisine to make a variety | | | of other things. | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - сүмөлөк \~\> | Boiled bread dish usually eaten | | | during Nooruz. | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - танд[ы]{.ul}р нан \~\> | Round, thin bread (cooked in a | | | tandoor) (*Kyrgyzised Russian*) | | 1: (лепёшка) | | | | 1: (Russian term, also used.) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - тв[о]{.ul}рог \~\> | Dairy product resembling cottage | | | cheese in both texture and | | | taste. (Kyrgyz version is called | | | *быштак*) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - төр\* \~\> | The most honoured place at a | | | table given to the most senior | | | person of the party or to the | | | guest of honour. | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - усуткан \~\> | a: A party or small gathering | | | after a slaughtering to | | | dismember the animal, cook the | | | meat, and distribute it amongst | | | friends and guests.\ | | | b: The term for the actual meat | | | itself which is brought home | | | after such an event. | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - ууз \~\> | Colostrum, or the different | | | quality of milk produced by many | | | mammals right before and right | | | after they give birth. In Kyrgyz | | | cuisine, this word refers to the | | | liquid that is collected and | | | heated so that it curdles. It is | | | then eaten, often with jam. | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - халв[а]{.ul} \~\> | Flaky, sweet mound of yumminess | | | made from finely ground nuts, | | | like almonds, or sunflower | | | seeds. *(Same in Russian.)* | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - таптама \~\> | Another name for *калама*. | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - сумс[а]{.ul}/сумс[у]{.ul} | A sweet pie, a national dish of | | \~\> | the Tartars. Can be seen with | | | many fillings, and in Kyrgyzstan | | | dried apricot is popular. | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ **Тамак-aшы жана cуусундуктары XXVII** +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | **Culinary Reader of Kyrgyz, | | | Central Asian, and Slavic | | | Cuisine** | | +==================================+==================================+ | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Англис Тилинде Түшүндүрүүсү** | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - чакчак \~\> | Fried wonton type things, | | | sometimes covered with sticky | | | condensed milk. | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - чарым \~\> | Sinewy tissue on meat that must | | | be removed as it cannot be | | | chewed or swallowed. | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - чачыла \~\> | Sweets showered upon guests at a | | | toi. | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - чечил \~\> | Smoked string cheese | | | deliciousness. | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - чөбөгө \~\> | The residue that remains after | | | heating cream until it becomes | | | *сары май* (seen as a flavouring | | | for *курут*). | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - чучук \~\> | Horse sausage (very salty and | | | fatty). | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - чүчбара/чүчпара/ | Kyrgyz word for *pelmeyni*; very | | | small meat-filled dumplings in | | > чүчвара \~\> | soup. | | | | | 1: (пельм[е]{.ul}ни) | 1: (Russian word also used.) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - чыны \[Northern\] \~\> | Small bowl for drinking tea. | | | | | 1: (пиала \[Southern\]) | 1: (Small bowl for drinking tea, | | | but used in the South.) | | 2: (бадавот) | | | | 2: (Word used in Yssyk-Kul for a | | | large one of these.) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - чыпка \~\> | A strainer (traditionally made | | | of horse hair, but nowadays also | | | made of metal) used for skimming | | | milk. It looks a lot like a | | | *сүзгүч,* but a *сүзгүч* is used | | | for straining tea or skimming | | | the foam that develops in the | | | water as meat is boiled. | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - шашл[ы]{.ul}к \~\> | Shish-kabobs; often grilled over | | | a fire at one's summer pasture. | | 1: (шишкебек) | (*Word adopted into Russian.*) | | | | | 2: (кеб[а]{.ul}б) | 1: (Pure Kyrgyz, but much less | | | used, term for shish-kabob) | | 2а: (кебабкана) | | | | 2: (Kebab) | | | | | | 2a: (A restaurant or | | | establishment specializing in | | | kebabs) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - щи \~\> | Ukrainian cabbage soup. | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - чымчымай \~\> | A dish of finely cubed ground | | | meat, potatoes, carrots, and | | | other vegetables. It is served | | | with squares of cooked dough, | | | and one picks the ground | | | beef/vegetable hash up using the | | | dough as the utensil (from the | | | verb *чымчы* meaning "to pinch; | | | to pluck.") | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - фунчёза \~\> | Midly spicy noodle salad made | | | with thick rice noodles, | | | julienne carrots and peppers, | | | and dressed in a spicy red | | | pepper sauce. | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ **Тамак-aшы жана cуусундуктары XXVIII** [Notes on Culinary Reader Terms]{.ul} \*Kyrgyzstan has a famous "*Бешбармак/плов* line." North of this line, which traverses the country east to west, cutting off around Jalal-Abad, *бешбармак* tends to be the preferred dish and is always served last at a party/toi. South of this line, *плов* is served last. \*Some speakers pronounce this word as *соор: Мени зоорго (соорго) ойготпо! = Don't wake me up for "zoor".* \*Note that the Russian *самов[а]{.ul}р* may also be used in Kyrgyz, but it denotes a purely ornate Russian one. \**Төргө отуруңуз/өтүңүз* are both appropriate ways of telling an honoured guest to sit at the table. **\ ** **Тамак-aшы жана cуусундуктары XXIX** +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | **Сын Атоочтор жана Тактоочтор** | | +==================================+==================================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - alcoholic | алкоголдуу | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - alcoholic | алког[о]{.ul}лдук | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - aromatic | жыпар жыттуу | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - attributive of | даамдатуучу | | "flavouring;"\ | | | pertaining to the sense of | | | taste; gustatory | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - attributive of "pizza;" | п[и]{.ul}ццалык | | pertaining to that which is | | | used to make pizza | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - big; chunky; lumpy | кесек | | (describing food) | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - boiled | кайнаган | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - bottled (being in a bottle) | бөтөлкөдөгү | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - breastfeeding (attributive) | эмизүүчү | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - brewing (attributive) | пиво/сыра чыгаруу | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - caloric; pertaining to the | энергетикалык | | amount of calories or energy | | | given | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - capped; lidded; having a cap | капкактуу | | or lid | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - carbonated | газдалган | | | | | 1: (uncarbonated) | 1: (газдалбаган) | | | | | 1а: (without gas) | 1a: (газсыз) | | | | | 2: (strongly carbonated) | 2: (каттуу газдалган) | | | | | 2а: (mediumly carbonated) | 2a: (орточо газдалган) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - cold (for liquids) | муздак | | | | | 1: (ice-cold) | 1: (мөңгүлүү) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - concentrate; from | концентрацияланган | | concentrate | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - concentrate; from | коюлтулган | | concentrate; | | | | | | > condensed (milk) | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - confectionary | конд[и]{.ul}тердик | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - cooked (food) | бышкан | | | | | 1: (uncooked; unripe) | 1: (бышпаган) | | | | | 2: (boiled \[dish\]; hard boiled | 2: (сууга бышкан) | | \[egg\]) | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - cooking; used for cooking | бышыруучу | | purposes | | | | 1: (нан бышыруучу) | | > (*вино, ун)* | | | | | | 1: (intended for the baking of | | | bread; | | | | | | *хлебопек[а]{.ul}рный*) | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - corked (bottle existing in | оозу тыгындалган түрдө\ | | the state of being corked) | (*Ачылгандан\...3 суткадан ашык | | | эмес убакыт сактоо керек.)* | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - creamy | каймактуу | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - creamy (filled with crème); | кремдүү | | cream-filled | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - crunchy | кырсылдак | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - crushed; finely chopped up | талкаланган | | (nuts) | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ **Тамак-aшы жана cуусундуктары XXX** +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | **Сын Атоочтор жана Тактоочтор** | | +==================================+==================================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - culinary | кулин[а]{.ul}рдык | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - cured (meat) | сүрсүтүлгөн | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - dairy; milk-giving (cow) | саан | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - delicious; tasty; | даамдуу | | flavourful\* | | | | 1: (даамсыз) | | 1: (without flavour; tasteless) | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - delicious; tasty; | татымдуу | | flavourful\* | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - deodorized | жытсыздандырылган | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - deodorized | жыты келтирилген | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - describing a place not | суусуз | | equipped with running water | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - describing someone who likes | тамаксоо | | to eat a lot | | | | 1: (соргок) | | 1: (describing one who eats a | | | lot but does not | | | | | | much else; coach-potatoey) | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - dessert (wine) | дес[е]{.ul}рттик | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - diet (food, soda, etc) | диеталык | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - dietary; nutritional | азык | | | | | 1: (nutritional \[information\]) | 1: (азыктык) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - disgusting\* | жийиркеничтүү | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - double (shot, i.e. of | кош | | espresso) | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - dried; dried out; dry (wine) | кургак | | | | | 1: (semi-dry) | 1: (жартылай кургак) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - eggy; made of egg | жумурткалуу | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - enriched | байытылган | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - fatty; greasy; buttery | майлуу | | | | | 1: (non-fatty; ungreased; | 1: (майсыз) | | without butter) | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - filtered | чыпкаланган | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - flavoured | *(+nom)* даамы менен | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - flavoured | *(+ gen)* даамын берген | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - flavoured | *(+ nom)* ароматаштырылган | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - flavoured | *(+nom)* даамданган | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - fresh\* | св[е]{.ul}жый | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - fried; roasted (nut); | куурулган | | sautéed | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - frozen (food) | тондурулган | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - fructose (attributive; | фруктозалуу | | containing) | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - fruity; containing fruit | жемиштүү | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - glazed | глазурдуу/глазурлуу | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - glazed; covered with...\* | капталган | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - describing somone who loves | чайчыл | | tea | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - glutenous; containing gluten | глют[е]{.ul}ндүү (*дан | | | азыктары*) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ **Тамак-aшы жана cуусундуктары XXXI** +-----------------------------------------+---------------------------+ | **Сын Атоочтор жана Тактоочтор** | | +=========================================+===========================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | +-----------------------------------------+---------------------------+ | - grainy; attributive of grain; | дандуу | | | | | > containing grains | 1: (м[у]{.ul}льтидандуу) | | | | | 1: (multi-grain) | | +-----------------------------------------+---------------------------+ | - granulated | гранул | +-----------------------------------------+---------------------------+ | - granulated | майда тоголок | +-----------------------------------------+---------------------------+ | - granulated | тоголоктошкон | +-----------------------------------------+---------------------------+ | - grape (flavoured or containing) | жүзүмдүү | +-----------------------------------------+---------------------------+ | - healthy (food, eating habits) | пайдалуу | +-----------------------------------------+---------------------------+ | - heated (plate, food) | ысытылган | +-----------------------------------------+---------------------------+ | - heavy; filling; *deftig* food | оор | +-----------------------------------------+---------------------------+ | - herbivorous | чөп жеүү | +-----------------------------------------+---------------------------+ | - home-made; food tasting of home | үйдөгүдөй | +-----------------------------------------+---------------------------+ | - hungry\* (attributive) | ачка | | | | | 1: (not hungry) | 1: (ток) | +-----------------------------------------+---------------------------+ | - hydrogenated | гидрогениз[и]{.ul}рленген | +-----------------------------------------+---------------------------+ | - hydrogenated | гидролизделген | +-----------------------------------------+---------------------------+ | - hydrogenated; partially | суутек азайтылган | | hydrogenated | | +-----------------------------------------+---------------------------+ | - inedible | желбес | +-----------------------------------------+---------------------------+ | - irrigated (i.e. field) | сугарма | +-----------------------------------------+---------------------------+ | - juicy | соктуу | +-----------------------------------------+---------------------------+ | - juicy\* | ширелүү | +-----------------------------------------+---------------------------+ | - layered (cake, samsy, etc) | слоённый | +-----------------------------------------+---------------------------+ | - leavened | ачытылган | +-----------------------------------------+---------------------------+ | - light (beer) | ачык | +-----------------------------------------+---------------------------+ | - light (food, not over satiating) | жеңил | +-----------------------------------------+---------------------------+ | - liquidy; watery; thin (soup); weak | суюк | | (tea) | | +-----------------------------------------+---------------------------+ | - lukewarm | жылымык | +-----------------------------------------+---------------------------+ | - marinated | маринаддалган | +-----------------------------------------+---------------------------+ | - mild (of flavour, like coffee or | жумшак | | кымыз)\* | | +-----------------------------------------+---------------------------+ | - milky\* | сүттүү | | | | | 1: (without milk; milkless) | 1: (сүтсүз) | +-----------------------------------------+---------------------------+ | - natural (flavour, ingredients) | табигый | +-----------------------------------------+---------------------------+ | - natural (flavour, ingredients) | накта | +-----------------------------------------+---------------------------+ | - natural (flavour, ingredients) | натур[а]{.ul}льный | +-----------------------------------------+---------------------------+ | - natural (flavour, ingredients) | нукура | +-----------------------------------------+---------------------------+ | - nougaty; containing nougat | нугалуу | +-----------------------------------------+---------------------------+ | - orangey; containing oranges | апельс[и]{.ul}ндүү | +-----------------------------------------+---------------------------+ | - organic (food) | орг[а]{.ul}никалык | +-----------------------------------------+---------------------------+ | - pasteurized | пастеризацияланган | +-----------------------------------------+---------------------------+ | - made of berries; describing a plant | мөмөлүү | | that produces berries | | +-----------------------------------------+---------------------------+ | - high-quality (ingredients) | жогорку с[о]{.ul}рттогу | +-----------------------------------------+---------------------------+ | - nutty; containing nuts | жаӊгактуу | +-----------------------------------------+---------------------------+ **Тамак-aшы жана cуусундуктары XXXII** +---------------------------------------+-----------------------------+ | **Сын Атоочтор жана Тактоочтор** | | +=======================================+=============================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | +---------------------------------------+-----------------------------+ | - pasteurized | пастерленген | +---------------------------------------+-----------------------------+ | - perishable | тез бузулган | +---------------------------------------+-----------------------------+ | - perishable | тез бузулуучу | +---------------------------------------+-----------------------------+ | - pertaining to the 3:00 a.m. | зоордук | | pre-fast meal during Ramadan \~\> | | +---------------------------------------+-----------------------------+ | - possessing koumiss;\ | кымыздуу | | describing a location where | | | koumiss is \~\> | | +---------------------------------------+-----------------------------+ | - potable | ичүүчү | +---------------------------------------+-----------------------------+ | - potable | ичилүүчү | +---------------------------------------+-----------------------------+ | - preserved; canned | консерваланган | +---------------------------------------+-----------------------------+ | - puffed (rice); airated (chips) | көпшөк | +---------------------------------------+-----------------------------+ | - purified | тазартылган | +---------------------------------------+-----------------------------+ | - raw (meat); unripe (fruit) | чийки | +---------------------------------------+-----------------------------+ | - refreshing | сергүү | +---------------------------------------+-----------------------------+ | - ripe (fruit) | бышык | +---------------------------------------+-----------------------------+ | - roasted; oven-roasted | дух[о]{.ul}вкага бышырылган | +---------------------------------------+-----------------------------+ | - ruffled (chips) | толкун сымал | +---------------------------------------+-----------------------------+ | - ruffled (chips) | рифлёные | +---------------------------------------+-----------------------------+ | - ruffled (chips) | буралган | +---------------------------------------+-----------------------------+ | - salty | туздуу | | | | | 1: (unsalted) | 1: (тузсуз) | +---------------------------------------+-----------------------------+ | - saturated (fat) | каныккан | +---------------------------------------+-----------------------------+ | - scented; nice smelling; smelling | жыттуу | | like...\* | | +---------------------------------------+-----------------------------+ | - scrambled (eggs) | чалынып куурулган | +---------------------------------------+-----------------------------+ | - seedless (grape) | данексиз | +---------------------------------------+-----------------------------+ | - selected; choice (i.e. fine | тандалган | | ingredients) | | +---------------------------------------+-----------------------------+ | - selected; choice (i.e. fine | тандамал | | ingredients) | | +---------------------------------------+-----------------------------+ | - selected; choice (i.e. fine | тандалма | | ingredients) | | +---------------------------------------+-----------------------------+ | - shredded; grated | майдаланган | +---------------------------------------+-----------------------------+ | - skim; fat-free (milk) | майсыздандырылган | +---------------------------------------+-----------------------------+ | - skim; fat-free (milk) | майсыздырылган | +---------------------------------------+-----------------------------+ | - small (food and drink portion | чакан | | size) | | +---------------------------------------+-----------------------------+ | - smoked | ышталган | +---------------------------------------+-----------------------------+ | - sour | кычкыл | | | | | 1: (sour, used with apples)\* | 1: (ачуу) | +---------------------------------------+-----------------------------+ | - sparkling (wine) | шуулдап турган | +---------------------------------------+-----------------------------+ | - spicy (hot); bitter; acrid\* | ачуу | +---------------------------------------+-----------------------------+ | - spoiled (milk) | ириген | +---------------------------------------+-----------------------------+ | - spoiled; rotten (browned fruit, | чириген | | potato) | | +---------------------------------------+-----------------------------+ | - spoiled; rotten (food, meat, | бузулган | | general term) | | +---------------------------------------+-----------------------------+ | - pertaining to that which boils | кайнатма | +---------------------------------------+-----------------------------+ **Тамак-aшы жана cуусундуктары XXXIII** +----------------------------------------+----------------------------+ | **Сын Атоочтор жана Тактоочтор** | | +========================================+============================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | +----------------------------------------+----------------------------+ | - spoiled; rotten (browned fruit, | чирик | | potato) | | +----------------------------------------+----------------------------+ | - stale (bread, pastries) | эскирип калган | +----------------------------------------+----------------------------+ | - stinky | сасык | +----------------------------------------+----------------------------+ | - stuffed with... | ... менен толтурулган | +----------------------------------------+----------------------------+ | - sweet\* | таттуу | | | | | 1: (semi-sweet) | 1: (жарым-жартылай таттуу) | +----------------------------------------+----------------------------+ | - sweet\* | ширин | +----------------------------------------+----------------------------+ | - thick (of soup, liquid); viscous; | коюу | | strong (tea/coffee) | | +----------------------------------------+----------------------------+ | - thick (piece/slice) | калың | +----------------------------------------+----------------------------+ | - thick (piece/slice) | жоон | | | | | 1: (thick \[especially used for | 1: (жалпак) | | noodles\]) | | +----------------------------------------+----------------------------+ | - thin (piece/slice) | ичке | +----------------------------------------+----------------------------+ | - thin (piece/slice) | жука | +----------------------------------------+----------------------------+ | - toasted | кургатылган | +----------------------------------------+----------------------------+ | - vanilla; containing vanilla | ван[и]{.ul}лдүү | +----------------------------------------+----------------------------+ | - vegetarian (adj); meatless | этсиз | +----------------------------------------+----------------------------+ | - vitamin-rich | витаминдүү | | | | | 1: (vitamin-enriched) | 1: (витаминдештирилген) | +----------------------------------------+----------------------------+ | - waffle (cone); coming wrapped in | вафлиденген | | waffles\* | | +----------------------------------------+----------------------------+ | - warmed up; heated | жылытылган | +----------------------------------------+----------------------------+ | - whole (milk) | ынак | +----------------------------------------+----------------------------+ | - stuffed | фаршталган | +----------------------------------------+----------------------------+ **Тамак-aшы жана cуусундуктары XXXIV** [Notes on Adjectives and Adverbs Relating to Food and Beverage]{.ul} \**Даамдуу* is much more used than the now rare *татымдуу.* \**Даамы жок,* literally "no taste," is a more colloquial way of saying that some food tastes bad or is disgusting. \**Св[е]{.ul}жий* is Russian. In pure Kyrgyz *жаӊы* (new) can be used to describe the freshness of food, but the Russian is more common. \*What the sweet is glazed with precedes the adjective in nominative: *шокол[а]{.ul}д капталган*. *\*Ачка* is used attributively, such as a "hungry look" or "hungry person." To be hungry uses another phrase: A possessed form of the word *курсак* (stomach) and the past tense verb *ачты* (became open). *Менин курсагым ачты = I'm hungry.* Another way to say this is by saying *Мен ачмын.* \**Ширелүү* can also mean "containing the juice of:" *Алма ширелүү суусундук*. *\*Cүттүү* can also be used to describe a cow that produces a lot of milk. \**Жумшак* (mild) and *ачуу* (strong) are antonyms when describing the strength of kymyz. *Ачуу* in its most literal meaning is "spicy". With food, however, it can be used whenever the flavour, regarless o what the flavour actually is, is strong. So, when you taste something that's very salty, you can also say *ачуу.* \*What something smells like is +*nom жыттуу: алма жыттуу =* smelling like apples. \*Both *таттуу* and *ширин* lexically and connotatively synonymous with each other. Таттуу, however, is more often used. \**Вафлиденген*, as per my counterpart, isn't really said and is an over-Kyrgyzisation. But I really like this word, so I included it in the tables. **\ ** **Тамак-aшы жана cуусундуктары XXXV** [Other Adjectives and Adverbs Pertaining to Food and Beverage]{.ul} \*Normally to say that something is "...flavoured", a noun food term is used adjectivally. The modified noun exhibits 3^rd^ person possessed genitive morphology. \- *алма* = apple (made from or flavoured; *алма согу* = apple juice) \- *анан[а]{.ul}с* = pineapple (made from or flavoured) \- *арпа* = barley (made from or flavoured) \- *бан[а]{.ul}н* = banana (made from or flavoured) \- *бискв[и]{.ul}т =* made from sponge cake \- *буудай* = wheat (made from) \* *кара буудай* = rye (made from) (*кара буудай уну =* rye wheat flour) \- *глюк[о]{.ul}за* = glucose (made from) (*глюк[о]{.ul}за сир[о]{.ul}бу*) \- *жалбыз =* mint (flavoured or made from) \- *жашылча-жемиш* = pertaining to both frutis and vegetables (...*совхозу*) \- *жумуртка* = egg (made from or containing) \- *жүгөрү* = corn (made from) \- *заапаран* = saffron (flavoured or made from) \- *й[о]{.ul}гурт* = yogurt (made from or flavoured) (*й[о]{.ul}гурт азыгы = yogurt product)* \- *камкаймак =* containing processed cream (*камкаймак балмуздагы)* \- *кант* = sugar (made from or containing or flavoured) \- *карам[е]{.ul}ль* = caramel (made from or flavoured) \- *кл[ю]{.ul}ква* = cranberry (made from or flavoured) \- *к[о]{.ul}коа* = cocoa (made from) (*кокоа күкүмү = cocoa powder*) \- *кок[о]{.ul}с* = coconut (made from or flavoured) \- *крев[е]{.ul}тка* = shrimp (flavoured) \- *кулпунай* = strawberry (made from or flavoured) \- *күн карама* = sunflower (made from or containing) \- *күрүч* = rice (made from) \- *лим[о]{.ul}н* = lemon (made from or containing or flavoured) \- *макар[о]{.ul}н =* pasta (made from) (*макар[о]{.ul}н азыктары* = pasta goods) \- *м[а]{.ul}нгo* = mango (made from or flavoured) \- *өрүк* = apricot (made from or flavoured) \- *папр[и]{.ul}ка =* paprika (made from or flavoured) (*папр[и]{.ul}ка порош[о]{.ul}гу =* paprika powder) \- *пияз* = onion (made from or flavoured (*пияз порош[о]{.ul}гу =* onion powder) \- *сарымсак* = garlic (made from or flavoured (*сарымсак порош[о]{.ul}гу =* garlic powder) \- *с[о]{.ul}я* = soy (made from or flavoured) \- *сыр =* cheese (made from or flavoured) (*сыр с[оу]{.ul}су =* cheese sauce) \- *сүт* = milk (made from or flavoured) \- *тапи[о]{.ul}ка* = tapioca (made from or flavoured) \- *тери[я]{.ul}ки* = teriyaki (flavoured) \- *том[а]{.ul}т* = tomato (made from tomato paste or canned tomatoes)\ (*Хайнц том[а]{.ul}т к[е]{.ul}тчупу* = Heinz tomato ketchup) \- *чай* = pertaining to tea (*чай кашык*) \- *шишкебек =* pertaining to shish-kabobs or shish-kabob flavoured (*\...даамы менен*) \- *шокол[а]{.ul}д* = chocolate (made from or flavoured) Other times, nouns are used attributively as adjectives: \- *танд[ы]{.ul}р* = tandoori: *танд[ы]{.ul}р нан* \- *тамак сиңирүү* = digestive: *тамак сиңирүү орг[а]{.ul}ндары* **Тамак-aшы жана cуусундуктары XXXVI** \*The suffix --*сз* is added to food terms indicating that a product is free from that ingredient: \- *алкголсуз* = alcohol-free; non-alcoholic \- *боёгучсуз =* with no added or artificial colouring \- *ичимдиксиз* = alcohol-free; non-alcoholic\ - *консервантсыз* = no preservatives; preservative-free \- *коргогучсуз* = no preservatives; preservative-free \*In Kyrgyz, Russian adjectival morphology is used when describing the type of *тамак*: *Кит[а]{.ul}йский тамак* -- Chinese food; Chinese cuisine. \*When it comes to food, Kyrgyz uses different colour words from English. *Көк* is used for "green" in cooking terms: *көк пияз* = green onion, *көк чай* = green tea, *көк буурчак =* green pea, and *көк алма* = green apple*. Кызыл чай* is used for 'black tea,' although *кара* is often said too. \**Чайкаган* is a term that describes very good quality koumiss. \**Ашкана* can be used with a noun in 3^rd^ person genitive morphology to mean "table," like table salt. This can apply to anything suitable for consumption: *ашкана суусу*. It is also the attibutive adjective for "kitchen," such as *kitchen stove = ашкана пл[и]{.ul}тасы.* \**Эттүү* literally means "meaty," but when applied to animals, it means having a lot of meat (i.e., it's been fattened up and is ready to go). \**Баштыктуу* *чай* refers to tea that is sold in little pouches/tea bags rather than loose-leaf. \*Wine (*вин[о]{.ul}/шарап*) can be *ак* (white) or *кызыл* (red). \*The adjective *жайпак* is used specifically with plates (*табак/тар[е]{.ul}лка*) to describe one that is big and flat. \*Dish name in genitive + ingredient quality + *аз экен* means "There's not enough ... in it."\ *Сорпонун тузу аз экен =* There's not enough salt in the soup. \**Барс-барс* is an adverb used in conjunction with the verb *чайна* (to chew) which means to crunch and chew loudly: *Алманы барс-барс чайноо*. \*A term that adequately captures the nuances of "ovenfresh" does not exist in Kyrygz. To describe bread or pastries that are still hot from the oven, *жаңы*, *жаңы жапкан*, or *ысык* can be used **\ ** **Тамак-aшы жана cуусундуктары XXXVII** +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | **Этиштер** | | | | +================+================+================+================+ | **Англис | **Этиштин | **Инфинитив** | **Жөндөмө жана | | Тили** | Уңгусу** | | Эскертүүлөр** | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to add | кош- | кошуу | Takes nom/acc | | | | | for item and | | (ingredients) | 1: (сал-) | 1: (салуу) | dat. for what | | | | | it's being | | 1: (to add | | | added to | | \[powered | | | | | | | | 1: (Takes | | things, i.e. | | | nom/acc for | | | | | item and dat. | | sugar/salt\]) | | | for what it's | | | | | being added | | | | | to) | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to bake | (нан) жап- | (нан) жабуу | Takes nom/acc | | (bread) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to be | сууса- | суусоо | Usually in | | thirsty\* | | | past tense | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to beat | чал- | чалуу | Takes nom/acc | | eggs | | | | | | 1: (чалынып | 1: (чалынып | 1: (Takes | | 1: (to | кууру-) | кууруу) | nom/acc) | | scramble) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to bite | тиште- | тиштөө | Takes nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to boil | кайна- | кайноо | Intransitive | | (be | | | reflexive | | boiling) | / | / | | | | | | / | | > / | кайнат- | кайнатуу | | | > | | | Takes nom/acc | | > to boil;\ | | | | | > to make | | | | | > tea\* | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to break | сындыр- | сындыруу | Takes nom/acc | | bread | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | (эмчек) эм- | (эмчек) эмүү | Infant is the | | breastfeed | | | subject | | | / | / | | | > / | | | / | | > | (эмчек) эмиз- | эмизүү | | | > to | | | Note that the | | > breastfeed | 1: (эмчек | 1: (эмчек | word 'breast' | | > (trans) | чыгар-) | чыгаруу) | is in | | | | | possessed | | 1: (to ween) | | | accusative | | | | | case and the | | | | | child is in | | | | | dative. Mother | | | | | is the subject | | | | | | | | | | 1: (Child in | | | | | nom/acc) | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to brew | чыгар- | чыгаруу | Takes nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to burn | күйгүз- | күйгүзүү | Takes nom/acc; | | food | | | often seen in | | | | | п калыптыр | | | | | form due to | | | | | unpleasant | | | | | surprise | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to carve | жиликте- | жиликтөө | Takes nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to chew | чайна- | чайноо | Takes nom/acc | | | | | | | 1: (to chew | 1: (кепше-) | 1: (кепшөө) | 1: (Takes | | \[cud, | | | nom/acc) | | | | | | | cow's | | | | | chewing\]) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to chop; | туура- | тууроо | Takes nom/acc | | to mince | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to churn | (май) быш- | (май) бышуу | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to clarify | сызгыр- | сызгыруу | Takes nom/acc | | (butter); | | | | | to melt | | | | | (fat) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to cork | тыгында- | тыгындоо | Bottle, etc is | | | | | in nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ **Тамак-aшы жана cуусундуктары XXXVIII** +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | **Этиштер** | | | | +================+================+================+================+ | **Англис | **Этиштин | **Инфинитив** | **Жөндөмө жана | | Тили** | Уңгусу** | | Эскертүүлөр** | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to clean | тазала- | тазалоо | Takes nom/acc | | | | | | | (veggies);\ | | | | | to peel | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | к | к | Takes nom/acc | | | онцентрацияла- | онцентрациялоо | | | concentrate | | | | | a solution | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to cool | музда- | муздоо | Intransitive | | (reflex) | | | | | | / | / | / | | > / | | | | | > | муздат- | муздатуу | Takes nom/acc | | > to cool down | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to crack | чак- | чагуу | Takes nom/acc | | (a nut) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to crunch\ | кырсылда- | кырсылдоо | Intransitive | | (chips, | | | | | etc) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to crush;\ | талкала- | талкалоо | Takes nom/acc | | to chop up | | | | | (nut) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to cure | сүрсүт- | сүрсүтүү | Takes nom/acc | | (meat) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | жытсыздандыр- | жытсыздандыруу | Takes nom/acc | | deodorize | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | жыты келтир- | жыты келтирүү | Жыты can be in | | deodorize | | | possessed acc | | | | | case | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to digest; | сиңир- | сиңирүү | Takes nom/acc | | | | | | | > to absorb\* | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to drain | сарык- | сарыгуу | Intransitive | | (intrans) | | | | | | / | / | / | | > / | | | | | > | сарыктыр- | сарыктыруу | Takes nom/acc | | > to drain | | | | | > (trans); | | | | | > | | | | | > to unclog | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to drink\* | ич- | ичүү | Takes nom/acc; | | | | | also partitive | | 1: (to | 1: (ичир-) | 1: (ичирүү) | may be used | | cause/force to | | | | | | | | 1: (Drink in | | drink) | | | nom/acc; | | | | | | | | | | person in | | | | | dative) | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to drip; | тамчыла- | тамчылоо | Intrans | | | | | | | > to fall in | | | | | > drops | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to eat | *+nom* менен | *+nom* менен | Object | | | тамактан- | тамактануу | followed by | | 1: (to feed) | | | менен | | | 1: | 1: | | | 1a: (to give | (тамактандыр-) | ( | 1: (To | | grass/hay | | тамактандыруу) | person/animal | | | 1a: (чөп сал-) | | | | to animals) | | 1: (чөп салуу) | in dative; | | | | | object in | | | | | | | | | | acc) | | | | | | | | | | 1a: (Animal in | | | | | dative) | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to eat | же- | же | Takes nom/acc; | | | | | also partitive | | | | | may be used | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to enrich | байыт- | байытуу | Takes nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to filter | чыпкала- | чыпкалоо | Takes nom/acc | | (liquid) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ **Тамак-aшы жана cуусундуктары XXXIX** +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | **Этиштер** | | | | +================+================+================+================+ | **Англис | **Этиштин | **Инфинитив** | **Жөндөмө жана | | Тили** | Уңгусу** | | Эскертүүлөр** | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to finish\ | аякта- | аяктоо | *Анын даамы | | (said of | | | жибектей | | wine) | | | жумшак | | | | | аяктайт.* | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to froth; | көбүктө- | көбүктөө | Intransitive | | to foam | | | Reflexive | | | / | / | | | > / | | | / | | > | көбүктүр | көбүктүрүү | | | > to cause to | | | Transitive | | > become | | | | | > frothy or | | | | | > foamy | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to fry | кууру- | кууруу | Takes nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to get | ысы- | ысуу | Intransitive | | hot;\ | | | Reflexive | | to be | / | / | | | heating up | | | / | | | ысыт- | ысытуу | | | > / | | | Takes nom/acc | | > | | | | | > to heat up;\ | | | | | > to make hot | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to glaze; | шыба- | шыбоо | Takes nom/acc | | to frost | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to gnaw | кемир- | кемирүү | Takes nom/acc | | (on);\ | | | | | to nibble | | | | | (on) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to go | эскирип кал- | эскирип калуу | Intransitive | | stale | | | reflexive | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | тоголоктош- | тоголоктошуу | | | granulate | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to grate; | майдала- | майдалоо | Takes nom/acc | | to shred | | | | | | | | | | (chocolate; | | | | | cheese) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to graze | отто- | оттоо | Takes nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to grease | майла- | майлоо | Takes nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | курулда- | курулдоо | Often in | | grumble;\ | | | progressive | | to rumble | | | курулдап жат- | | (stomach) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to harvest | түшүм жыйна- | түшүм жыйноо | "Harvest" in | | | | | nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to heat; | жылыт- | жылытуу | Takes nom/acc | | | | | | | > to warm up | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | суутек азайт- | суутек азайтуу | Food/acid/oil | | | | | in loc. | | hydrogenate | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to knead\* | жуур- | жууруу | Takes nom/acc | | | | | | | > (1^st^ | 1: (ийле) | 1: (ийлөө) | 1: (Takes | | > stage) | | | nom/acc) | | | | | | | 1: (to knead | | | | | \[2^nd^\]) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to lay the | үстөлдү/столду | үстөлдү/столду | Takes nom/acc | | table;\ | даярда- | даярдоо | | | to set the | | | 1: (Set | | table | 1: (дaсторкон | 1: (досторкон | phrase) | | | жай-) | жаюу) | | | 1: (to prepare | | | | | the | | | | | | | | | | tablecloth;\ | | | | | to lay the | | | | | table) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to clink; | кагыш-\ | кагышуу | Intransitive | | to clang | /\ | | reflexive | | (of dishes | кагыштыр- | / | | | knocking | | | / | | against | | кагыштыруу | | | each | | | Technically | | other)\ | | | can take | | /\ | | | nom/acc, but | | to klink | | | usually just | | glasses | | | seen in phrase | | together | | | *кагыштырып | | before | | | ич-* | | drinking | | | | | as sign of | | | | | | | | | | well-wishing;\ | | | | | to cheers | | | | | one | | | | | another\* | | | | | \~\> | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ **Тамак-aшы жана cуусундуктары XL** +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | **Этиштер** | | | | +================+================+================+================+ | **Англис | **Этиштин | **Инфинитив** | **Жөндөмө жана | | Тили** | Уңгусу** | | Эскертүүлөр** | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to let | муздат- | муздатуу | Takes nom/acc | | rest | | | | | (dough);\ | | | | | to let | | | | | cool | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to lick | жала- | жалоо | Takes nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to lid; to | капкакта- | капкактоо | Takes nom/acc | | cap;\ | | | | | to put a | | | | | lid on\* | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to light | күйгүз- | күйгүзүү | *плитка in | | (stove) | | | accusative* | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to make | бышыр- | бышыруу | Takes nom/acc | | food; | | | | | | | | | | > to prepare | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to make | (тамак) жаса- | (тамак) жасоо | Takes nom/acc | | food;\ | | | | | to prepare | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to make | чай кой- | чай коюу | Takes nom/acc | | tea | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | маринадда- | маринаддоо | Takes nom/acc | | marinate | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to mash | жанч-/жанчы- | жанчуу | Takes nom/acc | | | | | | | (potatoes);\ | | | | | to | | | | | tenderize | | | | | (meat) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to mix | чыла- | чылоо | Thing mixing | | something | | | takes nom/acc; | | into | | | thing mixing | | something | | | in takes | | | | | dative | | | | | | | | | | Суусундукка уу | | | | | чыла | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to mix; to | аралаштыр- | аралаштыруу | Takes nom/acc | | stir | | | | | | 1: (үстү алдын | 1: (үстү алдын | 1: (Takes | | 1: (to toss | | | nom/acc) | | \[salad\]) | аралаштыр-) | аралаштыруу) | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to nourish | азыктан- | азыктануу | Intrans | | oneself | | | reflexive | | | / | / | | | > / | | | / | | > | азыктандыр- | азыктандыруу | | | > to nourish | | | Takes nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to order\ | буйр | буйр | Takes nom/acc | | | утма/тапшырык/ | утма/тапшырык/ | | | (restaurant)\* | | | | | | зак[а]{.ul}з | зак[а]{.ul}з | | | | кыл- | кылуу | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to order\ | буйр | буйр | Takes nom/acc | | | утма/тапшырык/ | утма/тапшырык/ | | | (restaurant)\* | | | | | | зак[а]{.ul}з | зак[а]{.ul}з | | | | бер- | берүү | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to pair | ...менен | \...менен | Set phrase | | well with | (абдан) туура | (абдан) туура | | | (like wine | кел- | келүү | | | and | | | | | cheese) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to pass | бер- | берүү | Takes | | (food) | | | nom/acc;\ | | | | | usually in | | | | | command берип | | | | | кой. | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | п | п | Takes nom/acc | | pasteurize | астеризацияла- | астеризациялоо | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to peel | аарчы- | аарчуу | Takes nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ **Тамак-aшы жана cуусундуктары XLI** +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | **Этиштер** | | | | +================+================+================+================+ | **Англис | **Этиштин | **Инфинитив** | **Жөндөмө жана | | Тили** | Уңгусу** | | Эскертүүлөр** | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | ачы- | ачуу | Intransitive | | pickle;\ | | | reflexive | | to ferment | / | / | | | | | | *Камыр 1 | | > /\ | ачыт- | ачытуу | саатта ачыйт.* | | > to make | | | | | > sour;\ | | | / | | > to leaven | | | | | | | | Takes nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to pinch | жармаштыр- | жармаштыруу | Takes nom/acc | | (dough) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to pinch | түй- | түйүү | Takes nom/acc | | (dough) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to pour | куй- | куюу | Takes nom/acc | | | | | | | 1: (to water) | 1: (суу куй-) | 1: (суу куюу) | 1: (Takes | | | | | dative) | | 2: (to water;\ | 2: (сугар-) | 2: (сугаруу) | | | to irrigate) | | | 3: (Takes | | | 3: (төк-) | 3: (төгүү) | nom/acc for | | 3: (to pour | | | | | out) | 3a: (төгүп | 3: (төгүп | liquid being | | | куй-) | куюу)) | | | 3а: (to pour | | | poured out) | | the first | | | | | | | | 3а: (Takes | | bit of tea | | | nom/acc) | | back | | | | | | | | | | into the | | | | | teapot | | | | | | | | | | and pour | | | | | again) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to prepare | даярда- | даярдоо | Takes nom/acc | | (food) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | консервала- | консервалоо | Takes nom/acc | | preserve; | | | | | to can | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to put a | көмөрүп кой- | көмөрүп коюу | Takes nom/acc | | drinking | | | | | vessel lip | | | | | or brim | | | | | down | | | | | | | | | | > *(such as | | | | | > when putting | | | | | > it in | | | | | > cupboard)* | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to reserve | ээлеп кой- | ээлеп коюу | Takes nom/acc | | (table) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to ripen\* | быш- | бышуу | Takes nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to roll; | жай- | жаюу | Takes nom/acc | | to flatten | | | | | (dough) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to roll; | үбөлүктө- | үбөлүктөө | Takes nom/acc | | to flatten | | | | | (dough) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to salt | тузда- | туздоо | Takes nom/acc | | | | | | | 1: (to become | 1: (тузсуздан- | 1: | 1: | | | | (тузсуздануу | (Intransitive | | desalinated | / | | Reflex | | | | / | | | /\ | тузсуздандыр-) | | / | | to desalinate) | | т | | | | | узсуздандыруу) | Takes nom/acc) | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to scrape | тырма- | тырмоо | Takes nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ **Тамак-aшы жана cуусундуктары XLII** +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | **Этиштер** | | | | +================+================+================+================+ | **Англис | **Этиштин | **Инфинитив** | **Жөндөмө жана | | Тили** | Уңгусу** | | Эскертүүлөр** | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to season | татымал сал- | татымал салуу | To food in | | food | | | dative | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to season | татымал кош- | татымал кошуу | To food in | | food | | | dative | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to shake | чайка- | чайкоо | Takes nom/acc | | (liquid) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to sift | эле- | элөө | Takes nom/acc | | | | | | | 1: (to sift | 1: (калбырда-) | 1: (калбырдоо) | 1: (Takes | | using a large | | | nom/acc) | | | | | | | grain sifter) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to slice; | кес- | кесүү | Takes nom/acc | | to cut;\ | | | | | to chop | 1: (төрт чарчы | 1: (төрт чарчы | 1: (Takes | | | кес-) | кесүү) | nom/acc) | | 1: (to dice; | | | | | to cube) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | тамшан- | тамшануу | Intransitive | | smack/lick | | | | | one's | / | / | / | | lips;\ | | | | | to eat or | тамшандыр- | тамшандыруу | Takes nom/acc | | drink with | | | | | pleasure | | | | | | | | | | > /\ | | | | | > to make | | | | | > someone | | | | | > smack their | | | | | > lips\* | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to smell | жытта- | жыттоо | Takes nom/acc | | (trans) | | | | | | / | / | Гүлдөрдү | | > / | | | жыттып жатам. | | > | жыттан- | жыттануу | | | > to smell | | | / | | > (reflexive) | | | | | | | | Даамдуу | | | | | жыттанат! = It | | | | | smells good! | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to smoke | ышта- | ыштоо | Takes nom/acc | | (meat) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to spoil | бузул- | бузулуу | Intransitive | | (meat);\ | | | reflexive | | to go bad | 1: (ири-) | 1: (ирүү) | | | | | | 1: | | 1: (to spoil; | 2: (чири-) | 2: (чирүү) | (Intransitive | | to go bad | | | | | | | | reflexive) | | \[milk\]) | | | | | | | | 2: | | 2: (to spoil; | | | (Intranstive | | to go bad; | | | | | | | | reflexive) | | to rot | | | | | \[fruit, | | | | | | | | | | veggie, | | | | | fish\]) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to spoon | кашыкта- | кашыктоо | Takes nom/acc; | | | | | for person in | | | | | dative | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to spread | сыйпа- | сыйпоо | Takes nom/acc | | | | | | | > (i.e. | | | | | > butter) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | сеп- | сепүү | Takes nom/acc | | sprinkle | | | | | | | | | | > (water; | | | | | > spice) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | чач- | чачуу | Takes nom/acc | | sprinkle | | | | | | | | | | > (water only) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to steam | демде- | демдөө | Takes nom/acc | | | | | | | 1: (to make | 1: (чай | 1: (чай | 1: (Takes | | tea) | демде-) | демдөө) | nom/acc) | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to stretch | чой- | чоюу | Takes nom/acc | | dough | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to stuff | толтур- | толтуруу | Takes | | | | | nom/acc;\ | | 1: (to stuff | 1: (фаршта-) | 1: (фарштоо) | with - менен | | | | | | | \[with meat\]) | | | 1: (Takes | | | | | nom/acc) | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ **Тамак-aшы жана cуусундуктары XLIII** +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | **Этиштер** | | | | +================+================+================+================+ | **Англис | **Этиштин | **Инфинитив** | **Жөндөмө жана | | Тили** | Уңгусу** | | Эскертүүлөр** | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to suck | сор- | соруу | Takes nom/acc | | | | | | | 1: (to suck | 1: (соруп ал-) | 1: (соруп | 1: (Takes | | dry) | | алуу) | nom/acc) | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to swallow | жут- | жутуу | Takes nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to take a | ал- | алуу | Takes nom/acc | | shot | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to take | ала кет- | ала кетүү | Takes | | out | | | nom/acc;\ | | (food);\ | | | From place in | | to take | | | abl | | away | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to taste | даамда- | даамдоо | Takes nom/acc | | | | | | | 1: (to try | 1: (даамдап | 1: (даамдап | 1: (Takes | | \[food\];\ | көр-) | көрүү) | nom/acc) | | to taste) | | | | | | / | / | / | | > / | | | | | > | даамдан- | даамдануу | Nom. for what | | > to taste | | | tastes like; | | > | | | used with | | > (*of...; | | | adjectives | | > good*) | | | too. | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to toast | кургат- | кургатуу | Takes nom/acc | | (bread) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to try | тат- | татуу | Takes nom/acc | | (food); | | | | | | 1: (татып | 1: (татып | 1: (Takes | | > to taste | көр-) | көрүү) | nom/acc; no | | | | | | | 1: (to try | | | real | | (food); | | | difference | | | | | | | to taste) | | | between adding | | | | | | | | | | helping verb | | | | | | | | | | *көрүү* or | | | | | not) | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to try | жеп көр- | жеп көрүү | Takes nom/acc | | (food); | | | | | | | | | | > to taste | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to try | ооз тий- | ооз тийүү | Takes nom/acc | | (food); | | | | | | 1: (ооз | 1: (ооз | 1: (Takes | | > to taste\* | тийгиз-) | тийгизүү) | nom/acc for | | | | | | | 1: (to give | | | food; person | | someone | | | in dat; | | | | | | | something to | | | lit: to make | | try) | | | | | | | | someone try) | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ **Тамак-aшы жана cуусундуктары XLIV** > [Notes on Verbs Pertaining to Food and Beverage]{.ul} \*The past tense is mainly used to say that one is thirsty: *Суусадым* = I'm thirsty. \*This notion of dishes klinking against each other leads a Kyrgyz superstition:\ *Идиш-аяк кагышат, аял-эркек урушат. =* If the dishes are making klinking noises, then the wife and husband are fighting. \*Oddly enough, the verb "to drink" may be used with meals as well: *Тамак ич-; Кечки тамак ич-.* Note that this is a general meaning only (used for to eat food or to eat a meal, like lunch or dinner), but if a specific food item is being mentioned, *же-* (to eat) must be used. *Чай ич-,* literally "drinking tea," is a means of socialization in Krygyzstan. If one is invited to drink tea, multiple hours could be spent just chatting. \**Жуур* refers to the first step of mixing/kneading the dough together until the mush turns into one sticky clump. *Ийле-* is the verb that describes the next step in the kneading process: actually working it with your fists. \**Бул мен берген буйрутма эмес го =* This isn't what I ordered. \*According to my host mother, *капкакта-* isn't really used (she'd never heard of it before); a better variant is *капкак(ты) жап*-. \**Тамшан-* is a verb which primarily means "to eat or drink with pleasure." *\ Тамшанып ич/же-* means "to eat or drink with pleasure" (often involving smacking or licking lips and going "mmmmm"). *Тамшандыр-* means "to make one do this action." \*If one must turn down an invitation to stay and eat a meal with someone, then they are at the very least expected to *нан ооз тий:* to tear off a small bite of bread to eat on their way out. \**Быш*- also has a general meaning of "to be ready" with cooked foods: *Манты бышты*. = The manty are ready; I cooked manty. *Кайна-* has this meaning for tea: *Чай кайнады* = Tea is ready. **Тамак-aшы жана cуусундуктары XLV** [Other Verbs Pertaining to Food and Beverage]{.ul} \*The passive verb *керектелет* means "to be needed" (used with ingredients in receipes). \**Чабыштыр*- is an interesting verb which means "to pour liquid from one vessel to another in order to cool it down." The word might not be well known, as *муздат*- (to cool down) is more used. \*The verb *той-* means "to be full". It is often used in past tense to express this: *Мен тойдум.*= I'm full; I've eaten my fill. The causative form of this verb is *тойгуз*- and it means "to fill your stomach." *Курсагыңды тойгузуп жакшы туруп тур*. = Make sure you fill your belly. \*Just like in English, the verb *сиңир-* (to digest) can be used metaphorically as "to process some startling or new information." *Бул жаңылыкты сиңиришим керек.* = I have to digest this news. \**(Каф[е]{.ul}ге) кирип чык-* is a phrase used to mean "to go grab a drink (i.e. in a café)." \**Суу чыгар-* means "to dig a well; to dig for water; to look for water underground." \**Чайка*- is a verb which means "to mix in something." The object to which something is being mixed is in dative: *бал/уу чайка*- means to mix some honey in or to poison something. \*There are also special verbs used in order to mean "to make" certain types of traditional or national Kyrgyz food and drinks: \- *айран уют-* = to make *айран.* *- бозо сүз-* = to make *бозо*. \- *жарыма/максым ачыт-* = to make *жарыма/максым.* \- *кымыз чайка-* = to "shake" koumiss, to make good koumiss (in the koumiss making process, the more it is shook, the better the quality). \**Устуканда-* (infinitive: *устукандоо*) means to hold an *устукан* whereby the meat of a slaughtered animal is distributed among friends. \**Чай ичип эле отуруп ал-* is the Kyrygz translation for the Russian "*чаёвничать*" meaning "to sit for a long time over tea; to have a nice cozy cup of tea and just take your time to relax." \**Коомайлат*- means "to set a pot's lid on slightly ajar as to let steam or smoke out." \**Казкак түш-* (often with the helping verb *--п кет*) describes the action of flies or other insects becoming trapped in sticky, sweet food or liquids: *Чымын сары майга казкак түшүп кетти; аны жебейм.* **Тамак-aшы жана cуусундуктары XLVI** [Other Phrases Pertaining to Food and Beverage]{.ul} \**Аш болсун!* is like "Bon appetit", but is said by the preparer of a meal after everyone has eaten. It is the response given once guests thank the preparer for giving them food. To give a wish that someone enjoys their meal before they actually eat is expressed via: *Тамагың(ыз/дар) таттуу болсун!* \**Болду* is used like the English phrase "When" to let someone know to stop pouring a drink. It can be used when someone is serving you food too. \**Омин*, often with the first *o* drawn out, is used to signal the end of a meal. It involves a prayerful positioning of the hands. \**Тамакка кара/караңыз/карагыла/караңыздар* means "help yourself." This can also be expressed by *Кана, оокатка* in the Talas dialect*.* It can also be used for tea: *Чайга карагыла!* \*The unexpected past tense of *болуу, болуптур*, is used to compliment someone on their food: *Рахмат, апа! Кечки тамак абдан даамдуу болуптур*. = Thanks, mom! Dinner was really good! Although the unexpected past is used, which might seem as though it would be a slight, it does not have a negative connotation in Kyrgyz. \*Kyrgyz Proverbs (*Макалдар*) Related to Food and Beverages include: > \- *Бир күнү курсак башынан ашат, бир күнү курсак Кудайга жасат.* =\ > This proverb is similar to the English saying "You never know where > your next meal is > > going to come from." (Literally: One day your stomach will surpass > your head \[i.e. > > become so full of food that it exands a lot\], and one day God will > need to fill your > > stomach). **Тамак-Ашы жана Суусундуктары XLVII** [Food Label Guide]{.ul} Nouns: \- *курам* = ingredients (on labels) \- *даярдалган/өндүрүлгөн күнү/д[а]{.ul}та* = date of production/manufacturing \- *куюлган күнү/д[а]{.ul}та* = date a drink was bottled \- *азыктык кубаттуулугу/азыктык баалуулугу/тамаш-аш баалуулук* = nutritional information \- *сактоо мөөнөтү* = shelf life; period something will keep; expiration date \- *Энергетикалык баалуулугу/ =* *Энергетикалык кубаттуулук\[гу\]/ =* caloric value *Калориялуулук/ =* *Күч-кубат бериши =* *-* *сунушталган суталык керектөө =* recommended daily usage Phrases: \- \...*чейин жарайт/\...чеийн жарактуу/ жарамдуулук мөөнөтү =* Best used by...; Good until... \- *Сактасын \...+abl тан \...+dat чейин* = Store between ... and ... degrees. \- + *Gen калдыктарын камтышы мүмкүн/+Gen издери болушу мүмкүн* = May contain traces of... \- *\...анын ичинде + nom* = from which... *(углеводдор 59 г, анын ичинде кант: 54 г)* \- *Tике тийген күн нурунун таасиринен оолак кармап сактоо керек* =\ Keep out of direct sunlight **\ ** **Жаныбарлары, өсүмдүктөрү жана дененин мүчөлөрү** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - Adam's apple; | коко | Х | | epiglottis | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - airway; | дем алуу жолу | X | | breathing | | | | passage | | (*usually in | | | | plural*) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - algae; random | балдыр | Х | | general term for | | | | water plants | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - alien (from | инопланет[я]{.ul}нин | Already Russian Word | | another planet) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - amoeba | амёба | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - animal\* | жаныбар | Х | | | | | | 1: (pet; | 1: (үй жаныбар) | 1: (Х) | | domesticated animal) | | | | | 2: (сумкалуу | 2: (Х) | | 2: (marsupial) | жаныбар) | | | | | 3: (Х)\ | | 3: (rodent) | 3: (кемиргич) | 4: (Х) | | | | | | 4: (rodent) | 4: (кемирүүчү) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - animal\* | айбан(ат) | Х | | | | | | 1: (pet) | 1: (үй айбан) | 1: (Х) | | | | | | 2: (herbivore) | 2: (чөп жечүү айбан) | 2: (Х) | | | | | | 3: (farm animals; | 3: (мал) | 3: (Х) | | cattle) | | | | | 3a: (бодо мал) | 3a: (Х) | | 3a: (collective term | | | | for large | 3б: (малчылык) | 3б: (Х) | | | | | | farm animals, like | 4: (сүт эмүүчү | 4: (Х) | | cattle, | айбан) | | | | | | | horses, yak, and | | | | camels) | | | | | | | | 3б: (act or | | | | profession of cattle | | | | | | | | hearding) | | | | | | | | 4: (mammal) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - ankle | кызыл ашык | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - ant | кумурска | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - arm; hand | кол | Х | | | | | | 1: (palm) | 1: (алакан) | 1: (Х) | | | | | | 1а: (palm \[Southern | 1a: (шапалак) | 1а: (Х) | | dialect\]) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - armpit | колтук | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - back\* | арка | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - badger | кашкулак | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - bagworm | капчыкчан | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - bamboo | бамб[у]{.ul}к | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - bat | жарганат | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - beak or bill | тумшук | X | | (bird); muzzle | | | | (of canine, | 1: (чымчуу) | 1: (Х) | | pig);\ | | | | trunk (elephant) | 2: (чымчылоо) | 2: (Х) | | | | | | 1: (plucking -- | | | | action a bird | | | | | | | | does of taking | | | | something in | | | | | | | | its beak) | | | | | | | | 2: (plucking -- | | | | action a bird | | | | | | | | does of taking | | | | something in | | | | | | | | its beak) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - bear | аюу | Х | | | | | | 1: (polar bear) | 1: (ак аюу) | 1: (Х) | | | | | | 2: (cub; bear cub) | 2: (мамалак) | 2: (Х) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - beard | сакал | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - beaver | кемчет | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - bedbug | кантала | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - act of mowing or | (чөп) чабуу | Х | | cutting grass | | | | | 1: (чалгы чабуу) | 1: (Х) | | 1: (act of mowing or | | | | cutting | | | | | | | | grass, specifically | | | | with a | | | | | | | | scythe) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - act of binding | тушоо | Х | | the legs of an | | | | animal | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - antenna (of | сезүү канаты | Х | | insect); feeler | | | | | | (usually pl) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - antenna (of | мурутча | Х | | insect); feeler | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Жаныбарлары, өсүмдүктөрү жана дененин мүчөлөрү II** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - bee; bumblebee; | аары | Х | | wasp | | | | | 1: (аарынын мому) | 1: (Х) | | 1: (beeswax) | | | | | 2: (бал аарысы) | 2: (Х) | | 2: (honeybee) | | | | | 3: (жумушчу аары) | 3: (X) | | 3: (worker bee) | | | | | 4: (бал жыйноочу | 4: (X) | | 4: (worker bee) | аары) | | | | | 5: (Х) | | 5: (queen bee) | 5: (эне аары) | | | | | 6: (Х) | | 6: (beehive) | 6: (бал челек) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - beetle | коңуз | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - belly button; | киндик | Х | | naval | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - bile | өт | Х | | | | | | 1: (bile ducts) | 1: (өт жолдору) | 1: (Х) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - biocenosis (how | биоцен[о]{.ul}з | Already Russian Word | | organisms living | | | | in a habitat | | | | interact) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - biological sex | жыныс | Х | | | | | | 1: (gender | 1: (г[е]{.ul}ндер) | 1: (Х) | | \[societal | | | | | | | | performance of one's | | | | sex\]) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - biology | биол[о]{.ul}гия | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (microbiology) | 1: | 1: (Already Russian | | | (м | Word) | | | икробиол[о]{.ul}гия) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - bladder | табарсык | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - blood | кан | Х | | | | | | 1: (blood vessel) | 1: (кан-тамыр) | 1: (Х) | | | | | | 2: (plasma) | 2: | 2: (Already Russian | | | (с[ы]{.ul}воротка) | Word) | | 3: (platelet) | | | | | 3: | 3: (Already Russian | | | (тромбоц[и]{.ul}т) | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - blooming; | гүлдөө | Х | | blossoming | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - body | дене | Х | | | | | | 1: (body image) | 1: (дене түзүлүшү) | 1: (Х) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - body part; organ | мүчө | Х | | | | | | 1: (reproductive | 1: (жыныс\[тык\] | 1: (X) | | organ) | мүчө) | | | | | 1а: (√: | | 1a: (vagina) | 1a: (аялдын жыныс | влаг[а]{.ul}лище) | | | | | | | мүчөсүнүн ичи) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - bone | сөөк | Х | | | | | | 1: (shoulder bone) | 1: (жилик) | 1: (Х) | | | | | | 2: (bone marrow) | 2: (чучук) | 2: (Х) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - brain | мээ | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - breast; boob | эмчек | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - bodily cavity | көӊдөй | X | | | | | | 1: (oral cavity) | 1: (ооз көӊдөйү) | 1: (X) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Жаныбарлары, өсүмдүктөрү жана дененин мүчөлөрү III** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - breed (of dog, | тукум | Х | | etc) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - bridle (for | нокто | Х | | horse or cow) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - bush; bushes; | бадал | Х | | brush | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - butterfly | көпөлөк | Х | | | | | | 1: (moth) | 1: (шайтанкөпөлөк) | 1: (Х) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - buttocks; butt | көчүк | Х | | | | | | 1: (booty | 1: (жамбаш) | 1: (Х) | | \[euphemism\]) | | | | | 2: (көт) | 2: (Х) | | 2: (ass \[rude\]) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cacoon | пилла | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cacoon | жибек түйдөк | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cactus | к[а]{.ul}ктус | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - calf (of leg) | балтыр | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - camel | төө | Х | | | | | | 1: (baby camel) | 1: (бото) | 1: (X) | | | | | | 2: (baby camel) | 2: (тайлак) | 2: (Х) | | | | | | 3: (hump \[camel | 3: (өркөч) | 3: (Х) | | only\]) | | | | | 3а: (нар) | 3а: (Х) | | 3а: (1-humped camel; | | | | | | | | dromedary) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - canola; rapeseed | рапс | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cat | мышык | Х | | | | | | 1: (kitten) | 1: (мый мый) | 1: (Х) | | | | | | 2: (kitten) | 2: (мышыктын баласы) | 2: (Х) | | | | | | 3: (wildcat) | 3: (мадыл) | 3: (Х) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cell | кл[е]{.ul}тка | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (cell structure;\ | 1: (клетканын | 1: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | cell make-up) | түзүлүшү) | Mix) | | | | | | 1a: (lisosome) | 1а: (лизосома) | 1а: () | | | | | | 1б: (cytoplasm) | 1б: (цитоплазма) | 1б: () | | | | | | 1в: (Golgi | 1в: (Гольжи | 1в: () | | apparatus) | аппараты) | | | | | 1г: () | | 1г: (nucleus) | 1г: (ядро) | | | | | 1г^1^: () | | 1г^1^: (nucleolus) | 1г^1^: (ядрочо) | | | | | 1д: () | | 1д: (membrane) | 1д: (мембрана) | | | | | 1е: () | | 1е: (mitochondria) | 1е: (митохондрия) | | | | | 1ё: () | | 1ё: (endoplasmic | 1ё: (эндоплазмалык | | | reticulum) | тор) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - centaur | кент[а]{.ul}вр | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - chameleon | хамел[е]{.ul}он | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cheek; jaw | жаак | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - chest | көкүрөк | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - chest | көөдөн | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - chest; breast | төш | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - bud (of plant, | бүчүр | Х | | flower) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Жаныбарлары, өсүмдүктөрү жана дененин мүчөлөрү IV** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - chimpanzee | шимпанз[е]{.ul} | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - chin | ээк | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - chlorophyll | хлороф[и]{.ul}лл | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - clothes moth | күбө | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - clover (i.e. | чырмоо | Х | | 4-leafed) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cotton (*North | кебез | Х | | dialect)* | | | | | 1: (пахта) | 1: (Х) | | 1: (cotton \[*South | | | | dialect*\]) | 1а: (пахтачылык) | 1а: (Х) | | | | | | 1a: (cotton growing) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cow | уй | Х | | | | | | 1: (cow shed; barn | 1: (уйкана) | 1: (Х) | | where cow | | | | | 2: (музоо) | 2: (Х) | | are kept) | | | | | 2а: (музоокана) | 2а: (Х) | | 2: (calf) | | | | | 3: (бука) | 3: (Х) | | 2a: (calf shed; barn | | | | where | 3а: (өгүз) | 3а: (Х) | | | | | | calves are kept) | 3б: (букачар) | 3б: (Х) | | | | | | 3: (bull) | 4: (кунажын) | 4: (Х) | | | | | | 3a: (castrated bull) | 5: (бада) | 5: (Х) | | | | | | 3б: (young bull) | | | | | | | | 4: (heifer) | | | | | | | | 5: (daily shared | | | | herding of | | | | | | | | neighbour's cows to | | | | | | | | pasture)\* | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - crocodile | крокод[и]{.ul}л | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - crustacean | чаян сыяктуу | √: рак сыяктуу\ | | | | (*Kyrgyz-Russian | | | | Mix*) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - culture (of | культ[у]{.ul}ра | Already Russian Word | | bacteria) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - deer | бугу | X | | (specifically, | | | | female) | 1: (кийик) | 1: (Х) | | | | | | 1: (deer | 2: (элик) | 2: (X) | | \[specifically, | | | | male\]) | | | | | | | | 2: (roe deer) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - den; liar | уюк | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - development | өрчүш | Х | | (i.e. of body) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - dinosaur | диноз[а]{.ul}вр | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (Tyrannosaurus | 1: | 1: (Already Russian | | rex) | (тираноз[а]{.ul}вр) | Word) | | | | | | 2: (Stegosaurus) | 2: | 2: (Already Russian | | | (стегоз[а]{.ul}вр) | Word) | | 3: (Diplodocus | | | | | 3: (диплод[о]{.ul}к) | 3: (Already Russian | | \[cute ones with | | Word) | | long necks\]) | 4: | | | | (трицер[а]{.ul}топс) | 4: (Already Russian | | 4: (Triceratops) | | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - dimple | чуӊкурча | √: [я]{.ul}мочка | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Жаныбарлары, өсүмдүктөрү жана дененин мүчөлөрү V** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - dog | ит | X | | | | | | 1: (puppy) | 1: (күчүк) | 1: (Х) | | | | | | 2: (male dog) | 2: (дөбөт) | 2: (Х) | | | | | | 3: (wolfhound) | 3: (бөрү басар) | 3: (Х) | | | | | | 4: (German shepherd) | 4: (овч[а]{.ul}рка) | 4: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | | 5: (breed of shaggy, | 5: (тайган) | | | | | 5: () | | greyhound like dog | 6: (жетелип жүрүүчү | | | used in | ит) | 6: (Х) | | | | | | hunting) | 7: (аңчы ит) | 7: (Х) | | | | | | 6: (seeing-eye dog; | 8: (короочу ит) | 8: (Х) | | guide dog) | | | | | | | | 7: (hunting dog) | | | | | | | | 8: (guard dog) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - donkey | эшек | Х | | | | | | 1: (baby donkey) | 1: (такай) | 1: (Х) | | | | | | 2: (female donkey) | 2: (мады-эшек) | 2: (Х) | | | | | | 2a: (female donkey | 2а: (мады\[шек\]) | 2а: (Х) | | -- South) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - dragonfly | ийнелик | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - driving of | айдоо | Х | | cattle | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - ear | кулак | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - earwig (insect) | кыпчуур | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - egg laying | жумурткалоо | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - elbow | чыканак | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - elephant | пил | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - elk; moose | багыш | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - evolution | эвол[ю]{.ul}ция | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - eye\* | көз | Х | | | | | | 1: (pupil) | 1: (карек) | 1: (Х) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - eyebrow | каш | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - eyelash | кирпик | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - eyelid | кабак | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - face | жүз | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - face\* | бет | Х | | | | | | 1: (a nice, radiant, | 1: (ажар) | 1: (Х) | | beautiful, | | | | | | | | handsome face; the | | | | | | | | metaphorical "face" | | | | of | | | | | | | | something, like a | | | | campaign) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - fattening up | семиртүү | Х | | (act of) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - fern | п[а]{.ul}поротник | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - ferret | чаар күзөн | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - fertilizer | семирткич | Х | | | | | | 1: (fertilizing, | 1: (\[жер\] | 1: (Х) | | process of) | семиртүү) | | | | | 2: (Х) | | 2: (fertilizer made | 2: (кык) | | | from animal | | | | | | | | excrement that is | | | | fine like | | | | | | | | sand) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - fetus | түйүлдүк | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - fin; swimmer | сүзгүч | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - finger; toe\* | манжа | Х | | | | | | 1: (specifically, | 1: (буттун манжасы) | 1: (Х) | | toe) | | | | | 2: (манжалардын изи) | 2: (Х) | | 2: (fingerprint) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Жаныбарлары, өсүмдүктөрү жана дененин мүчөлөрү VI** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - finger; toe\* | бармак | Х | | | | | | 1: (thumb; big toe) | 1: (баш бармак) | 1: (X) | | | | | | 2: (index finger) | 2: (сөөмөй) | 2: (X) | | | | | | 3: (middle finger) | 3: (ортон) | 3: (X) | | | | | | 4: (ring finger) | 4: (аты жок) | 4: (X) | | | | | | 5: (pinky) | 5: (чыпалак) | 5: (X) | | | | | | 6: (specifically, | 6: (буттун бармагы) | 6: (Х) | | toe) | | | | | 6a: (буттун учу) | 6а: (Х) | | 6a: (tip of your | | | | toes; tiptoes) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - fish | балык | Х | | | | | | 1: (goldfish) | 1: (алтын балык) | 1: (Х) | | | | | | 2: (sprat; brisling | 2: (к[и]{.ul}лька) | 2: (Already Russian | | \[sardine like | | Word) | | | 3: (шпрот) | | | small edible fish\]) | | 3: (Already Russian | | | 4: (жилингир) | Word) | | 3: (sprat) | | | | | 4a: (кубулжума | 4: (√: | | 4: (trout) | жилингир) | фор[е]{.ul}ль) | | | | | | 4a: (rainbow trout) | 5: (тун[е]{.ul}ц) | 4a: (√: | | | | р[а]{.ul}дужная | | 5: (tuna) | 6: (саз[а]{.ul}н) | фор[е]{.ul}ль) | | | | | | 6: (carp) | 7: (лос[о]{.ul}сь) | 5: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | | 7: (salmon; lox) | 7а: (горб[у]{.ul}ша) | | | | | 6: (Already Russian | | 7a: (pink salmon; | 7б: | Word) | | | (к[е]{.ul}т[а]{.ul}) | | | *Oncorhynchus | | 7: (Already Russian | | gorbuscha*) | 8: (путасс[у]{.ul}) | Word) | | | | | | 7б: (chum salmon;\ | | 7a: (Already Russian | | Siberian salmon) | | Word) | | | | | | 8: (whiting) | | 7б: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | | | | | | | | 8: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - flee | бүргө | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - fly | чымын | Х | | | | | | 1: (flyswatter) | 1: (чымын чапкыч) | 1: (Х) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - forehead | маңдай | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - forehead; | чеке | Х | | temples | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - fox | түлкү | Х | | | | | | 1: (fox cub) | 1: (түлкүчөк) | 1: (Х) | | | | | | 2: (fox cub) | 2: (бачики) | 2: (Х) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - freckles | сепкил | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - frog | бака | Х | | | | | | 1: (turtle) | 1: (таш бака) | 1: (Х) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - genetics | ген[е]{.ul}тика | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - gibbon | гибб[о]{.ul}н | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - giraffe | жир[а]{.ul}ф | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - gland | без | X | | | | | | 1: (thyroid | 1: (калкан сымал | 1: (X) | | \[gland\]) | без) | | | | | 2: (Х) | | 2: (pancreas) | 2: (уйку без) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Жаныбарлары, өсүмдүктөрү жана дененин мүчөлөрү VII** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - goat | эчки | Х | | | | | | 1: (kid) | 1: (улак) | 1: (Х) | | | | | | 2: (wild mountain | 2: (теке) | 2: (Х) | | goat; | | | | | | | | Kyrgyz ibex) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - gorilla | гор[и]{.ul}лла | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - grafting, | трель[я]{.ul}ж | Already Russian Word | | sticks, or the | | | | like which | | | | plants wrap | | | | around to grow a | | | | certain way | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - grass | чөп | Х | | | | | | 1: (weed) | 1: (отоо чөп) | 1: (Х) | | | | | | 1a: (weeding) | 1а: (отоо) | 1а: (Х) | | | | | | 2: (bale of \[hay\]) | 2: (боо \[чөп\]) | 2: (Х) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - grasshopper; | чегиртке | Х | | locust | | | | | 1: (кара чегиртке) | 1: (Х) | | 1: (cricket) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - greenery | көк сак | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - greenhouse | п[а]{.ul}рник | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - growth | өсүү | Х | | | | | | 1: (growing \[of | 1: (өсүтрүү) | | | flowers\]) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - hair | чач | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - hare; rabbit | коён | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - head | баш | Х | | | | | | 1: (the crown of the | 1: (төбө) | 1: (Х) | | head) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - heart | жүрөк | X | | | | | | 1: (heart valve) | 1: (жүрөктөгү | 1: (√: | | | капкакча) | кл[а]{.ul}пан) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - hedgehog | кирпи | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - hamster | хом[я]{.ul}к | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (diminuitive of | 1: (хомяч[о]{.ul}к) | 1: (Already Russian | | above) | | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - heel | согончок | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - hip; pelvis | жамбаш | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - hip; thigh | сан | Х | | | | | | 1: (thigh, | 1: (жоон сан) | 1: (Х) | | specifically) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - hippo; | бегем[о]{.ul}т | Already Russian Word | | hippopotamus | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - hoof | туяк | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - horn | мүйүз | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - horsetail | хвощ | Already Russian Word | | (plant) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - hunting | аңчылык | √: ох[о]{.ul}та | | | | | | 1: (hunting | 1: (мергенчилик) | 1: (Х) | | equipment) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - hunting | уу | √: ох[о]{.ul}та | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - goitered | жейрен | Х | | gazelle;\ | | | | antelope of the | 1: (куран) | 1: (Х) | | Central Asian | | | | steppes | | | | | | | | 1: (male goitered | | | | gazelle) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Жаныбарлары, өсүмдүктөрү жана дененин мүчөлөрү VIII** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - incubator | инкуб[а]{.ul}тор | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - insect; bug | курт | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - intestine(s) | ичеги | Х | | | | | | 1: (duodenum) | 1: (он эки эли | 1: (Х) | | | ичеги) | | | 2: (digestive tract\ | | 2: (Х; gen sing = | | \[intestines and | 2: (ичеги-карын) | | | stomach | | *ичегиси-карды*) | | | | | | collectively\]) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - jackal | чөө | √: шак[а]{.ul}л | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - jaguar; puma; | ягу[а]{.ul}р | Already Russian Word | | cougar; mountain | | | | lion | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - joint | муун | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - kangaroo | кенгур[у]{.ul} | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - kidney | бөйрөк | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - knee | тизе | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - koala; koala | ко[а]{.ul}ла | Already Russian Word | | bear | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - larynx (human);\ | кекиртек | Х | | turkey's gobble | | | | thing | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - leaf | жалбырак | Х | | | | | | 1: (ribwort; | 1: (бака жалбырак) | 1: (Х) | | *подорожник)* | | | | | 2: (жалбырак түшүү) | 2: (Х) | | 2: (leaf fall; | | | | *листопад)* | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - leash (dog, etc) | кайыш | Х | | | | | | 1: (profession of | 1: (кайышчылык) | 1: (Х) | | | | | | kennelmaster) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - leech | сүлүк | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - leg; foot | бут | Х | | | | | | 1: (specifically, | 1: (аяк) | 1: (Х) | | foot)\* | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - lemur | лем[у]{.ul}р | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - leopard | леоп[а]{.ul}рд | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (snow leopard) | 1: (илбирс) | 1: (X) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - lip\* | эрин | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - litter (of an | төл | Х | | animal) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - liver | боор | Х | | | | | | 1: (spleen; gall | 1: (көк боор) | 1: (Х) | | bladder) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - living things;\ | тиричилик | Х | | life (when | | | | general term for | | | | living things) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - louse (1 lice) | бит | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - landscaping | жашылдандыруу | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Жаныбарлары, өсүмдүктөрү жана дененин мүчөлөрү IX** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - lung | өпкө | Х | | | | | | 1: (bronchus) | 1: (бронх) | 1: (Already Russian | | | | Word | | | | | | | | \[*usually in | | | | Russian plural* | | | | | | | | *- бр[о]{.ul}нхи*\]) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - lynx | сүлөөсүн | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - male (animal) | эркек | Х | | | | | | 1: (female | 1: (ургаачы) | 1: (Х) | | \[animal\]) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - mane | жал | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - marmot; | суур | Х | | groundhog; | | | | woodchuck | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - mink | н[о]{.ul}рка | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - mistletoe | ом[е]{.ul}ла | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - mollusk | молл[ю]{.ul}ск | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - monkey | маймыл | Х | | | | | | 1: (old world | 1: (эски дүйнөнүн | 1: (Х) | | monkey) | маймылы) | | | | | 1а: (Х) | | 1а: (new world | 1a: (жаңы дүйнөнүн | | | monkey) | | | | | маймылы) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - monster | желмогуз | √: монстр | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - mosquito | чиркей | Х | | | | | | 1: (gnat; midge)\* | 1: (\[майда\] | 1: (Х) | | | чиркей) | | | 2: (collective term | | 2: (Х) | | for swarms | 2: (чымын-чиркей) | | | | | | | of gnats, midges, or | | | | other | | | | | | | | small annoying | | | | insects) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - moss | мох | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (club moss) | 1: (плаун) | 1: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - mouse | чычкан | Х | | | | | | 1: (squirrel) | 1: (тыйын чычкан) | 1: (Х) | | | | | | 2: (mousetrap) | 2: (капкан) | 2: (Х) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - mouth | ооз | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - muscle | булчуӊ | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - mustache | мурут | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - nail | тырмак | Х | | (finger/toe) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - neck | моюн | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - nerve | нерв | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - nest | уя | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - mermaid; water | суу пери(си) | Х | | nymph | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - mandrake; | мандраг[о]{.ul}ра | Already Russian Word | | mandragora | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Жаныбарлары, өсүмдүктөрү жана дененин мүчөлөрү X** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - nettle (*plant*) | чалкан | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - nightshade | ит жүзүм | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - nose\* | мурун | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - nostril | таноо | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - octopus | сегиз аяк | √: осьмин[о]{.ul}г | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - orangutan | орангутан | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - organism; the | орган[и]{.ul}зм | Already Russian Word | | human body\* | | | | | 1: | 1: (Already Russian | | 1: (microorganism) | (м | Word) | | | икроорган[и]{.ul}зм) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - otter | кундуз | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - pack | (карышкарлар) топ | Х | | | (тобу) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - palate | таңдай | Х | | | | | | 1: (soft palate) | 1: (жумшак таңдай) | 1: (Х) | | | | | | 2: (hard palate) | 2: (катуу таңдай) | 2: (Х) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - panda | п[а]{.ul}нда | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - parasite | мите | Х | | | | | | 1: (parasitism) | 1: (мителик) | 1: (Х) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - paw | таман | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - penis | п[е]{.ul}нис | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (juvenile term | 1: (чочок) | 1: (Х) | | for penis) | | | | | 2: (коток) | 2: (Х) | | 2: (vulgar slang for | | | | penis) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - petting | сылоо | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - picking | терүү | X | | (flowers, | | | | plants);\ | 1: (пахта/кебез | 1: (X) | | gathering | терүү) | | | | | | | 1: (cotton picking) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - pig; swine | чочко | Х | | | | | | 1: (piglet) | 1: (торопой) | 1: (Х) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - plant; | өсүмдүк | ۅسۉمدۉك | | vegetation; | | | | plant cover (in | 1: (куурай) | 1: (Х) | | the plural only) | | | | | | | | 1: (generic term for | | | | plants | | | | | | | | with tall tough | | | | stems) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - ploughing; | айдоо | X | | tilling | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - plow; plough | соко | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Жаныбарлары, өсүмдүктөрү жана дененин мүчөлөрү XI** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - praying mantis | жаачый | √: богом[о]{.ul}л | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - preservation; | сактоо | Х | | conservation | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - procreation | өндүрүү | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - raccoon | ен[о]{.ul}т | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - rat | келемиш | √: кр[ы]{.ul}са | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - reed | к[а]{.ul}мыш | Already Russian | | | | Word\ | | | | (Russian came from | | | | Kyrgyz?) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - rhinoceros; | керик | √: носор[о]{.ul}г | | rhino | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - rib | кабырга | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - root | тамыр | Х | | | | | | 1: (vein) | 1: (көк тамыр) | 1: (√: в[е]{.ul}на) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - scale | кабырчык | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - scorpion | чаян | Х | | | | | | 1: (crab) | 1: (суу чаян) | 1: (√: краб) | | | | | | 2: (crab) | 2: (деңиз чаяны) | 2: (√: краб) | | | | | | 2а: (king crab) | 2a: (падыша | 2а: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | | кр[а]{.ul}бы) | Mix) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - scrotum | ташак | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - scrotum | куулук | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - seaweed | балыр | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - seaweed | деӊиз | Kyrgyzised Russian | | | кап[у]{.ul}стасы | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - seed | үрөн | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - seed | урук | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - shark | ак[у]{.ul}ла | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sheep | кой | Х | | | | | | 1: (male wild sheep) | 1: (кулжа) | 1: (Х) | | | | | | 2: (lamb) | 2: (козу) | 2: (Х) | | | | | | 3: (sheering of | 3: (кой | 3: (Х) | | sheep) | кыркуу/кырккан) | | | | | 4: (Х) | | 4: (sheparding of | 4: (кой | | | sheep) | кайтаруу/кайткарган) | 5: (Х) | | | | | | 5: (argali, largest | 5: (аркар) | | | species of | | | | | | | | wild mountain sheep) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - shell (of | кабык | Х | | mollusk);\ | | | | bark (of tree) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - shin | шыйрак | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - shoulder | ийин | Х | | | | | | 1: (shoulder blade) | 1: (далы) | 1: (Х) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - shrimp | крев[е]{.ul}тка | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - skeleton | скел[е]{.ul}т | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - skin | тери | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - small of one's | бел | Х | | back;\ | | | | Lombard area; | | | | waiste | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - privet | бир[ю]{.ul}чина | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Жаныбарлары, өсүмдүктөрү жана дененин мүчөлөрү XII** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - snail | үлүл | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - snake | жылан | Х | | | | | | 1: (worm) | 1: (сөлжылан) | 1: (Х) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sowing (of | эгүү | Х | | seeds) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sowing (of | чачуу | Х | | seeds) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sowing (of | себүү | Х | | seeds) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sphinx | сфинкс | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - spider | жөргөмүш | Х | | | | | | 1: (spiderweb; | 1: (жөргөмүш тору) | 1: (Х) | | cobweb) | | | | | 2: (жөргөмүш желеси) | 2: (Х) | | 2: (spiderweb; | | | | cobweb) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - spinal chord | жүлүн | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - spore | сп[о]{.ul}ра | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - stalk (of plant, | сабак | Х | | flower, | | | | mushroom) | 1: (чөптүн сабагы) | 1: (Х) | | | | | | 1: (blade of grass) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - starfish | деңиз жылдызы | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sweetgum prickly | уй гак | Х | | ball \~\> | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - system (group of | тутум | √: сист[е]{.ul}ма | | bodily organs | | | | working | 1: (борбордук нерв | 1: (√:борбордук нерв | | together) | тутуму) | | | | | сист[е]{.ul}масы | | 1: (central nervous | 2: | \[*Both are* | | system) | (эндорк[и]{.ul}ндик | | | | тутум) | *Krygyz-Russian | | 2: (endocrine | | Mix*\]) | | system) | 3: (заара чыгаруу | | | | тутуму) | 2: (√: | | 3: (urinary system) | | эндокр[и]{.ul}ндик | | | 4: (жүрөк-кан тамыр | сист[е]{.ul}ма | | 4: (cardiovascular | тутуму) | | | system) | | \[*Kyrgyzised | | | | Russian*\]) | | | | | | | | 3: (√: заара чыгаруу | | | | | | | | сист[е]{.ul}масы\ | | | | \[*Kyrgyz-Russian | | | | Mix*\]) | | | | | | | | 4: (√: жүрөк-кан | | | | тамыр | | | | | | | | сист[е]{.ul}масы | | | | | | | | \[*Kyrgyz-Russian | | | | Mix*\]) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - tail | куйрук | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - thorn | тикен | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - throat | тамак | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - tick | кене | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - tiger | жолборс | Х | | | | | | 1: (walrus) | 1: (суу жолборс) | 1: (Х) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - tissue | ткань | Already Russian Word | | (biological) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - toe | учу | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - tongue | тил | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Жаныбарлары, өсүмдүктөрү жана дененин мүчөлөрү XIII** +--------------------------------+--------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +================================+====================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +--------------------------------+--------------------+----------------------+ | - tooth | тиш | Х | | | | | | 1: (baby tooth) | 1: (сүт тиши) | 1: (Х) | | | | | | 2: (snaggle tooth) | 2: (ууру тиш) | 2: (Х) | | | | | | 3: (fang; canine tooth; tusk) | 3: (азуу) | 3: (Х) | | | | | | 4: (gums) | 4: (тиш эти) | 4: (Х) | +--------------------------------+--------------------+----------------------+ | - touch (an act of touching) | тийүү | Х | +--------------------------------+--------------------+----------------------+ | - udder\* | желин | Х | +--------------------------------+--------------------+----------------------+ | - vermin | зыянкеч | Х | +--------------------------------+--------------------+----------------------+ | - vertebra | омуртка | Х | | | | | | 1: (lombar bone) | 1: (бел омуртка) | 1: (Х) | +--------------------------------+--------------------+----------------------+ | - warthog; wild hog | каман | √: каб[а]{.ul}н | +--------------------------------+--------------------+----------------------+ | - wild pig; wild boar | доңуз | Х | +--------------------------------+--------------------+----------------------+ | - wolf | карышкыр | Х | | | | | | 1: (wolf \[*less used*\]) | 1: (бөрү) | 1: (Х)\ | | | | 2: (Х) | | 2: (wolf \[*literary;* | 2: (көк жал) | | | | | | | *passive lexicon*\]) | | | +--------------------------------+--------------------+----------------------+ | - wrist | билек | Х | +--------------------------------+--------------------+----------------------+ | - yak | топоз | Х | | | | | | 1: (baby yak) | 1: (мамалак) | 1: (Х) | +--------------------------------+--------------------+----------------------+ | - yeti | й[е]{.ul}ти | Already Russian Word | +--------------------------------+--------------------+----------------------+ | - zebra | з[е]{.ul}бра | Already Russian Word | +--------------------------------+--------------------+----------------------+ | - zoo | зооп[а]{.ul}рк | Already Russian Word | +--------------------------------+--------------------+----------------------+ | - zoology | зоол[о]{.ul}гия | Already Russian Word | +--------------------------------+--------------------+----------------------+ | - wheat (plant) | эгин | Х | | | | | | 1: (threshing) | 1: (эгин бастыруу) | 1: (Х) | +--------------------------------+--------------------+----------------------+ | - wormwood | эрмен | Х | +--------------------------------+--------------------+----------------------+ **\ ** **Жаныбарлары, өсүмдүктөрү жана дененин мүчөлөрү XIV** > [Notes on Nouns Pertaining to Animals, Plants, and Parts of the > Body]{.ul} \*Apparently, *айбан* is the preferred term for "animal" in the southwest of Kyrgyzstan (Osh, Jalal-Abad). *Жаныбар* is more standard than dialectual; although, I have also been taught that referring to animals as *айбан* can be perceived as rude or derogatory, as it connotes more wildness. \*The practice of *бада* is taken in turns by one or two village people. They take everyone else's cows up to a pasture-like area (also called *бада*) and bring them back at the end of the day. I don't believe they are compensated for the work: *Биз экөөбүз уйларды бадага кошуп, кайта келе жатабыз.* = Us two herded the cows and are now brining them back. \*The verbal phrase *арты + poss + сал-* means to turn one's back on. *Сизге артымды салып отурганыма кечирип коюӊуз.* = Please forgive me sitting with my back turned to you. \*There is also a collective noun, *бети-кол*, which refers to both the face and hands simultaneously. It is used in the phrase *бети-кол жуу*, which means to wash one's face and hands (for example, as a part of one's morning routine). \*Generally in Kyrgyz, *көз* is used in the singular rather than in the plural. Also, *алайган көз* mean "puppy dog eyes" (making a sad or cute face at someone to get what you want): *Алайган көзүң менен караба! =* Don't look at me with those sad/puppy dog eyes. \**Манжа* is used when you have to specifically refer to one finger, whereas if just *бармак* is said, people would think only of the thumb. The general meaning of *бармак* is more historical now, as *манжа* is the general term for "fingers." \**Аяк* specifically refers to one's foot, but it is usually seen in set expressions (such as *жылаңаяк*, barefoot). In normal speech, the meaning of *бут* is extended to mean foot, much like Russian *ног[а]{.ul}*. \*The distinction between a gnat and a mosquito doesn't need to be made in Kyrgyz; *чиркей* works for both, but *майда чиркей* emphasizes the smaller, annoying insects. \*All Turkic languages exhibit "fleeting vowel" declensions for a small percentage of nouns. Fleeting vowel declension is when a vowel is present in nominative case for a noun, but that same vowel drops whenever it is in possessed genitive case. Also, another consonant is added. While fleeting vowels are more promininet in other Turkic languages (like Turkish and Mongolian), in Kyrgyz it can be seen with the noun *мурун* (nose).\ *мурун* = noes, but *менин мурдум, сенин мурдуӊ, анын мурду*, etc. \**Орган[и]{.ul}зм* is used much like in Russian to mean "the human body", especially when saying that something is healthy/good or bad/detrimental to the body. \**Желин* is the Kyrgyz term for udder; however, I often hear it referred to as *эмчек* (literally: breast). **\ ** **Жаныбарлары, Өсүмдүктөрү жана Дененин Mүчөлөрү XV** [Other Nouns Pertaining to Animals, Plants, and Parts of the Body]{.ul} \*The *Кыргыз Республикасынын кызыл китеби* (Red Book of the Kyrgyz Republic) is a register of all endangered flora and fauna species within the Republic of Kyrgyzstan. \*There are multiple words that translate to "stomach"\ - *курсак* = stomach (used mainly in the phrase *to be hungry: Курсагы ачты)* \- *ич* = stomach or abdomen (used whenever one's stomach hurts) \- *аш казан* = stomach (literally: "food pot") \- *карын* = stomach (that one eats, like sheep stomach) \*One interesting characteristic of the Kyrgyz language is the comparative use of body parts to demonstrate human charateristics. Such phrases require a body part to be used in possessed morphology (depending on who is being described) together with an adjective or verb. These create idiomatic meanings: \- *Жүрөк + poss + жок* = describes someone who is cowardly (lit.: having no heart) \- *Ич + poss + тар* = describes someone who is greedy (lit.: having a narrow tummy) \- *Кол + poss + ачык* = describes someone who is generous (lit.: having an open hand) \- *Көз + poss + ачык* = describes someone with psychic powers (lit.: having open eyes) \- *Көз + poss + жетет* = describes someone who is capable or up to the task of doing\ something (lit.: one's eyes reach) \- *Кулак + poss + сенде/сизде* = a phrase used to show someone you are listening to them; I'm all ears (lit. ears are upon you) \- *Кулак + poss + узун* = describes someone who spreads rumours/gossip\ (lit: having long ears) \- *Муштум + poss + чоң* = describes someone who likes to fight (lit.: having a large fist) \- *Таш боор + бар* = describes someone who is overly cruel. (lit.: having a liver of stone) \- *Тил + poss + узун* = describes someone who talks a lot (lit.: having a long tongue) \*Arm or leghair is colloquially known as *жүн* (wool). Another nuance-neutral term for this is *түк* (fuzz; lint). This term can apply to body or facial hair meaning "stubble; peach fuzz." \*Like English, *баш* (head) is used to enumerate heads of cattle: *16 баш кой.* \*Childish names for animals include: \- *мөө =* cow \- *чу-чу* = horse *\*Коргоол* is a special term for (specifically) sheep, goat, or camel pellets (poop). **Жаныбарлары, өсүмдүктөрү жана дененин мүчөлөрү XVI** \*The word for flower is *гүл* (Note: This word is often colloquially used to mean "plant" in general). *Гүлчө* is its diminuitive, meaning "cute, precious, or small flower." The names of various types of fpeerttaining to baselowers are listed below: \- *айгүл* = a special type of flower that only grows in Batken Oblast. \- *алча гүлү* = cherry blossom \* *сак[у]{.ul}ра* = sakura; Japanese cherry blossom \- *байчечекей* = primrose; snowdrop; general term for any flower that grows in snow \- *байчычыкы* = dandelion \* *какым* = the part of the dandelion flower that you blow and the seeds fly everywhere \- *бег[о]{.ul}ния =* begonia \- *гвозд[и]{.ul}ка* = carnation \- *жоогазын* = tulip \- *күн карама* = sunflower \- *кызгалдак* = poppy\*; carnation \- *ланд[ы]{.ul}ш =* lily-of-the-valley \- *л[и]{.ul}лия* = lily \* *чөмүш баш* = water lily \* *суу л[и]{.ul}лиясы* = water lily \- *маргар[и]{.ul}тка* = daisy \- *мак* = poppy (Russian word)\* \- *незаб[у]{.ul}дка =* forget-me-not \- *р[о]{.ul}за* = rose \* *ит мурун* = dog rose; briar rose; wild European rose \* *шип[о]{.ul}вник* = dog rose; briar rose; wild European rose (Russian word) \- *сир[е]{.ul}нь =* lilac \- *фи[а]{.ul}лка =* violet Note: *Гызгалдак* for "poppy" might be an over-Kyrgyzisation. The Russian *мак* is more\ used. Paraphanelia related to flowers includes: \- *горш[о]{.ul}к* = flower pot \- *гүл челек* = flower pot **Жаныбарлары, өсүмдүктөрү жана дененин мүчөлөрү XVII** \*The Kyrgyz the most non-descript, neutral word for "bird" is *куш.* A general, collective term for all birds is *канаттуу* (pl: *канаттуулар*), literally meaning "winged things." Also, any species of small bird can be referred to as *чымчык*. Different species of birds are listed below: \- *ак куу* = swan^1^ \- *ак чардак* = seagull^1^ \- *булбул* = nightingale \- *бүркүт* = eagle (golden)^2^ \* *жыланчы* = snake eagle > \* *суу бүркүт* = white-tailed eagle; erne \- *каз* = goose \- *кара кунас* = stork^1^ \- *карга* = crow \- *кекилик =* partridge \* *чил* = bearded partridge \- *кол[и]{.ul}бри* = hummingbird \- *көгүчкөн* = dove \- *күрп* = turkey \- *кыргоол* = pheasant \- *өрдөк* = duck \* *чүрөк* = teal \- *пенгв[и]{.ul}н* = penguin \- *сагызган* = magpie \- *сасык үпүп* = Eurasian hoopoe \- *таранчы* = sparrow \- *тоок* = chicken (technically "hen," but the female term is the general term) \* *короз* = rooster \- *тоос* = peacock \- *торгой* = lark \- *тоту куш* = parrot \- *төө куш* = ostrich \- *турна* = crane \* *каркыра* = demoiselle crane \- *үкү* = owl \- *үндүк* = turkey \- *ф[е]{.ul}никс* = phoenix \- *чабалекей* = swallow \- *чыйырчык =* starling \- *шумкар* = gyrfalcon \- *ылаачын* = peregrine falcon **Жаныбарлары, өсүмдүктөрү жана дененин мүчөлөрү XVIII** Notes: ^1^ Normally, the term for a swan is *ак куу*, but this technically refers to only a white swan. However, it appears as though *ак* has been lexicalized (lost its meaning of "white" in the term *ак куу* and now, regardless of whatever colour the swan is, *ак куу* seems to be the term for "swan"). More research is needed to determine the appropriate translation for "black swan." The same goes for *ак* *чардак* and *кара кунас*. ^2^ *Бүркүтчүлүк* is the traditional nomadic practice of hunting with golden eagles which have been tamed. The falconers carry the bird with them as they ride on > horseback through the mountains in search of game. To ensure that the > falcon > > does not go swooping off after any little animal that it sees, it is > transported > > wearing a little leather hat called a *томого.* There are a few terms for "chick; fledgling; baby bird," but they cannot be used interchangeably: \- *бала* = this term is used to mean "the young" of many types of animals. For birds, it can only be used for the following: \* *каздын баласы* = goosling > \* *өрдөктүн баласы* = duckling \- *балапан* = this term is the most general and can be used for the young of most fowl. \- *жөжө* = this term is used for the chicks/fledglings of specifically chicken and turkeys. Words that describe a bird's specific anatomy include: \- *канат* = wing \* *канаттын бир талы* = feather \* *куштун жүнү* = plumage; feathering (specific pattern/colour of bird's feathers) \- *тумшук* = beak Finally, miscellaneous paraphenelia pertaining to birds include: \- *коондок* = perch; a roost (elevated stick where a bird can rest) \- *тооккана =* chicken coop; hen house ***\ *** **Жаныбарлары, өсүмдүктөрү жана дененин мүчөлөрү XIX** \*There are two words for tree in Kyrgyz: *бак* and *дарак*. These two words can be combined into one, *бак-дарак*, which is used as a general collective term for "trees." In Kyrgyz, compounded nouns give a collective, general meaning. So, *бак-дарак* is used when talking about all trees, such as *Жазында бак-дарактар гүлдөйт*. = In spring the trees will bloom or *Токойдо бак-дарактар көп* = In the forest there are many (types of) trees. The terms for different types of trees are listed below: \- *арча* = juniper tree \- *балаты* = Christmas/New Year's type of pine tree \* *ёлка* = = Christmas/New Year's type of pine tree (Russian term more used) \- *долоно =* hawthorne \- *зараӊ* = maple tree \- *кайыӊ* = birch tree \- *карагай* = evergreen tree; pine tree \- *кашт[а]{.ul}н* = chestnut tree \- *п[а]{.ul}льма* = palm tree \- *тал* = willow tree \* *мажурум тал* = weeping willow \- *терек* = poplar tree \- *четин* = rowan tree \* *ряб[и]{.ul}на* = rowan tree (Russian term also used) \- *эмен* = oak tree Parts of a tree can be delineated as: \- *бутак* = branch \- *жалбырак* = leaf \- *көӊдөй =* hollow; cavity (hole in tree trunk) \- *тамыр* = root \*Due to the significance that horses have played in Kyrgyz culture, the Kyrgyz language has many terms for types of horses. The most general term for "horse" is *жылкы*. Other horse-related terms are listed below: \- *айгыр* = stallion (male horse) \- *ак кула* = large, white breed of Kyrgyz horse \- *аргымак* = argamak breed of Eastern horses \- *ат* = horse (specifically, castrated) \- *бээ* = mare (female horse) \- *жорго* = race horse \- *карабай* = large breed of horse suitable for playing *көк бөрү* \- *кулун* = foal \- *тай* = pony \- *тукур* = work horse \- *тулпар* = Pegasus-like winged horse of Kyrgyz mythology Paraphenalia related to horses include: \- *ат-жабдык(тар) =* equipment associated with horses; general term for horseriding equipment \- *аткана* = stable \- *камчы =* whip \- *нокто* = bridle \- *укурук* = long strap used to tie horses to their places \- *үзөнгү* = stirrup **Жаныбарлары, өсүмдүктөрү жана дененин мүчөлөрү XX** +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | **Сын Атоочтор жана Тактоочтор** | | +======================================+==============================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - adhering to natural law | зак[о]{.ul}н/мыйзам ченемдүү | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - arterial | арт[е]{.ul}риялык | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - attributive of "cell"; | клеткалуу | | pertaining to cells | | | | 1: (бир клеткалуу) | | 1: (single-celled) | | | | 2: (көп клеткалуу) | | 2: (multi-celled) | | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - biologic; biological | биол[о]{.ul}гиялык | | | | | 1: (microbiologic; microbiological) | 1: (микробиол[о]{.ul}гиялык) | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - bridled | ноктолуу | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - broad (bodywise) | жазы | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - bushy | бадалдуу | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - covered in leaves; having | жалбырактуу | | leaves; leafy | | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - crustaceous | чаян сыяктуу | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - crustaceous | рак сыяктуу | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - describing a cow that has calved | музоолуу | | \~\> | | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - describing a horse that has | айгырлуу | | birthed a stallion \~\> | | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - describing a person who has | малдуу | | cattle | | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - describing someone with big eyes | алаңдаган\ | | | *(Анын көздөрү алаңдаган)* | | > (positive trait) | | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - describing someone with bug eyes | бакырайган | | or protruding eyes | | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - evolutionary | эвол[ю]{.ul}циялык | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - fanged; tusked | азуулуу | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - fingered; having fingers | бармактуу | | | | | 1: (fingerless) | 1: (бармаксыз) | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - floral; flowery; producing | гүлдүү | | flowers | | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - genetic | ген[е]{.ul}тикалык | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - hairy; hirsute; pilose | чачтуу | | | | | 1: (hairless; naked \[i.e. mole | 1: (чачсыз) | | rat\]) | | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - having ears | кулактуу | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - having ears (such as "big-eared | кулактуу | | rabbit") | | | | 1: (кулаксыз) | | 1: (without ears) | | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - horned; having horns | мүйүзүү | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - long and straight (nose) | кырдач | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - muscular (of particular muscle, | жоон | | not body) | | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - beautiful; bright (used for | ажарлуу | | smiles) | | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - having a foal; describing a mare | кулундуу | | that is with a foal | | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - bob-tailed | чолок | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - having humps (of camel) | өркөчтүү | | | | | 1: (one-humped) | 1: (бир өркөчтүү) | | | | | 2: (two-humped) | 2: (эки өркөчтүү) | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - calm; well-behaved (of animal) | маӊуроо | | | | | 1: (wild; undomesticated; ornery; | 1: (азоо) | | | | | never doing as its told) | | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - hardy; describing a plant that | чыдамдуу | | can withstand harsh conditions\* | | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ **Жаныбарлары, өсүмдүктөрү жана дененин мүчөлөрү XXI** +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | **Сын Атоочтор жана Тактоочтор** | | +==================================+==================================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - overgrown with algae | балдырлуу | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - pertaining to a cell's | ядролук | | nucleus; nuclear | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - pertaining to cotton growing | пахтачылык\ | | | *(пахтачылык совх[о]{.ul}з = | | | collective cotton farm)* | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - physical (pertaining to the | физикалык | | body) | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - plump (lips); full and big | дөрдөк | | (lips) | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - potted (plant) | отургузулган | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - predatory | жырткыч | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - ribbed; describing a | кабыргалуу | | fine-bodied horse | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - root (i.e. vegetable); | тамырдуу/тамырлуу | | having roots | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - seaweedy; being filled with | балырлуу | | seaweed | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - sex; pertaining to | жыныстык | | (biological) sex | | | | 1: (г[е]{.ul}ндерлик) | | 1: (gender; pertaining to | | | gender) | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - shaggy; long-wooled (sheep) | барак | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - sheering (that what sheers) | кыркуучу | | | | | | (*кой кыркуучу машина)* | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - songbird (describing a type | сайрагыч | | of bird known to sing) | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - stray (animal) | жолбун | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - supple (skin) | чыӊ | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - tame; tamed | бакма | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - thorny | тикенектүү | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - turned-up (nose) | кетирекей | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - wide (nose) | жалпак | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - wild | жапайы | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - winged; having wings | канаттуу | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - wiry; sinewy (horse, etc) | жүлүндөй | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - zoological | зоол[о]{.ul}гиялык | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - wide (face) | жайык | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - sharp (eyes) | өткүр | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ > [Notes on Adjectives and Adverbs Pertaining to Animals, Plants, and > Parts of the Body]{.ul} \*The certain condition that a plant can withstand is stated in dative case: *суукка чыдамдуу* = cold-weather hardy; being able to withstand the cold **Жаныбарлары, өсүмдүктөрү жана дененин мүчөлөрү XXII** > [Other Adjectives and Adverbs Pertaining to Animals, Plants, and Parts > of the Body]{.ul} \*The word meaning "stray," as in "a stray cat," in Kyrgyz is \...*ээси жок*. *Ээси* (meaning master) is in a possessed form, so it requires the animal you're naming to be in genitive. \**Көк* "blue" is used to when English would say "green" in a few nature terms: \- *көк чөп* = green grass \- *көк чыкты* = a verbal phrase meaning that things have started to turn green (in spring) \**Эркек* and *ургаачы* can be used attributively to mean "a male (animal)" and "a female (animal)", respectively: *ургаачы аюу* = she-bear*, ургаачы карышкар* = she-wolf. \*Sometimes, a noun or infinitive verb may be used adjectivally. When this is the case, the modified noun should be placed into third person genitive possessed morophology. \- *айбанат =* animal; animalistic: *айбанат сыйкыры =* animal magic \- *к[а]{.ul}мыш* = reed; made from reeds: *к[а]{.ul}мыш чатыр* = a reed roof \- *ланд[ы]{.ul}ш* = pertaining to lilies of the valley \- *сезүү* = sensory; pertaining to the senses: *сезүү мүчөлөрү* = sensory organs \*Adding the suffix --туу/дуу/луу to body parts makes them attributive: \- *Баштуу* = \#-headed: *сегиз баштуу монстр*: eight-headed monster. \- *Моюндуу = -*necked: *узун моюндуу жир[а]{.ul}ф*: long-necked giraffe \*Some nouns are used attributively as adjectives. When used in this way, the noun they modify exhibits 3^rd^ person singular possessed genitive morphology: \- *бронх* = bronchial: *бронх [а]{.ul}стмасы* \- *нерв =* nervous; pertaining to nerves: *нерв сист[е]{.ul}масы* \- *уйку бездин* = pancreatic **\ ** **Жаныбарлары, өсүмдүктөрү жана дененин мүчөлөрү XXIII** +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | **Этиштер** | | | | +================+================+================+================+ | **Англис | **Этиштин | **Инфинитив** | **Жөндөмө жана | | Тили** | Уңгусу** | | Эскертүүлөр** | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to aerate | жер чана- | жер чаноо | Takes nom/acc | | soil by | | | | | mixing it | | | | | with | | | | | shovel | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to become | жалбыракта- | жалбырактоо | Intransitive | | covered in | | | | | leaves | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to birth\* | туу- | туу | Transitive; so | | | | | "to be born" | | | | | is in passive: | | | | | туул- | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to bite | тиште- | тиштөө | Takes nom/acc | | | | | | | 1: (to snap at | 1: (тиштеп | 1: (тиштеп | 1: () | | \[dog\]) | ал-) | алуу) | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to blink | көз тарт- | көз тартуу | Intransitive | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to bloom\* | гүлдө- | гүлдөө | Intrans | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | бүрдө- | бүрдөө | Intransitive | | blossom\* | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to breathe | от чач- | от чачуу | Set phrase | | fire | | | | | (dragon) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to calf | музооло- | музоолоо | Intransitive | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | сакта- | сактоо | Takes nom/acc | | conserve;\ | | | | | to save | | | | | (animal) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | жер иштет- | жер иштетүү | Жер can be | | | | | nom/acc | | cultivate;\ | | | | | to work | | | | | the land; | | | | | | | | | | > to till | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to drive | айда- | айдоо | Takes nom/acc | | (animals) | | | | | | 1: (айдат-) | 1: (айдатуу) | 1: (person in | | 1: (to | | | dative; | | force/cause | | | | | | | | animal in | | someone to | | | nom/acc) | | drive | | | | | | | | | | animals) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to fatten | семирт- | сермиртүү | Takes nom/acc | | (cow) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to fell;\ | кырку- | кыркуу | бак in nom/acc | | to chop | | | | | down a | | | | | tree | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to flay;\ | сыйра- | сыйруу | Animal in gen | | to skin | | | + *терисин* | | (animal) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to flop | чабалакта- | чабалактоо | Intransitive | | about like | | | | | a fish; to | | | | | flounder | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to get | бооз- | боозуу | Intranstive | | pregnant | | | | | (animals | | | | | only) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to go | ууга бар- | ууга баруу | Takes dat. for | | hunting\* | | | where | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to go | охотага бар- | охотага баруу | Takes dat. for | | hunting\* | | | where | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to go | аңчылыкка бар- | аңчылыкка | Takes dat. for | | hunting\* | | баруу | where | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to compact | п | п | Takes nom/acc | | grass or | р[е]{.ul}ссте- | р[е]{.ul}сстөө | | | other crop | | | | | into a | | | | | bale \~\> | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to bind | туша- | тушоо | Takes nom/acc | | the legs | | | | | of an | | | | | animal in | | | | | order to | | | | | limit | | | | | mobility\* | | | | | \~\> | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ **Жаныбарлары, өсүмдүктөрү жана дененин мүчөлөрү XXIV** +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | **Этиштер** | | | | +================+================+================+================+ | **Англис | **Этиштин | **Инфинитив** | **Жөндөмө жана | | Тили** | Уңгусу** | | Эскертүүлөр** | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to grow | өс- | өсүү | Intranstive; | | | | | to be growing | | > / | / | / | | | > | | | / | | > to grow | өстүр- | өстүрүү | | | | | | Takes nom/acc | | 1: (to grow | 1: (айда-) | 1: (айдоо) | | | \[carrots, | | | 1: (Takes | | | | | nom/acc) | | potatoes\] in | | | | | | | | | | garden; | | | | | | | | | | to plow; to | | | | | till) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to lay | жумурткала- | жумурткалоо | Intransitive | | eggs | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to lean on | чыканакта- | чыканактоо | Intransitive | | one's | | | | | elbows | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to look | кара- | кароо | Takes nom/acc | | after | | | | | | | | | | (animals);\ | | | | | to take | | | | | care of | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to look | бак- | багуу | Takes nom/acc | | after | | | | | | | | | | (animals);\ | | | | | to take | | | | | care of | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to milk | саа- | | Takes nom/acc | | (cow, | | | | | etc);\ | | | | | to tap a | | | | | tree | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to mow | кырк- | кыркуу | Takes nom/acc: | | (law);\ | | | чөп | | to cut | | | | | grass | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to mow | чап- | чабуу | Takes nom/acc: | | (lawn);\ | | | чөп | | to cut | 1: (чалгы | 1: (чалгы | | | grass | чап-) | чабуу) | 1: () | | | | | | | 1: (to cut | | | | | grass with a | | | | | | | | | | scythe) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to pant | акакта- | акактоо | Intransitive | | (dog) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to pet; to | сыла- | сылоо | Takes nom/acc | | stroke | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to pick | тер- | терүү | Takes nom/acc | | | | | | | > (berries, | | | | | > flowers) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to pick | үз- | үзүү | Takes nom/acc | | | | | | | > (berries, | | | | | > flowers) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to plant a | отургуз- | отургузуу | Takes nom/acc | | tree;\ | | | | | to pot a | | | | | plant | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to plow | соколо- | соколоо | Takes nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to prick | тикий- | тикийүү | Intransitive | | up (ears) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | өндүр- | өндүрүү | Intransitive | | procreate | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to sheer | кырк- | кыркуу | Кой in nom/acc | | (sheep) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | кайтар- | кайтаруу | Takes nom/acc | | shephard | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | сой- | союу | Takes nom/acc | | slaughter | | | | | (animal) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to sow | эк- | эгүү | Takes nom/acc | | (seeds) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to pluck | чымчы- | чымчуу | Takes nom/acc | | | | | | | (describing | | | | | action of | | | | | what bird | | | | | does when | | | | | it grabs | | | | | with its | | | | | beak) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to pluck | чымчыла- | чымчылоо | Takes nom/acc | | | | | | | (describing | | | | | action of | | | | | what bird | | | | | does when | | | | | it grabs | | | | | with its | | | | | beak) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | жашылдандыр- | жашылдандыруу | Takes nom/acc | | landscape | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ **Жаныбарлары, өсүмдүктөрү жана дененин мүчөлөрү XXV** +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | **Этиштер** | | | | +================+================+================+================+ | **Англис | **Этиштин | **Инфинитив** | **Жөндөмө жана | | Тили** | Уңгусу** | | Эскертүүлөр** | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to sow | сеп- | себүү | Takes | | (seeds) | | | nom/acc;\ | | | | | it's п form is | | | | | a little odd : | | | | | сээп жатам | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to sow | чач- | чачуу | Takes nom/acc | | (seeds) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to take | тамыр жай- | тамер жаюу | Intransitive | | root | | | | | | 1: (\[*+gen*\] | 1: (\[*+gen*\] | 1: (Item being | | 1: (to kill at | тамырын | тамырын | killed is in | | the root) | | | genitive, and | | | кырк-) | кыркуу) | its roots or | | 2: (to pull up | | | root problems | | by the | 2: (\[+gen\] | 2: (\[+gen\] | in 3^rd^ | | | тамыры | тамыры | possessed | | roots) | | | acc.) | | | менен суур-) | менен сууруу) | | | | | | 2: (Thing | | | | | being pulled | | | | | up in gen.) | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to tame | колго көндүр- | колго көндүрүү | Takes nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to thresh | эгин бастыр- | эгин бастыруу | Эгин can be in | | | | | nom or acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to touch | тий- | тийүү | Takes nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to train | жар- | жаруу | Takes nom/acc | | (horse) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to weed | ото- | отоо | Takes nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to whelp | күчүктө- | күчүктөө | Intransitive | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to wilt | солу- | солуу | Intransitive | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to ![Abaya | (тиш) чык- | (тиш) чыгуу | Тиш can be | | pho | | | possessed and | | to (29)](media | | | is the | | /image1.jpeg){ | | | subject.\ | | width="4.85972 | | | *Анын тиши | | 22222222225in" | | | чыгып (бара) | | hei | | | жатат* | | ght="7.2972222 | | | | | 222222225in"}e | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to swat | чап- | чабуу | чымын, or | | (flies) | | | actually any | | | | | insect really, | | | | | can be nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ **Жаныбарлары, өсүмдүктөрү жана дененин мүчөлөрү XXVI** [Notes on Verbs Pertaining to Animals, Plants, and Parts of the Body]{.ul} \**Туу* is only used with animals; people is *төрө*- (See "Health" section). \*This is the verb from which *тушоо той* (see the "Sports, Games, and Pastimes" section) gets its name. \**Гүлдө-* generally is used for flowering plants, whereas *бүрдө-* is used for trees. *Гүлдөй бер!* has an additional meaning of "to flourish; to prosper:" *Гүлдөй бер, Кыргызстаным!* = Keep prospering, my beloved Kyrgyzstan! \*Specifically, to go hunting uses the verb *баруу*. This verb can be replaced by *чыгуу* if one wishes to say that they are heading out to go hunting. **Жаныбарлары, өсүмдүктөрү жана дененин мүчөлөрү XXVII** [Other Verbs Pertaining to Animals, Plants, and Parts of the Body]{.ul} \**Пахта/кебез тыт-* means to clean cotton by removing the seeds and stretching the fibres until it becomes soft. \**(Төө) чирке-* means "to tie up (camels) and lead them in a caravan." \*Although "to open one's eyes" can be literally translated into Kyrgyz from the English (*көздөрдү ач-*), "to close one's eyes" is said in a different manner: *көздөрдү жум-.* *\**Much like *көк чык-,* the verb *чык-* can be used in the phrase *Гүлдөр чык-* to mean "Flowers will come out." \*The verb *чулукта-* means "to put a device around the mouth of a calf so that it can no longer drink milk from an udder." Apparently, some calves will not start eating grass and will continue to drink from their mother's milk past the time when they should have made the switch. If a calf continues to drink only milk for its nutrients after this time, it will be detrimental to its health. \**Томоголо-* is a special verb which means "to cover the eyes of a hunting hawk with a *томого.*" It is found in the tongue twister *Бүркүтчүлөр бүркүтүр томого менен томоголойт.* **Жаныбарлары, өсүмдүктөрү жана дененин мүчөлөрү XXVIII** [Other Phrases Pertaining to Animals, Plants, and Parts of the Body]{.ul} \**Өш!* is the sound used to usher a cow along or encourage it to move faster.\ *Ых!* is the sound used to usher a donkey along or encourage it to move faster. *Чу!* is the sound to usher a horse along or encourage it to move faster. \*Kyrgyz Proverbs (*Макалдар*) which play off the idea of animals, plants, and parts of the body include: \- *Теке тоочул -- коён көңүлчүл.* = Different strokes for different folks.\ (Literally: The Kyrygz ibex keeps to the mountains and the rabbit is playful) **\ ** **Матем[а]{.ul}тикасы жана илими** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - abacus | чот | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - acid\* | кычкылдык | √: кислот[а]{.ul} | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - acid\* | кычкыл | √: кислот[а]{.ul} | | | | | | 1: (acidity) | 1: (кычкылдуулук) | 1: (√: | | | | к | | | | ислот[а]{.ul}луулук) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - addition | кошуу | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - algorithm | алгор[и]{.ul}тм | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - alkali (metal) | щёлочь | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - analysis | анал[и]{.ul}з | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (analytics) | 1: | 1: (Already Russian | | | (анал[и]{.ul}тика) | Word) | | 2: (analysis; | | | | process of | 2: (талдоо/талдаган) | 2: (Х)\ | | | | 3: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | analyzing) | 3: | Mix) | | | (ан | | | 3: (process of | ализдөө/анализдеген) | | | analyzing) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - angle | бурч | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - answer | жооп | X | | | | | | 1: (answer sheet) | 1: (жооп баракчасы) | 1: (Х) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - archeology | археол[о]{.ul}гия | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - area (of | аянт | Х | | geometric | | | | figure) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - assumption; | божомол | Х | | supposition;\ | | | | presumption | 1: (туура эмес ой) | 1: (Х) | | | | | | 1: (assumption you | | | | jump to | | | | | | | | but is wrong) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - attention | көңүл | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - attention; | көңүл буруу | Х | | attention span; | | | | paying attention | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - base (of | негизи | Х | | geometric | | | | figure) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - bicarbonate | бикарбон[а]{.ul}т | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - brilliance; | зээндүүлүк | Х | | giftedness | | | | | | | | > (in educational | | | | > things) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - calculation; | эстептөө/эстептеген | Х | | calculating | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - campus | к[а]{.ul}мпус | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - carbon | көмүртeк | X | | | | | | 1: (carbon dioxide) | 1: (көмүртeк | 1: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | | диокс[е]{.ul}ди) | Mix) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - chemical | жөндөөчү | √: регул[я]{.ul}тор | | regulator\* | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - chemical | жөндөгүч | √: регул[я]{.ul}тор | | regulator\* | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - chemical | жөнгө салгыч | √: регул[я]{.ul}тор | | regulator\* | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - chemical | жөндөткөч | √: регул[я]{.ul}тор | | regulator\* | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - act of mastering | өздүштүрүү | Х | | a topic | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - bachelor's | бакал[а]{.ul}вр | Already Russian Word | | (degree) | | | | | 1: | 1: (Already Russian | | 1: (master's | ( | Word) | | \[degree\]) | магистрат[у]{.ul}ра) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - academy | акад[е]{.ul}мия | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Матем[а]{.ul}тикасы жана илими II** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - chemistry | х[и]{.ul}мия | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (biochemistry) | 1: (биох[и]{.ul}мия) | 1: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | | 2: (geochemistry) | 2: (геох[и]{.ul}мия) | | | | | 2: (Already Russian | | 3: (chemicalization) | 3: | Word) | | | (х | | | | [и]{.ul}миялаштыруу) | 3: (Kyrgyzised | | | | Russian) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - chlorine | хлор | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (chlorination) | 1: | 1: (Kyrgyzised | | | (хлордоо/хлордогон) | Russian) | | 2: (chloride) | | | | | 2: (хлор[и]{.ul}д) | 2: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - circle | айлана | Х | | (geometric | | | | figure) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - circle | тегерек | Х | | (geometric | | | | figure) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - classroom\* | окуу бөлмө(сү) | √: кабин[е]{.ul}т | | | | | | 1: (classroom in | 1: | 1: (Already Russian | | college) | (аудит[о]{.ul}рия) | Word) | | | | | | 2: (multi-purpose | 2: ([а]{.ul}ктовый | 2: (Already Russian | | room) | зал) | Word) | | | | | | 3: (reading room) | 3: (окуу зал\[ы\]) | 3: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | | | Mix) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - code | код | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - combustion | күйүү | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - compass (for | ц[и]{.ul}ркуль | Already Russian Word | | drawing circles) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - competency | компетенттүүлүк | √: | | | | компет[е]{.ul}нция | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - concentration | концентр[а]{.ul}ция | Already Russian Word | | | | | | > (mental state or | | | | > liquid) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cone\ | к[о]{.ul}нус | Already Russian Word | | (3D geometric | | | | figure) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - confusion | жаңылыш | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - counseling | окуу боюнча кеңеш | Х | | (academic) | берүү | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - course; year in | курс | Already Russian Word | | college | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - crossing out | ажыратуу/ажыраткан | Х | | (things in | | | | equation); | | | | clearing of an | | | | equation | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cube | куб | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cunning | амалдуулук | Х | | | | | | 1: (fox-like | 1: (түлкүлүк) | 1: (Х) | | cunningness) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cylinder | цил[и]{.ul}ндр | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - dean's office | декан[а]{.ul}т | Already Russian Word | | (university) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - decision | чечим | Х | | | | | | 1: (act or process | 1: (чечүү/чечкен) | 1: (Х) | | of solving) | | | | | 2: (чечим кабыл | 2: (Х) | | 2: (decision-making) | алуу/\ | | | | чечим кабыл алган) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Матем[а]{.ul}тикасы жана илими III** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - decreasing;\ | азаюу/азайган | Х | | act of cutting | | | | back | 1: | 1: (Х) | | | (азайтуу/азайткан) | | | 1: (decrease; | | | | diminishing) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - degree (in | гр[а]{.ul}дус | Already Russian Word | | circle, temp) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - delineation; | тизмек | Х | | breakdown of | | | | something so as | | | | to understand it | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - density; | жыштык | Х | | thickness; | | | | frequency | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - department (in | с[е]{.ul}кция | Already Russian Word | | school) | | | | | 1: | 1: (Already Russian | | 1: (faculty | (факульт[е]{.ul}т) | Word) | | \[university\] | | | | | 2: (к[а]{.ul}федра) | 2: (Already Russian | | 2: (department | | Word) | | \[university\]) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - dialectics | диал[е]{.ul}ктика | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - diploma | дипл[о]{.ul}м | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (certificate of | 1: (аттест[а]{.ul}т) | 1: (Already Russian | | secondary | | Word) | | | 2: (күбөлүк) | | | school graduation | | 2: (Х) | | | | | | \[diploma\]) | | | | | | | | 2: (certificate of | | | | incomplete | | | | | | | | secondary education | | | | \[to 9^th^ | | | | | | | | grade\]) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - division | бөлүү | Х | | | | | | 1: (separation; | 1: (бөлүнүш) | 1: (Х; *кыргыздардын | | division \[i.e. of | | уруу* | | | | | | group of people\]) | | *боюнча \...*) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - elasticity | ийкемдүүлүк | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - element | элем[е]{.ul}нт | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - elucidation; | аныктоо/аныктаган | Х | | specification; | | | | | | | | > clarification | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - ember | чок | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - emission; | чыгарыш | Х | | outcome | | | | | | | | > (of something) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - encyclopedia | энциклоп[е]{.ul}дия | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - energy | эн[е]{.ul}ргия | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (renewable | 1: (туруктуу | 1: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | energy) | эн[е]{.ul}ргия) | Mix) | | | | | | 2: (electric energy) | 2: (эл[е]{.ul}ктр | 2: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | | эн[е]{.ul}ргиясы) | Mix) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - enzyme | энз[и]{.ul}м | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - equation | теңдиме | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - ethanol | эт[и]{.ul}л | Kyrgyzised Russian | | | сп[и]{.ul}рти | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - ether | эф[и]{.ul}р | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - diagonal (line) | диагон[а]{.ul}ль | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - didactics | дид[а]{.ul}ктика | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (study of how to | 1: | 1: (Already Russian | | teach | (лин | Word) | | | гводид[а]{.ul}ктика) | | | languages) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Матем[а]{.ul}тикасы жана илими IV** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - exam | экз[а]{.ul}мен | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (final exam) | 1: (чейрек чыгаруу | 1: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | | экз[а]{.ul}мен) | Mix) | | 2: (state exam; | | | | | 2: (гос. | 2: (Already Russian | | standardized exam) | экз[а]{.ul}мен) | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - example\*\ | мисал | X | | (*Russian: | | | | прим[е]{.ul}р*) | 1: (үлгү) | 1: (Х) | | | | | | 1: (example or model | | | | of how | | | | | | | | to do something | | | | | | | | \[*Russian: | | | | образ[е]{.ul}ц*\]) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - exercise (for | көнүгүү | X | | practice) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - experiment | эксперим[е]{.ul}нт | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - explanation\* | түшүндүрүү | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - explosion | жарылыш | Х | | | | | | 1: (act of | 1: (жарылуу) | 1: (Х) | | exploding) | | | | | 2: (жардыруу) | 2: (Х) | | 2: (act of | | | | exploding/blowing | | | | | | | | up something else) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - fact | ф[а]{.ul}кты | Kyrgyzised Russian | | | | | | | | (*Pl. noun is now | | | | singular*) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - factorial | фактори[а]{.ul}л | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - field trip | сабактык | Kyrgyz-Russian Mix | | | экск[у]{.ul}рсия | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - figure | фиг[у]{.ul}ра | Already Russian Word | | (geometric) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - finding | табылга | Х | | (conclusion made | | | | from an | | | | experiment) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - fire (natural | от | Х | | occurance) | | | | | 1: (жалын) | 1: (Х) | | 1: (flame) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - flash card | к[а]{.ul}рточка | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - force (in | күч | Х | | physics) | | | | | 1: (оордук күчү) | 1: (Х) | | 1: (gravity) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - formula | ф[о]{.ul}рмула | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - frequency | ылдамдык | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - gas (natural, | газ | Already Russian Word | | energy) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - gathering of | лин[е]{.ul}йка | Already Russian Word | | students at | | | | school, usually | | | | to disseminate | | | | information \~\> | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - glicerine | глицер[и]{.ul}н | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - grade; mark | баа | Х | | | | | | 1: (evaluation; | 1: (баалоо) | 1: (Х) | | grading; | | | | | | | | assessment) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - geology | геол[о]{.ul}гия | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Матем[а]{.ul}тикасы жана илими V** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - grade; year in | класс | Already Russian Word | | school; one's | | | | class | 1: (класстык журнал) | 1: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | | | Mix) | | 1: | 2: (башталгыч класс) | | | (government-issued | | 2: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | book | 3: (жогорку | Mix) | | | класстар) | | | where all grades are | | 3: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | kept) | 4: (төмөнкү | Mix) | | | класстар) | | | 2: (early | | 4: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | educational classes | 5: | Mix) | | -- | (подгр[у]{.ul}ппа) | | | | | 5: (Already Russian | | grades 1-3 in | | Word) | | Kyrgyzstan) | | | | | | | | 3: (lower grades | | | | \[4^th^ -- 7^th^\]) | | | | | | | | 4: (upper grades | | | | \[8^th^ -- 11^th^\]) | | | | | | | | 5: (division of the | | | | students of | | | | | | | | one class into | | | | smaller, | | | | | | | | more manageable | | | | groups | | | | | | | | for teaching them | | | | certain | | | | | | | | subjects) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - graduation | (мектепти) бүтүрүү | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - gram | грамм | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (kilogram) | 1: | 1: (Already Russian | | | (килогр[а]{.ul}мм) | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - history | тарых | Х | | | | | | 1: (natural history) | 1: (табигый тарых) | 1: (Х) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - idea | ой | √: ид[е]{.ul}я | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - ignition; | (от) жагуу/жаккан | Х | | setting fire to | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - ignition; | (от) | Х | | setting fire to | ту | | | | тандыруу/тутандырган | 1: (Х) | | 1: (lighter fluid) | | | | | 1: (тутандыруучу | | | | суюктук) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - incompetence | жөнөмсүздүк | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - institute | инстит[у]{.ul}т | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (med school) | 1: | 1: (Already Russian | | | (мединстит[у]{.ul}т) | Word) | | 2: (pedagogical | | | | institute) | 2: | 2: (Already Russian | | | (пединстит[у]{.ul}т) | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - intelligence | акыл | Х | | | | | | 1: (smartness) | 1: (акылдуулук) | 1: (Х) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - introduction\ | киришүү | Х | | (to a topic) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - iota | й[о]{.ul}та | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - kindergarten\* | бала()бакча | √: с[а]{.ul}дик | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - knowledge\* | билим | Х | | | | | | 1: (competence; | 1: (билүү) | 1: (Х) | | | | | | act of knowing\*) | 2: (гуманитардык | 2: (Х) | | | билим) | | | 2: (humanities) | | 3: (Х) | | | 3: (билим берүү) | | | 3: (education) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - laboratory | лаборат[о]{.ul}рия | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - lecture | л[е]{.ul}кция | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - insightfulness; | кыраакылык | Х | | shrewdness | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Матем[а]{.ul}тикасы жана илими VI** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - lesson; class | сабак | √: предм[е]{.ul}т | | (one takes) | | | | | 1: (сабактын | 1: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | 1: (lesson plan) | пл[а]{.ul}ны) | Mix) | | | | | | 2: (teaching;\ | 2: (сабак | 2: (Х)\ | | act of conducting | берүү/берген) | 3: (Х) | | class) | | | | | 3: (сабак | | | 3: (teaching;\ | өтүү/өткөн) | | | act of conducting | | | | class) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - level; the | деңгээл | X | | extent to | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - liter | литр | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (milliliter) | 1: | 1: (Already Russian | | | (миллил[и]{.ul}тр) | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - logic | л[о]{.ul}гика | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - majority | көпчүлүк | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - mathematic | амал | X | | operation | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - mathematics; | матем[а]{.ul}тика | Already Russian Word | | math | | | | | 1: | 1: (Already Russian | | 1: (arithmetic) | (арифм[е]{.ul}тика) | Word) | | | | | | 2: (algebra) | 2: ([а]{.ul}лгебра) | 2: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | | 3: (geometry) | 3: | | | | (геометр[и]{.ul}я) | 3: (Already Russian | | 4: (trigonometry) | | Word) | | | 4: | | | | (т | 4: (Already Russian | | | ригонометр[и]{.ul}я) | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - matter (building | зат | √: мат[е]{.ul}рия | | block of | | | | universe) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - maximum | максим[у]{.ul}м | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - measurement; a | ченем | √: нормат[и]{.ul}в\ | | measure; | | (*norm meaning | | | 1: (ченөө/ченеген) | only*) | | > a norm | | | | | 2: (ченөө | 1: (X) | | 1: (act of | л[е]{.ul}нтасы) | | | measuring) | | 2: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | | 3: (ченемдүүлүк) | Mix) | | 2: (measuring tape) | | | | | | 3: (Х) | | 3: (measurability) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - memory (one | эскер калган | Kyrgyz-Russian Mix | | instance of | мом[е]{.ul}нт | | | remembering, | | | | i.e. fondest | | | | memory) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - memory (one's | эс тутум | Х | | capability)\* | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - memory (one's | эс акыл | Х | | capability)\* | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - memory (one's | эстөө сезим | Х | | capability)\* | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - memory; | эскерүү | Х | | recollection; | | | | remembrance | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - method | ыкма | √: мет[о]{.ul}д | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - methodology | мет[о]{.ul}дика | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - microscope | микроск[о]{.ul}п | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - mineral | минер[а]{.ul}л | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (mineralology) | 1: | 1: (Already Russian | | | (минерал[о]{.ul}гия) | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - minority | азчылык | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - molecule | мол[е]{.ul}кула | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - method | усул | √: мет[о]{.ul}д | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Матем[а]{.ul}тикасы жана илими VII** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - monoglyceride | моноглицер[и]{.ul}д | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (diglyceride) | 1: | 1: (Already Russian | | | (диглицер[и]{.ul}д) | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - multiplication | көбөйтүү | Х | | | | | | 1: (an increase) | 1: (көбөйүү) | 1: (X) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - museum | муз[е]{.ul}й | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: ("house | 1: (үй-музей) | 1: (Kyrgyz Russian | | museum"\*) | | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - notes (one makes | эскертүү | X | | or takes) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - number; amount; | сан | X | | quantity | | | | | 1: (н[о]{.ul}мер) | 1: (Already Russian | | 1: (string or series | | Word) | | of numbers) | 1a: (ц[и]{.ul}фра) | | | | | 1а: (Already Russian | | 1a: (figure; digit | 1б: (Рим | Word) | | | ц[и]{.ul}фра) | | | \[one number in a | | 1б: (Kyrgyzised | | string\]) | 2: (эсептик сан) | Russian) | | | | | | 1б: (Roman numeral) | 3: (бөлчөк сан) | 2: (X) | | | | | | 2: (cardinal number) | 4: (иреттик сан) | 3: (X) | | | | | | 3: (fraction) | 5: (саноо/санаган) | 4: (X) | | | | | | 4: (ordinal number) | 6: (жуп жан) | 5: (Х) | | | | | | 5: (counting \[act | 7: (так сан) | 6: (Х) | | of\]) | | | | | 8: (болжолдуу сан) | 7: (Х) | | 6: (odd number) | | | | | 9: (жандама жан) | 8: (Х) | | 7: (even number; | | | | integer) | | 9: (Х) | | | | | | 8: (approximate | | | | number) | | | | | | | | 9: (approximate | | | | number) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - number's one's | бирдик | Х | | place\* | | | | | 1: (ондук) | 1: (Х) | | 1: (number's ten's | | | | place) | 2: (жүздүк) | 2: (Х) | | | | | | 2: (number's | | | | hundred's place) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - one's expertise | адискөй экендик | Х | | in a given field | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - overview | үстүртөн | Х\ | | | | *Америка жөнүндө | | > (not detailed | | \... талкуулайбыз* | | > account) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - oxidization | кычкылдануу | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - paraben | параб[е]{.ul}н | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - particle | бөлүкчө | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - pedagogy | педаг[о]{.ul}гика | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - pentagon | беш бурчтук | Х | | | | | | 1: (hexagon) | 1: (алты бурчтук) | 1: (Х) | | | | | | 2: (heptagon) | 2: (жети бурчтук) | 2: (Х) | | | | | | 3: (octagon) | 3: (сегиз бурчтук) | 3: (Х) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - percent | пайыз | √: проц[е]{.ul}нт | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - order | ирээт | Х | | (sequential | | | | listing)\* | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Матем[а]{.ul}тикасы жана илими VIII** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - period (of study | саат | Х | | in school) | | | | | 1: (класстык саат) | 1: (Х) | | 1: (time a class has | | | | with their | | | | | | | | homeroom teacher) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - philosophy | филос[о]{.ul}фия | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - physics | ф[и]{.ul}зика | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - point (one | балл | Already Russian Word | | receives for | | | | correct answer | | | | on test) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - polyhedron | көп грандык | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - powder | айна | √: порош[о]{.ul}к | | (non-edible) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - psychology | психол[о]{.ul}гия | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (psychiatry) | 1: | 1: (Already Russian | | | (психиатр[и]{.ul}я) | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - PTA | ата-энелер | Kyrgyz-Russian Mix | | | комит[е]{.ul}ти | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - puzzle (for fun | баш катырма | Х | | or enigma to | | | | figure out) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - pyramid\ | пирам[и]{.ul}да | Already Russian Word | | (3D geometric | | | | figure) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - quarter (in | чейрек | Х | | school); | | | | | | | | > ¼ of something | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - question | суроо | X | | | | | | 1: (question and | 1: (суроо-жооп) | 1: (Х) | | answer) | | | | | 2: (сурамжылоо) | 2: (Х) | | 2: (questioning | | | | something) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - reason (ability | эстүүлүк | Х | | to reason); | | | | sentience | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - rectangle | тик бурчтук | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - reflexion | рефл[е]{.ul}кция | Already Russian Word | | (mental | | | | rumination over | | | | something) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - remainder;\ | калдык | Х | | something left | | | | behind or | 1: (ташка айланган | 1: (Х) | | remaining | калдык) | | | | | | | 1: (fossil) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - repetition; | кайталоо | Х | | practice\ | | | | (of knowledge) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - rhombus; diamond | ромб | Already Russian Word | | shape | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - reflection | чагылуу | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - review (of | рец[е]{.ul}нзия | Already Russian Word | | academic work); | | | | peer review | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - reagent; | химреакт[и]{.ul}в | Already Russian Word | | reactant | | | | (substance or | | | | compound added | | | | to another to | | | | produce a | | | | reaction) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Матем[а]{.ul}тикасы жана илими IX** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - riddle | табышмак | Х | | | | | | 1: (answer to a | 1: (жандырмак) | 1: (Х) | | riddle) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - school | мектеп | √: школ (Kyrgyzised | | | | Russian) | | 1: (secondary | 1: (орто мектеп) | | | \[middle\] school) | | 1: (√: орто школ | | | 2: | | | 2: (boarding school) | (мек | \[Kyrgyzised | | | теп-интерн[а]{.ul}т) | Russian\]) | | 3: (school of higher | | | | education) | 3: (жогорку мектеп) | 2: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | | | Mix) | | 4: (lyceum; lycee\*) | 4: (лиц[е]{.ul}й) | | | | | 3: (√: жогорку школ | | 5: (high school\*) | 5: (гимн[а]{.ul}зия) | | | | | \[Kyrgyzised | | 6: (vocational | 6: (кесиптик мектеп) | Russian\]) | | school; | | | | | 7: (менчик мектеп) | 4: (Already Russian | | trade school) | | Word) | | | 8: (медресе) | | | 7: (private school) | | 5: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | | 8: (madrasa) | | | | | | 6: (√: кеcиптик школ | | | | | | | | \[Kyrgyzised | | | | Russian\]) | | | | | | | | 7: (√: менчик школ | | | | | | | | \[Kyrgyzised | | | | Russian\]) | | | | | | | | 8: (Х) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - science | илим | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - semester | сем[е]{.ul}стр | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - seminar | семин[а]{.ul}р | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - side (of | жак | Х | | geometric | | | | figure) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - side (of | каптал | Х | | geometric | | | | figure) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - simplification | жөйнөкөйлөө | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - skipping class | сабактан | Х | | | качуу/качкан | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - solution | эритме | Х | | (mixture whereby | | | | one liquid is | | | | diluted in | | | | another) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - solution | ире | Х | | (mixture whereby | | | | one liquid is | | | | diluted in | | | | another) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - spark (of fire) | учкун | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - speciality;\ | адистик | X | | university major | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sphere\ | шар | Already Russian Word | | (3D geometric | | | | figure) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - square | төрт чарчы | √: квадр[а]{.ul}т | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - square | төрт бурчтук | √: квадр[а]{.ul}т | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - square (of a | даража | Х | | number) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - saltpetre; | сел[и]{.ul}тра | Already Russian Word | | sodium nitrate | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Матем[а]{.ul}тикасы жана илими X** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - square root; | тамыр | √: радик[а]{.ul}л | | radical | | | | | 1: (тамырдын | 1: (√: радикалдын | | 1: (square root | белгиси) | белгиси) | | sign;\ | | | | radical sign) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - stabilizer | турукташтыргыч | √: | | (chemical) | | стабилиз[а]{.ul}тор | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - state (of | эт[а]{.ul}п | Already Russian Word | | development) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - statistics | стат[и]{.ul}стика | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - steam | буу | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - studying (act | окуу/окуган | X | | of);\ | | | | one's studies | 1: (окуу жылы) | 1: (Х) | | | | | | 1: (school year; | 2: (окуу жайы) | 2: (Х) | | | | | | academic year) | 3: (календардык | 3: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | | план) | Mix) | | 2: (educational | | | | establishment) | 4: (окуу | 4: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | | прогр[а]{.ul}ммасы) | Mix) | | 3: (syllabus) | | | | | 5: (окуу | 5: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | 4: (syllabus) | пл[а]{.ul}ны) | Mix) | | | | | | 5: (curriculum) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - stupidity; | акмакчылык | Х | | foolishness | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - subtraction | кемитүү | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - Sudoku | суд[о]{.ul}ку | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sulfate | сульф[а]{.ul}т | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - surfactant | беттик | Х | | (chemical that | акт[и]{.ul}вдүү зат | | | decreases | | | | surface tension | | | | of liquid) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - system | тутум | √: сист[е]{.ul}ма | | | | | | 1: (systemization) | 1: (тутумдаштыруу) | 1: (√: | | | | си | | | | ст[е]{.ul}малаштыруу | | | | | | | | \[*Kyrgyzised | | | | Russian*\]) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - task; assignment | тапшырма | X | | | | | | 1: (homework) | 1: (үй\[гө\] | 1: (X) | | | тапшырма) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - teaching aid | окуу куралы | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - teaching; | окутуу/окуткан | Х | | | | | | > act of conducting | 1: | 1: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | > class | (ком[а]{.ul}ндалык | Mix) | | | окутуу) | | | 1: (team teaching) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - teaching; | үйрөтүү/үйрөткөн | X | | instruction | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - technicum; | т[е]{.ul}хникум | Already Russian Word | | | | | | > technical school | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - test | тест | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (testing) | 1: | 1: (X) | | | (те | | | 2: (test given at | стирлөө/тестирлеген) | 2: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | end of year to | | Mix) | | | 2: (көчүрүү тест) | | | see if student | | 3: (√: | | passes) | 3: (сынамык тест) | пр[о]{.ul}бный тест | | | | | | 3: (practice test) | 4: | \[*сынамык тест is* | | | (контр[о]{.ul}лдук | | | 4: (quiz; assignment | иш) | *Kyrgyz-Russian | | to be | | Mix*\]) | | | 5: (баштапкы тест) | | | graded) | | 4: (√: | | | 6: (акыркы тест) | контр[о]{.ul}льный | | 5: (pre-test) | | | | | | \[*Both are | | 6: (post-test) | | Kyrgyzised* | | | | | | | | *Russian\]*) | | | | | | | | 5: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | | | Mix) | | | | | | | | 6: (Kyrygz-Russian | | | | Mix) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Матем[а]{.ul}тикасы жана илими XI** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - theory | те[о]{.ul}рия | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - thermometer | терм[о]{.ul}метр | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - thermometer | гр[а]{.ul}дусник | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - thinking | ойлонуу/ойлонгон | Х | | | | | | 1: (critical | 1: (критикалык | 1: (Х) | | thinking) | ойлонуу/ | | | | | 2: (Х) | | 2: (rumination; | ойлонгон) | | | reflection | | | | | 2: (толгонуу) | | | upon; rumination; | | | | | | | | deep thought; | | | | deliberation) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - thought | ой | X | | | | | | 1: (contrivance; | 1: (ойлоп тапкан | 1: (Х) | | something | нерсе) | | | | | | | that has been | | | | thought up) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - total | жалпы | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - triangle | үч чарчы | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - triangle | үч бурчтук | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - understanding | түшүнүк | X | | | | | | 1: | 1: (туура эмес | 1: (X) | | (misunderstanding)\* | түшүнүк) | | | | | 2: (X) | | 2: (act of | 2: (түшүнүү) | | | understanding) | | 3: (Х) | | | 3: (түшүнүк жөндөм) | | | 3: (comprehension) | | 3a: (Х) | | | 3a: (окуу түшүнүгү | | | 3a: (reading | жөндөм) | 4: (Х) | | comprehension) | | | | | 4: (түшүнбөстүк) | | | 4: | | | | (incomprehension;\ | | | | lack of | | | | understanding;\ | | | | misunderstanding)\* | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - unit | бирдик | X | | | | | | 1: (unit of | 1: (өлчөө бирдиги) | 1: (X) | | measurement) | | | | | 1a: (ярд) | 1а: (Already Russian | | 1a: (yard, approx. 3 | | Word) | | metres) | 1б: (дюйм) | | | | | 1б: (Already Russian | | 1б: (inch) | | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - university | университ[е]{.ul}т | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - vacuum (no air) | в[а]{.ul}куум | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - volume (of | көлөм | X | | container);\ | | | | capacity\* | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - volume (of | сыйымдуулук | Х | | container); | | | | capacity\* | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - warm-up activity | шыктандыруу | Х | | | | | | 1: (warm-up activity | 1: (жылуу маанай | 1: (Х) | | in | тартулоо) | | | | | | | Kyrgyz schools) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - wisdom | акылмандуулук | Х | | | | | | 1: (wisdom of a | 1: (накыл кептер) | 1: (Х) | | society's | | | | | | | | elders) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - truism | акыйкат | Х | | (philosophy);\ | | | | reality; the | | | | "truth"\* | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ [\ ]{.ul} **Матем[а]{.ul}тикасы жана илими XII** [Notes on Nouns Pertaining to Mathematics and Science]{.ul} \*As *жөндөгүч, жөндөткөч,* and *жөнгө салгыч* are nominalizations stemming from the verb *жөнгө сал-* (to regulate), and because the verb requires its objects to be in dative case, nouns used with these nominalizations also occur in dative case: *кычкылдуулук**ка** жөндөгүч/* *жөндөткөч/жөнгө салгыч* = regulator for acidity. *Жөндөөчү*, however, appears to take nouns in accusative: *кычкылдыкты жөндөөчү*. \*In my school in Naryn, the word *кабин[е]{.ul}ти* is used with 3^rd^ person possessed genitive morphology whenever one is specifying a certain room: *х[и]{.ul}мия кабин[е]{.ul}ти* = chemistry classroom. In Chui, however, it appears that *канасы* (3^rd^ person possessed form of *кана*) is preferred (as seen in my practicum school and heard from my host mother.) In the Kazarman dialect, an elongated a can be found: *чет тили каанасы*. Note that *кабин[е]{.ul}т* is much more used than the pure Kyrgyz. \*This word can sometimes be seen with *бала* in plural: *балдар бакчасы.* \*Knowledge of how to do a certain thing is expressed with verb *+ /й +* б*илүү:\ Microsoft Word колдоно билүү =* knowledge of Microsoft Word. Also, *билген* can be nominalized to mean "what is known": *Мен дагы билгендеримди мугалимдер менен бөлүшөм.* = I'll also share what I know with the teachers. \*Whenever the specific type of acid is named, the word *кычкыл/кислот[а]{.ul}* will exhibit third person possessed genitive morphology: *лим[о]{.ul}н кычкылы/кислот[а]{.ul}сы* = citric acid. *ф[о]{.ul}лий кислот[а]{.ul}сы = folic acid* \*There are three ways to say "for example": *мисал үчүн, мисалы,* or *мисалга.* *Үлгүдөгүдөй* means "as (shown) in the example/model." *Үлгүдөгүдөй кыл-* means "to follow the example" or "do as show how in the example." \*The explanation of something still requires the previous noun to take accusative case:\ explanation of a word/a word's explanation -- *сөздү түшүндүрүү.* \*In the number 321, 1 is in the *бирдик*, 2 is in the *ондук*, and 3 is in the *жүздүк*. Technically words such as *\*миңдик* for the thousand's place and other variations should exist, but I haven't encountered them. *\**Of the three, *эс тутум* is the most used. \*House meseums are popular throughout the former Soviet Union; a house museum is the reconverted house of a famous person into a museum about that person's life. \**ирээти менен* = in order \*Both *гимн[а]{.ul}зиялар* and *лиц[е]{.ul}йлер* are similar to American private schools. The tuition to attend these schools is paid by the parents, and many of them specialize in certain field (like math, science, or language) or are sponsored by private donors (like the Turkish government for Turkish lycees). \**Акыйкат* is truth as a philosophical concept; *чындык*'s meaning is much more straightforward: anything that is not a lie. The adjective анык can be nominalized to mean "to reality; the actuality" of something, m*aking it s ynonym of акыйкат: аныгын билим алгын = find out the truth about that.* \*There is no difference between the terms *туура эмес түшүнүк* and *түшүнбөстүк*. \**Көлөм* is the term that is most generally used in conversational Kyrgyz; *сыйымдуулук* is more often used in physics and other science discources to talk about the volume of containers. **Матем[а]{.ul}тикасы жана илими XIII** > [Other Nouns Pertaining to Math and Science]{.ul} \*In Kyrgyz schools, the *олимпи[а]{.ul}да* is a annual or biannual event where the best students from a school go to compete against other schools' students in a variety of subjects. A school's reputation, funding, and even teacher advancement rides on the success of the students at the Olympiad. \*Schools in Kyrgyzstan are divided into two shifts, called either *алмаш* or *см[е]{.ul}на*. Generally, the beginning forms and in the morning, whereas the younger students study in the evening. An *ак[о]{.ul}шка* is a break between classes for a teacher, like having 3^rd^ period free, but you teach 2^nd^ and 4^th^. The break between the two shifts, usually 30 minutes, is called a *перем[е]{.ul}на,* or in pure Kyrgyz (but much less used) *танапис.* \**ЖОЖ* is an abbreviation which stands for institute of higher education and is a catch-all term for referring to universities, colleges, and trade schools. Its Russian equivalent is *ВУЗ.* \*The Kyrgyzstani Ministry of Education is divided up so that all levels of the country's education system are overseen: \- *Район[о]{.ul}* = the organization and those working for it which oversee a *рай[о]{.ul}н'*s schools. \* *Горон[о]{.ul}* = the organization and those working for it which oversee a city's schools. \*The variable *y* in equations is read as "*и грек*." \*The *Жалпы Респ[у]{.ul}бликалык Тест* (often shortened to *ЖРТ* or *ОРТ* from its Russian translation *[О]{.ul}бщий Республик[а]{.ul}нский Тест*) is the Kyrgyzstani version of the SAT or ACT. \*A *зачёт* is a "report card" or final grade that university students receive after each module. The professor needs to designate whether each student successfully completed the module or not. The professor will sign each individual student's *зачётка*, or the notebook/card that the grade goes in, with either a numerical grade (2-5) or the words *зачёт* (passed) or *не зачёт* (failed). A class that does not give numerical grades but is rather simply pass-fail is known as *зачёт или не зачёт*. All of these terms are Russian loanwords rather than Kyrgyz. \**Акыркы коӊуроо*, or "last bell," is the graduation celebrations in Kyrgyzstan. **Матем[а]{.ul}тикасы жана илими XIV** [Kyrgyz Language Periodic Table of Elements\ ]{.ul} \**ам[о]{.ul}ний* = ammonia \**г[е]{.ul}лий* = helium \**йод* = iodine \**калай* = tin \**к[а]{.ul}лий* = potassium (K) \**к[а]{.ul}льций* = calcium (Ca) \**кислор[о]{.ul}д* = oxygen (O) \**көмүртек* = carbon (C) \**кр[е]{.ul}мний* = silicone \**күкүрт* = sulphur \**м[а]{.ul}гний* = magnesium (M) \**н[а]{.ul}трий* = sodium (Na) \**сымап* = mercury \**суутек/водор[о]{.ul}д* = hydrogen (H) \**ур[а]{.ul}н =* uranium \**фтор[и]{.ul}д* = fluoride \**ф[о]{.ul}сфор =* phosphoros \**хлор* = chlorine \**цинк* = zink **Матем[а]{.ul}тикасы жана илими XV** +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | **Сын Атоочтор жана Тактоочтор** | | +==================================+==================================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - acetylated; acetylized | ацет[и]{.ul}л | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - acidic | кычкылдуу | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - acidic | кислот[а]{.ul}луу | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - analytic; analytical | аналитикалык | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - archeological | археол[о]{.ul}гиялык | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - attributive of "class" | класстык | | | | | | (*класстык журнал*) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - attributive of "semester" | сем[е]{.ul}стрдик | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - cardinal (number) | эсептик | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - characterized by the | бүт шк[о]{.ul}льный | | participation of the entire | | | school \~\> | (from Russian: | | | *всешк[о]{.ul}льный*) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - chemical; pertaining to | х[и]{.ul}миялык | | chemistry | | | | 1: (биох[и]{.ul}миялык) | | 1: (biochemical; pertaining to | | | biochemistry) | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - chlorinated; possessing | хлордуу | | chlorine | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - competent | компет[е]{.ul}нттүү | | | | | 1: (incompetent) | 1: (жөнөмсүз) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - complex (structure -- i.e. | компл[е]{.ul}кстүү | | of molecule) | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - concentrated (solution) | концентр[а]{.ul}цияланган | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - containing monoglycerides | моноглицер[и]{.ul}ддик | | | | | 1: (containing diglycerides) | 1: (диглицер[и]{.ul}ддик) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - containing sodium | н[а]{.ul}трийлүү | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - containing sulfate | сульф[а]{.ul}ттуу | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - correct\* | туура | | | | | 1: (incorrect) | 1: (туура эмес) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - countable | саналуу | | | | | 1: (countless) | 1: (санатсыз) | | | | | 2: (countless; innumerable) | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - cunning | амалдуу | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - curious | кулак түргүч | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - curious | любоп[и]{.ul}тный | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - methodological; | усулдук | | | | | - pertaining to a certain | | | method | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - dialectal | диал[е]{.ul}ктикалык | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - difficult | оор | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - difficult; complicated; | татаал | | complex | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - educated | билимдүү | | | | | 1: (uneducated; ignorant) | 1: (билимсиз) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - elastic | ийкемдүү | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - attributive of | экз[а]{.ul}мендик | | "examination;"\ | | | pertaining to an examination | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - educated | билгич | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - contrived; thought of | ойлоп тапкан | | | | | 1: (ingenious) | 1: (ойлоп тапкыч) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ **Матем[а]{.ul}тикасы жана илими XVI** +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | **Сын Атоочтор жана Тактоочтор** | | +==========================================+==========================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - encyclopedic | энциклоп[е]{.ul}диялык | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - enigmatic; mysterious; | табышмактуу | | | | | > pertaining to a riddle | | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - exact | так | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - explanatory; explicative | түшүндүрмөлүү | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - extracurricular | класстан тышкары | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - flaming; buring hot | жалындуу | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - forgetful | унутчаак | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - gifted; advanced (student)\* | зээндүү | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - high (grade on test) | жогоргу\ | | | (*баа*) | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - historical | тарыхый | | | | | 1: (pertaining to natural history) | 1: (табигый-тарыхый) | | | | | 2: (to have gone down in history) | 2: (тарыхта калган)и | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - informational; informative | маалыматтык | | | | | 1: (for more information | 1: (кенен маалымат) | | | | | \[seen on advertisements/signs\]) | | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - informational; informative | информ[а]{.ul}циялык | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - intellectual | интеллекту[а]{.ul}лдык | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - introductory | киришүү | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - iodinized | йоддолгон | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - isosceles (triangle) | тең капталдуу | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - mathematic; mathematical | математикалык | | | | | 1: (arithmetic) | 1: (арифметикалык) | | | | | 2: (algebraic) | 2: (алгебралык) | | | | | 3: (geometric) | 3: (геометр[и]{.ul}ялык) | | | | | 4: (trigonometric) | 4: (тригонометриялык) | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - maximal; maximum | максималдуу | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - measurable | ченемдүү | | | | | 1: (beyond measure) | 1: (ченемсиз) | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - mental; taking place in one's mind | менталдык | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - methodological | методикалык | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - mineral | минералдуу | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - mineral | минералдык | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - minimal | минималдуу | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - molecular | молекулалык | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - naked (truth/facts) | куру (*фактылар)* | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - nominal (significant; of weight) | номиналдуу | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - ordinal (number) | иреттик | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - organic (matter) | орг[а]{.ul}никалык | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - pedagogical | педаг[о]{.ul}гикалык | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - pertaining to class or lessons | сабактык | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - logical | л[о]{.ul}гикалык | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - insightful; shrewd; forward-thinking | кыраакы | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ **Матем[а]{.ul}тикасы жана илими XVII** +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | **Сын Атоочтор жана Тактоочтор** | | +==================================+==================================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - pertaining to energy | энергетикалык | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - pertaining to the humanities | гуманитардык | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - philosophical | философиялык | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - physical; pertaining to | физикалык | | physics | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - polyhedronal | көп грандык | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - post-graduate (attributive) | ЖОЖдон кийинки | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - practice (test; examination) | сынамык | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - pre-school (attributive) | мектепке чейинки | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - psychological | психологиялык | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - public (school) | массалык | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - quarterly (i.e. report);\ | чейректик | | attributive of "school | | | quarter" | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - reasonable; reasoning; | (акыл-)эстүү | | endowed with reason; | | | sentient | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - scientific | илимий | | | | | 1: (pertaining to scientific | 1: (илим-изилдөө | | research) | \[*\...институт*\]) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - simple; not complicated | жөнөкөй | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - sly | амалкөй | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - smart; intelligent | акылдуу | | | | | 1: (stupid; dumb) | 1: (акылсыз) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - square (i.e. meters) | чарчы (\...*метр)* | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - stupid | келесоо | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - stupid; foolish | акмак | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - suspected; expected (answer) | болжолдуу | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - systemic; systematic | системдүү | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - theoretical; theoretically | те[о]{.ul}риялык | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - understandable\* | түшүнүктүү | | | | | 1: (incomprehensible; not | 1: (түшүнүксүз) | | understandable) | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - unforgettable | унутулгус | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - voluminous (being full of | сыйымдуу | | volume, space) | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - well-known | белгилүү | | | | | 1: (unknown) | 1: (белгисиз) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - wise | акылман | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - positive (positively charged | оӊ | | particle or current) | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - reactive (element/compound) | реакт[и]{.ul}вдүү | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ **Матем[а]{.ul}тикасы жана илими XVIII** > [Notes on Adjectives and Adverbs Pertaining to Mathematics and > Science]{.ul} \**Туура* can also be used as an interjection when saying something is correct! Also, to say "You are correct," the possessive form of a pronoun is used: *Сиздики/Сеники туура.* \**Алдынкы окуган* (excellent), *жакшы окуган* (good), and *орточо окуган* (average) are other terms used to evaluate a student. \*A possessed verb and *түшүнүктүү* are used to mean "It makes since that..."\ *Ата-энелери дайыма арак ичишет. Тентек бала болгону түшүнүктүү\...* **Матем[а]{.ul}тикасы жана илими XIX** > [Other Adjectives and Adverbs Pertaining to Mathematics and > Science]{.ul} \*There are some nouns which can be used adjectivally when the modified noun exhibits 3^rd^ person singular genitive morphology: > \- *газ* = gas (as opposed to electric) > > \- *күкүрт* = sulphur; made from Sulphur; sulphuric*; күкүрт диокседи* > > \- *окуу* = educational; *окуу жайы* > > \- *ф[о]{.ul}сфор* = phosphoric; *ф[о]{.ul}сфор кычкылы* \*The Russian words *созн[а]{.ul}тельно* and *несонз[а]{.ul}тельно* are also used in Kyrgyz to state that something was doen "consciously" or "unconsciously," repectively. The more Kyrgyz method of saying this uses verbal constructions: *байкабай* or *ойлонуп/билип жаса* (for doing something consciously) or *ойлонбой эле жаса* (for doing something unconsciously). \*The way of saying "bad", as in a bad grade, is not *жаман*; it is *начар*: *Начар баа алдым*. \*The names of chemical compounds are generally created in one of two ways: 1\) The first chemical is stated in nominative followed by the compound name in 3^rd^ person possessed morphology: *к[а]{.ul}лий нитр[а]{.ul}ты. = Potassium nitrate* 2\) The first chemical name is stated in adjectivalized form. \*When saying that you are good/bad at a school subject, the subject is in ablative case: *Мен тарыхтан жакшымын/начармын.* \*Flammable is translated with the phrase "*өрт чыгат*" (literally: Fire is emitted). Highly-flammable objects can be translated as *тез күйүүчү заттар*. \*In Kyrgyzstan, schools can be *кыргыз тилинде жүргүзүлгөн* (literally: conducted in the Kyrgyz language) оr *орус тилинде жүргүзүлгөн* (conducted in the Russian language). The wording is official; in everyday speech, people talk about a school being either *кыргыз* or *орус.* **Матем[а]{.ul}тикасы жана илими XX** +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | **Этиштер** | | | | +================+================+================+================+ | **Англис | **Этиштин | **Инфинитив** | **Жөндөмө жана | | Тили** | Уңгусу** | | Эскертүүлөр** | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to analyze | анализде- | анализдөө | Takes nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to answer | жооп бер- | жооп берүү | What you're | | | | | answering is | | | | | in dative | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | божомолдо- | божомолдоо | Takes nom/acc | | assume;\ | | | | | to | | | | | presume;\ | | | | | to suppose | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to be a | зам[е]{.ul}на | зам[е]{.ul}на | Set phrase | | substitute | кыл- | кылуу | | | teacher | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to be | камтыл- | камтылуу | Passive: | | covered in | | | камтылган | | class | | | грамматика | | (topic) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to become | түйүндөш- | түйүндөшүү | Intransitive | | | | | Reflexive | | complicated, | / | / | | | involved, | | | / | | or | түйүндөштүр- | түйүндөштүрүү | | | difficult | | | Takes nom/acc | | to answer | | | | | | | | | | > / | | | | | > | | | | | > to | | | | | > (o | | | | | ver)complicate | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to become | татаалдаш- | татаалдашуу | Intransitive | | | | | Reflexive | | complicated, | / | / | | | involved, | | | / | | or | татаалдаштыр- | татаалдаштыруу | | | difficult | | | Takes nom/acc | | to answer | | | | | | | | | | > / | | | | | > | | | | | > to | | | | | > (o | | | | | ver)complicate | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to become | кычкылдан- | кычкылдануу | Intransitive | | oxidized | | | Reflexive | | | / | / | | | > / | | | / | | > | кычкылдат- | кычкылдатуу | | | > to oxidize | | | Transitive | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to burn | өрттөн- | өрттөнүү | Intransitive | | | | | Reflexive | | (intrans);\ | | | | | to be | | | | | burning;\ | | | | | to be on | | | | | fire | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to burn | күй- | күйүү | Intransitive | | | | | Reflexive | | (intrans);\ | 1: (жалында-) | 1: (жалындоо) | | | to be | | | 1: | | burning;\ | / | / | (Intransitive) | | to be on | | | | | fire | күйгүз- | күйгүзүү | / | | | | | | | 1: (to blaze; | | | Transitive | | | | | | | to be aflame) | | | | | | | | | | > / | | | | | | | | | | to burn | | | | | (trans) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to be | чагыл- | чагылуу | Intransitive | | reflected | | | reflexive | | | / | / | | | > / | | | / | | | чагылдыр- | чагылдыруу | | | to reflect | | | Takes nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to be | жаңылып кал- | жаңылып калуу | Intransitive | | confused | | | | | | 1: (алмаштырып | 1: (алмаштырып | 1: (Takes | | 1: (to confuse | ал-) | | nom/acc) | | | | алуу) | | | \[two | | | | | things\]; | | | | | | | | | | to get mixed | | | | | up) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ **Матем[а]{.ul}тикасы жана илими XXI** +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | **Этиштер** | | | | +================+================+================+================+ | **Англис | **Этиштин | **Инфинитив** | **Жөндөмө жана | | Тили** | Уңгусу** | | Эскертүүлөр** | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | эсепте- | эсептөө | Takes nom/acc | | calculate | | | | | | 1: (чот как-) | 1: (чот кагуу) | 1: (Set | | 1: (to | | | phrase) | | calculate | | | | | using | | | | | | | | | | an abacus) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | котор- | которуу | *Мектептерди* | | | | | in acc | | change/move | | | | | schools | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | хлордо- | хлордоо | Takes nom/acc | | chlorinate | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | такта- | тактоо | Takes nom/acc; | | clarify; | | | | | | | | *Бас аны | | > to make | | | участоктон | | > clear;\ | | | тактайбыз -- | | > to find out; | | | Move, we'll | | > | | | find it out a | | > to specify | | | the station* | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | концентр | концентр | Takes nom/acc | | | [а]{.ul}цияла- | [а]{.ul}циялоо | | | concentrate | | | | | (chemical | | | | | solution) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | көңүл бур- | көңүл буруу | Dative case | | | | | for "on" | | concentrate | | | | | (on a | | | | | t | | | | | ask/problem);\ | | | | | to focus | | | | | (on) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | каршы ой айт- | каршы ой айтуу | Person in | | contradict | | | dative | | (person) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | ...деп эсепте- | \...деп | Verb in | | consider | | эсептөө | accusative | | | | | infinitive or | | | | | к/гн | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to count | сана- | саноо | Takes nom/acc | | | | | | | 1: (to count | 1: (толукта-) | 1: (толуктоо) | 1: (Takes | | and make | | | nom/acc) | | | | | | | sure | | | | | everything is | | | | | | | | | | accounted | | | | | for)\* | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to cross | ажырат- | ажыратуу | Takes nom/acc\ | | out;\ | | | *Тамырларды | | to cancel | | | ажыратуу = to | | out;\ | | | cancel out the | | to clear | | | square roots.* | | out parts | | | | | of an | | | | | equation | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | чеч- | чечүү | Takes nom/acc | | decide\* | | | | | | 1: (чечим | 1: (чечим | 1: (Set | | 1: (to make a | кабыл ал-) | кабыл | phrase) | | | | | | | decision)\* | | алуу) | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | х[и]{ | х[и]{. | Takes nom/acc | | | .ul}миялаштыр- | ul}миялаштыруу | | | chemicalize | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ **Матем[а]{.ul}тикасы жана илими XXII** +----------------+----------------+---------------+----------------+ | **Этиштер** | | | | +================+================+===============+================+ | **Англис | **Этиштин | **Инфинитив** | **Жөндөмө жана | | Тили** | Уңгусу** | | Эскертүүлөр** | +----------------+----------------+---------------+----------------+ | - to | аныкта- | аныктоо | Passive is | | determine | | | аныктал- | | | | | Каникулдардын | | | | | узактыгы Билим | | | | | м | | | | | инистрилигинин | | | | | буйругу арылуу | | | | | аныкталат = | | | | | The duration | | | | | of breaks is | | | | | determined by | | | | | direct order | | | | | from the | | | | | Ministry of | | | | | Education | +----------------+----------------+---------------+----------------+ | - to | калыптандыр- | калыптандыруу | Object usually | | de | | | in possessed | | velop/foster/\ | | | acc. | | build up | | | | | someone's | | | | | skills, | | | | | mind, or | | | | | education | | | | +----------------+----------------+---------------+----------------+ | - to | азай- | азаюу | Reflexive | | diminish;\ | | | Intransitive | | to | / | / | | | reduce;\ | | | / | | to detract | азайт- | азайтуу | | | | | | Takes nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+---------------+----------------+ | - to dissect | талда- | талдоо | | | an issue;\ | | | | | to analyze | | | | +----------------+----------------+---------------+----------------+ | - to divide | бөл- | бөлүү | Takes nom/acc | | | | | | | 1: (to be | 1: (бөлүн-) | 1: (бөлүнүү) | 1: | | divided into;\ | | | (Intransitive | | to be | | | | | separated | | | Reflexive: | | into;\ | | | into -- | | to | | | | | s | | | dative: | | eparate/divide | | | *Исл[а]{.ul}м | | | | | 2ге* | | oneself into) | | | | | | | | *бөлүнөт:* | | | | | | | | | | *шииттер жана* | | | | | | | | | | *сүннөттөр*) | +----------------+----------------+---------------+----------------+ | - to do | көнүгүү жаса- | көнүгүү жасоо | Takes nom/acc | | exercises | | | | +----------------+----------------+---------------+----------------+ | - to do | (үй тапшырма) | (үй тапшырма) | Takes nom/acc | | homework | | | | | | аткар- | аткаруу | | +----------------+----------------+---------------+----------------+ | - to educate | билим бер- | билим берүү | Those educated | | | | | in dat | +----------------+----------------+---------------+----------------+ | - to enroll | тизмеге кош- | тизмеге кошуу | | +----------------+----------------+---------------+----------------+ | - to equal\* | теӊдеш- | теӊдешүү | Use *менен* | | | | | for direct | | | | | object | +----------------+----------------+---------------+----------------+ **\ ** **Матем[а]{.ul}тикасы жана илими XXIII** +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | **Этиштер** | | | | +================+================+================+================+ | **Англис | **Этиштин | **Инфинитив** | **Жөндөмө жана | | Тили** | Уңгусу** | | Эскертүүлөр** | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | баала- | баалоо | Takes nom/acc | | evaluate;\ | | | | | to grade | 1: (баа кой-) | 1: (баа коюу) | 1: (Person or | | | | | test in | | 1: (to give a | 2: (баа бер-) | 2: (баа берүү) | | | grade; | | | dative) | | | 3: (*баа* ал-) | 3: (*баа* | | | to mark) | | алуу) | 2: (Person or | | | | | test in | | 2: (to give a | | | | | grade;\ | | | dative) | | to mark) | | | | | | | | 3: (баа is | | 3: (to receive | | | replaced by a | | a certain | | | number: 1, 2, | | | | | 3, 4, 5. The | | grade) | | | subject is in | | | | | ablative: | | | | | Историядан 5 | | | | | алдым.) | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | эксп | эксп | | | | ерим[е]{.ul}нт | ерим[е]{.ul}нт | | | experiment;\ | кыл- | кылуу | | | to do an | | | | | experiment | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to explode | жарыл- | жарылуу | Intransitive | | | | | reflexive | | > / | / | / | | | > | | | / | | > to explode;\ | жардыр- | жардыруу | | | > to blow up | | | Takes nom/acc | | > (trans) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to fail | кула- | кулоо | Экзамен in | | (test) | | | ablative.\ | | | | | Often with | | | | | helping verb | | | | | *кулап кал* | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to fail | өтпөй кал- | өтпөй калуу | Takes abl | | (test) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to forget | унут- | унутуу | Takes nom/acc; | | | | | verbs in к/гн | | | | | acc; often | | | | | seen as унутуп | | | | | кал- | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | эстен чыгар- | эстен чыгаруу | | | forget;\ | | | | | to leave | | | | | one's mind | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to gather | маалымат | маалымат | Takes nom/acc | | | топто- | топтоо | | | information | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | бүтүр- | бүтүрүү | School in | | graduate | | | accusative | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to guess;\ | тап- | табуу | | | to find | | | | | something | | | | | out | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | жак- | жагуу | Object often | | ignite;\ | | | *от* "fire" in | | to set | | | nom/acc | | fire to | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | тутандыр- | тутандыруу | Object *от* | | ignite;\ | | | can take | | to set | | | nom/acc | | fire to | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | йоддо- | йоддоо | Takes nom/acc | | iodinize | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to know\* | бил- | билүү | Takes nom/acc; | | | | | | | | | | Clauses | | | | | introduced by | | | | | экен + poss + | | | | | acc | | | | | | | | | | to know how = | | | | | verb + /й or | | | | | к/ген+acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | жогорула- | жогорулоо | Intransitive | | increase | | | reflexive | | | / | / | | | > /\ | | | / | | > to increase | жогорулат- | жогорулатуу | | | | | | Takes nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | көбөй- | көбөйүү | Intransitive | | increase | | | reflexive | | | 1: (эки эсе | 1: (эки эсе | | | 1: (to double) | көбөй-) | көбөйүү) | 1: | | | | | (Intransitive | | > /\ | / | / | | | > to increase | | | reflexive) | | | көбөйт- | көбөйтүү | | | 1: (to double) | | | / | | | 1: (эки эсе | 1: (эки эсе | | | | көбөйт-) | көбөйтүү) | Takes nom/acc | | | | | | | | | | 1: (Takes | | | | | nom/acc0 | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ **Матем[а]{.ul}тикасы жана илими XXIV** +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | **Этиштер** | | | | +================+================+================+================+ | **Англис | **Этиштин | **Инфинитив** | **Жөндөмө жана | | Тили** | Уңгусу** | | Эскертүүлөр** | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to learn | үйрөн- | үйрөнүү | Takes | | | | | nom/acc;\ | | | | | Verbs are in | | | | | к/гн + acc | | | | | forms | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to master | өздүштүр- | өздүштүрүү | Takes nom/acc | | | | | | | (subject);\ | | | | | to own (a | | | | | skill) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to measure | чене- | ченөө | Takes nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to melt | эри- | эрүү | Intransitive | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | жатта- | жаттоо | Takes nom/acc | | memorize | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | эсте сакта- | эсте сактоо | | | memorize | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | эске сакта- | эске сактоо | | | memorize | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | эске тут- | эске тутуу | | | memorize | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | көбөйт- | көбөйтүү | | | multiply | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to order;\ | ордуна кой- | ордуна коюу | Takes nom/acc | | to put in | | | | | order | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to order;\ | бөлөк-бөлөк | бөлөк-бөлөк | Takes nom/acc: | | to put in | тиз- | тизүү | Бул китептерди | | order;\ | | | \... тизип | | to | | | чыктык. | | separate | | | | | out;\ | | | | | to | | | | | organize | | | | | | | | | | > (put like | | | | | > with like) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to order;\ | иретте- | иреттөө | Takes | | to put in | | | nom/acc;\ | | order;\ | 1: (иретке | 1: (иретке | denotes | | to | келтир-) | келтирүү) | sequential | | sequence | | | order | | | | | | | 1: (to put in | | | 1: (Takes | | order) | | | nom/acc) | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to pay | көңүл бур- | көңүл бурyy | Pay attention | | attention | | | to = dat | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to pay | көңүл кой- | көңүл коюу | Pay attention | | attention | | | to = dat | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | философиялык | философиялык | Used with | | | ой жүргүз- | ой жүргүзүү | "about" | | philosophize | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | эстеп кал- | эстеп калуу | Intransitive; | | remember\* | | | more like "to | | | | | be remembered" | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | эскер- | эскерүү | | | remember\* | | | | | | 1: (эскерт-) | 1: (эскертүү) | | | 1: (to remind) | | | | | | 1а: (эскертип | 1а: (эскертип | | | 1a: (to remind | кой-) | коюу) | | | \[trans\]) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to revise | практикала- | практикалоо | Takes nom/acc | | (study);\ | | | | | to | | | | | practice | | | | | (skill) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to revise | кайтала- | кайталоо | Takes nom/acc | | (study);\ | | | | | to | | | | | practice | | | | | (skill) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | жөнөкөйлөштүр | ж | Takes nom/acc | | simplify | | өнөкөйлөштүрүү | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | жеңилдет- | жеңилдетүү | Takes nom/acc | | simplify | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | оӊойлоштур- | оӊойлоштуруу | Takes nom/acc | | simplify | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to review | рец[ | рец[ | Takes nom/acc | | (academic | е]{.ul}нзияла- | е]{.ul}нзиялоо | | | work);\ | | | | | to peer | | | | | review | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | сурамжыла- | сурамжылоо | Takes nom/acc | | question | | | | | | | | | | (something, | | | | | like | | | | | | | | | | authority);\ | | | | | to make | | | | | inquiries | | | | | about | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ **Матем[а]{.ul}тикасы жана илими XXV** +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | **Этиштер** | | | | +================+================+================+================+ | **Англис | **Этиштин | **Инфинитив** | **Жөндөмө жана | | Тили** | Уңгусу** | | Эскертүүлөр** | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to skip | кач- | качуу | Takes сабак in | | class;\ | | | ablative: | | to cut | | | сабактан | | class | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to solve | чеч- | чечүү | Takes nom/acc; | | (problem) | | | Often in | | | 1: (эсеп | 1: (эсеп | passive: | | 1: (to solve | чыгар-) | чыгаруу) | П | | | | | робл[е]{.ul}ма | | specifically | 2: (теңдиме | 2: (теңдиме | чечилди | | math | чыгар-) | чыгаруу) | | | | | | 1: (Takes | | problem) | | | nom/acc) | | | | | | | 2: (to solve | | | 2: (Takes | | equation) | | | nom/acc) | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | турукташтыр- | турукташтыруу | Takes nom/acc | | stabilize | | | | | (compound) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to study | оку- | окуу | Takes nom/acc | | | | | | | 1: (to teach) | 1: (окут-) | 1: (окутуу) | 1: (Takes | | | | | nom/acc for | | | | | | | | | | subject; dat | | | | | for | | | | | | | | | | whom) | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | кемит- | кемитүү | | | subtract | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to take | ал- | алуу | Takes nom/acc | | | | | | | (test/exam) | 1: | 1: | 1: (Passive | | | (тестирлөөдөн | (тестирлөөдөн | verb: | | 1: (to undergo | | | *Кл[ | | testing) | өтүл-) | өтүлүү) | и]{.ul}никалык | | | | | тестирлөөдөн | | | | | өтүлө элек*) | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to take | эске ал- | эске алуу | Takes nom/acc | | into | | | | | | | | | | consideration | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to teach\ | үйрөт- | үйрөтүү | If verb, к/гн | | (how to | | | form in acc | | do) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to teach | сабак бер- | сабак берүү | Takes nom/acc | | (class) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to teach | сабак өт- | сабак өтүү | Takes nom/acc | | (class) | | | | | | 1: (өтүл-) | 1: (өтүлүү) | 1: (Passive: | | 1: (to be | | | Сабакта кайсы | | covered in | | | тема өтүлөт) | | | | | | | class | | | | | \[topic\]) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to tell a | табышмак сура- | табышмак суроо | Abl for whom | | riddle | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to think\* | ойло- | ойлоо | Verbs take | | | | | ...деп | | 1: (to think | 1: (ойлон-) | 1: (ойлонуу) | | | about;\ | | | 1: (Use | | to ponder)\* | 1a: (толгон-) | 1а: (толгонуу) | *жөнүндө*) | | | | | | | 1a: (to | 2: (ойлоп | 2: (ойлоп | 1а: (Use | | ponder;\ | тап-) | табуу) | *жөнүндө*) | | to meditate | | | | | over; | | | 2: (Takes | | | | | nom/acc) | | to reflect on; | | | | | | | | | | to deliberate; | | | | | | | | | | to ruminate) | | | | | | | | | | 2: (to think | | | | | up;\ | | | | | to contrive;\ | | | | | to devise) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | түшүн- | түшүнүү | Takes nom/acc | | understand | | | | | | 1: (түшүндүр-) | 1: | 1: (Takes | | 1: (to | | (түшүндүрүү) | nom/acc) | | explain) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | тутумдаштыр- | тутумдаштыруу | Takes nom/ac | | | | | | | systematize | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | сист[е] | сист[е]{ | Takes nom/acc | | | {.ul}малаштыр- | .ul}малаштыруу | | | systematize | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ **Матем[а]{.ul}тикасы жана илими XXVI** > [Notes on Verbs Pertaining to Mathematics and Science]{.ul} \**Толукта-* is used for counting a group again, or carefully, to ensure that nothing or no one is missing. (*Койлорду/окуучуларды*) \*Colloquially, the phrases *ортодо чече албай жат-* and *туура чечим кабыл ала албай жат-* mean "to be torn" (i.e. can't chose between two decisions).\ Also, the phrases *Бул сиз чечкендей гана болот* or *өзүӊүз билгендей кылыӊыз* mean "It's up to you; Use your judgement." \*The verb *теӊдеш*- is used more for equaling someone or something in its greatness or reknown rather than for mathematical equations:\ *Эч ким апам менен теӊдеше албайт. =* No one equals my mother (in how awesome she it). For mathematics, use the adjective *барабар*: *2 + 2 = 4* (read as: *эки кошуу эки барабар төрт.)* \**Беш колдой бил*- means "to know like the back of my hand." \*To remember has a synonymous phrase which use a possessed form of эс:\ 1) эс + possessed morph + locative; *Эсимде* = I remember it (lit: It's on my mind).\ The negative of this construction is *жок*: *Эсимде жок*. \*More complex verbal objects use *экен деп*. This is true to say that someone thinks that someone else does/is something: *Ат-Башылыктар **мени** турист экен деп ойлошот.*\ *Жакшылап ойлон*- means "to think something over well": *Ушул боюнча да жакшылап ойлонуп келгиле. --* Come when you have thought long and hard about it. *Мен биринчи ойлонуп көрөйүн =* I'll think about it*.\ Биз бирдей ойлонобуз* = We're on the same wavelength. *Мындай болот деп ким ойлоптур?! =* Who would have thunk?! **Матем[а]{.ul}тикасы жана илими XXVII** > [Other Verbs Pertaining to Mathematics and Science]{.ul} \**Noun + болуп саналат* means "to be considered to be/as..." \*The verb *көч-* is used to say that a student has "graduated/moved up" a grade in school. It is primarily said in the summer to notify others about what grade s/he will be in when the school year starts: *Тогузунчу класска көчтүм.* \**Азайтуу* means "to reduce," but colloquially *кыскартуу* is used to mean "cut down on"\ *Мен жеген майларды/майлардын жалпы саны кыскартайын дедим эле.* = I would like to cut down on the amount of fat I eat. \*...*деген ойго кел-* means "to have come to the conclusion that": *Ал келесоо деген ойго келдим.* **Матем[а]{.ul}тикасы жана илими XXVIII** > [Other Phrases Pertaining to Mathematics and Science]{.ul} \*Mathematical opperations are expressed as: > *\...кошул\...* = plus + > > *\...алуу\...* = minus - > > *\...көбөйтүү\...* = times/multiplied by... > > *\...бөлүү\...* = divided by \**Tаңгылып жатам* means "I wonder..." \* is a proverb similar to "The more you know, the more you realize you don't know anything." It literally means" Gaining knowledge is like digging a well with a needle. \**Бүгүн ким жок?* is a way of asking *Who is absent today?* \**Оюм ордунан чыкты* means "It turned out the way I thought/expected." The negative form of this is *Оюм ордунан чыкай калды*. \*To exclaim "That's just it!" when a person or student says something astute about a topic you are informing them about, say: *Кеп/Иш ошондо болуп жатпайбы!* *\*Мааниси жок!* = That doesn't make sense. \**Мээ + poss gen эчтеке келбейт. =* Nothing comes to mind. \*There are Kyrgyz proverbs (макалдар) that pertain to math, science, general knowledge, and learning: +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | **Макал-ылакаптар** | **Англисче** | +==================================+==================================+ | 1\) *Билбеген уят эмес,* | There's no shame in not knowing | | | something, but there is shame in | | *билгиси келбегендик уят.* | not wanting to learn. | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | 2\) *Билим алуу ийне менен кудук | similar to "the more you know, | | казгандай.* | the more you realize you know | | | nothing. | | | | | | (*Lit: Gaining knowledge is like | | | digging a well with a needle*.) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | 3\) *Билимге карылык жок.* | You're never too old to learn.; | | | | | | You never stop learning. | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ **\ ** **Сп[о]{.ul}рту, oюндары жана көңүл ачуулары** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - act of catching | кармоо/кармаган | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - act of | өткөрүү/өткөргөн | Х | | conducting a | | | | party, feast, or | | | | celebration | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - act of doing | кылуу/кылган | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - act of throwing | ыгыгтуу/ыгыткан | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - act of winning | утуу/уткан | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - act of winning; | жеңүү | Х | | triumph | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - activeness | активдүүлүк | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - activity\* | иш-аракет | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - activity; | оюн-зоок | Х | | amusement\* | | | | | 1: (оюн-зоок | 1: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | 1: (amusement park; | п[а]{.ul}ркы) | Mix) | | | | | | theme park) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - adventure | жорук | √: | | | | приключ[е]{.ul}ние | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - aerobics | аэр[о]{.ul}бика | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - airsoft (team | страйкб[о]{.ul}л | Already Russian Word | | game in which | | | | players are shot | | | | with plastic | | | | balls from | | | | airsoft guns) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - anniversary | жылдык | √: юбил[е]{.ul}й | | | | | | 1: (anniversary | 1: (маараке) | 1: (√: | | \[formal term\]) | | юбил[е]{.ul}й) | | | 2: (бешжылдык) | | | 2: (five-year | | 2: (Х) | | anniversary) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - archery | (жебе менен) атуу | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - arena | ар[е]{.ul}на | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (sports arena) | 1: (сп[о]{.ul}рттук | 1: (Kyrgyzised | | | ар[е]{.ul}на) | Russian) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - aspiration | умтулуучулук | Х | | | | | | 1: (act of striving | 1: | 1: (Х) | | toward) | (умтулуу/умтулган) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - attempt; a try | аракет | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - awkwardness; | ыңгайсыздык | Х | | clumsiness | | | | | | | | (*opposite of being | | | | adroit* | | | | | | | | *and skilled*) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - balance | тең салмактуулук | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - ball | топ | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - balloon | шар(ик) | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - baseball | бейсб[о]{.ul}л | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - basketball | баскетб[о]{.ul}л | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - bat (i.e. | дуб[и]{.ul}нка | Already Russian Word | | baseball bat) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - block (stopping | блок | Already Russian Word | | a ball) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - bonfire | костёр | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - bowling | б[оу]{.ul}линг | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - boxing | бокс | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (boxing glove) | 1: (перч[а]{.ul}тка) | 1: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | | 2: (wrapping put | 2: (бинт) | | | around hands | | 2: (Already Russian | | | 3: (мушташ) | Word) | | before one boxes) | | | | | | 3: (Х) | | 3: (a bout; a fight | | | | \[in boxing\]) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - activity\* | иш-чара | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Сп[о]{.ul}рту, oюндары жана көңүл ачуулары II** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - break (from | тыныгуу | Х | | work)\* | | | | | 1: | 1: (Already Russian | | 1: (coffee break) | (к[о]{ | Word) | | | .ul}фе-бр[е]{.ul}йк) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - bubble (from | көбүк | Х | | soap suds, for | | | | playing, etc) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - bungee jumping\* | б[а]{.ul} | Already Russian Word | | | нджи-дж[а]{.ul}мпинг | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - camp (like | (балдар) | √: д[е]{.ul}тский | | summer camp) | л[а]{.ul}герь | л[а]{.ul}герь\ | | | | (*балдар | | 1: (summer camp) | 1: (жайкы | л[а]{.ul}герь* is | | | л[а]{.ul}герь) | Kyrgyz- | | | | | | | | Russian Mix) | | | | | | | | 1: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | | | Mix) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cards; palying | к[а]{.ul}рта | Already Russian Word | | card | | | | | 1: (Балыкка Бар!) | 1: (Х) | | 1: (Go Fish! \[card | | | | came\]) | 2: (көзүр) | 2: (Kyrgyzised | | | | Russian) | | 2: (trump card) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - championship | чемпион[а]{.ul}т | Already Russian Word | | | | | | | | (*sport name + | | | | боюнча*) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - checkers | ш[а]{.ul}шки | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - chess\* | чатыраш | √: ш[а]{.ul}хмат | | | | | | 1: (chessboard) | 1: (ш[а]{.ul}хмат | (*Kyrgyzised Russian | | | тактасы) | as not* | | 2: (chess piece) | | | | | 2: (ш[а]{.ul}хмат | *in plural*) | | | фиг[у]{.ul}расы) | | | | | 1: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | | | Mix) | | | | | | | | 2: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | | | Mix) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - circus | цирк | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (ring of circus) | 1: (ар[е]{.ul}на) | 1: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - club (meeting of | ийрим | √: круж[о]{.ul}к | | interested | | | | people) | 1: (ийрим | 1: (√: круж[о]{.ul}к | | | өтүү/өткөн) | өтүү/өткөн\ | | 1: (act of leading | | \[Kyrgyz-Russian | | or | | Mix\]) | | | | | | counducting a club) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - club (night club | клуб | Already Russian Word | | or sports club) | | | | | 1: (түнкү клуб) | 1: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | 1: (night club) | | Mix) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - clusterfuck; a | кошул-ташыл | Х | | very busy day | | | | where lots of | | | | to-dos keep | | | | piling up | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - collecting | чогултуу/чогулткан | X | | (hobby) | | | | | 1: | 1: (Already Russian | | 1: (numismatics\ | (нумизм[а]{.ul}тика) | Word) | | \[coin collecting\]) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - competition | таймаш | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - competition\* | мелдеш | √: | | | | соревнов[а]{.ul}ние | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - congratulations | куттуктоо | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - contest | сынак | √: конк[у]{.ul}рс | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - counter; marker; | ф[и]{.ul}шка | Already Russian Word | | token (like in | | | | Bingo or any | | | | game where a | | | | physical object | | | | is moved around | | | | a board or | | | | stands in for | | | | points) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cricket | кр[и]{.ul}кет | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - dance (held at | дискот[е]{.ul}ка | Already Russian Word | | school) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - deckchair | бүктөмө орундук | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - die\* | сөөкчө | √: к[у]{.ul}бик | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - chores; | үйдөгү жумуш | X | | housework | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - chores; | үй-тиричилик | X | | housework | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Сп[о]{.ul}рту, oюндары жана көңүл ачуулары III** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - Disneyland | Диснейл[е]{.ul}нд | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - doll | куурчак | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - emission (of | берүүлөр | X\ | | program) | | (*Plural in Kyrgyz*) | | | 1: (телеберүү) | | | 1: (television\ | | 1: (√: | | \[the | 2: (телекөрсөтүү) | телев[и]{.ul}дение) | | form/invention\]) | | | | | | 2: (√: | | 2: (television\ | | телев[и]{.ul}дение) | | \[the | | | | form/invention\]) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - enjoyment; | жыргал | Х | | pleasure; fun\* | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - episode | эпиз[о]{.ul}д | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (re-run) | 1: (кайталоо) | 1: (Х) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - event | окуя | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - Ferris wheel | шайтан дөңгөлөк | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - festivity; | салтанат | Х | | celebration | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - fishing (hobby) | балык уулоо/уулаган | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - fishing (hobby) | бакык тутуу/туткан | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - fishing (hobby) | балык | Х | | | кармоо/кармаган | | | 1: (fishing rod) | | 1: (Х) | | | 1: (кайырмак) | | | 2: (lure) | | 2: (Already Russian | | | 2: (ключ[о]{.ul}к) | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - fitness | ф[и]{.ul}тнес | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - flirting; | ойсоӊдоо | Х | | coquetry | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - gambling; game | азарт | Х | | of chance | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - game | оюн | Х | | | | | | 1: (fair play) | 1: (калыс оюн) | 1: (Х) | | | | | | 2: (Olympic Games) | 2: (Олимпи[а]{.ul}да | 2: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | | оюндары) | Mix) | | 3: (how a game | | | | works;\ | 3: (оюндун шарты) | 3: (Х) | | rules of a game) | | | | | 4: (компь[ю]{.ul}тер | 4: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | 4: (computer game) | оюн) | Mix) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - get-together | шерине | Х | | (monthly, among | | | | female friends) | 1: (чёрный | 1: (Kyrgyzised | | \~\> | к[а]{.ul}сса) | Russian) | | | | | | 1: (similar | | | | get-together | | | | | | | | whereby friends | | | | bring | | | | | | | | hostess money for | | | | having | | | | | | | | cooked for them) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - goal (act of | гол | Already Russian Word | | kicking a ball | | | | into a goal) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - golf | гольф | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - enjoyment; | шат | Х | | pleasure; fun | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - gardening | бакчылык | Х | | (hobby) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - enjoyment; | эрмек | Х | | pleasure; fun; | | | | amusement | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Сп[о]{.ul}рту, oюндары жана көңүл ачуулары IV** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - gran prix; grand | гран-пр[и]{.ul} | Already Russian Word | | prize (when you | | | | win) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - gymnasium (where | спорт залы | √: спортз[а]{.ul}л | | one plays | | | | sports) | | (*спорт залы is | | | | Kyrgyzised Russian*) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - gymnastics | гимн[а]{.ul}стика | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - handball | гандб[о]{.ul}л | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - haunted house\ | к[о]{.ul}мната | Already Russian Word | | (carnival | стр[а]{.ul}ха | | | attraction);\ | | | | fun house | | | | (scary) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - hike | пох[о]{.ul}д | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - hint | ишара | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - hippodrome | ипподр[о]{.ul}м | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - hobby | х[о]{.ul}бби | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - hockey | хокк[е]{.ul}й | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (puck) | 1: (ш[а]{.ul}йба) | 1: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - holiday | майрам | Х | | | | | | 1: (act of | 1: | 1: (Х) | | celebrating) | (ма | | | | йрамдоо/майрамдаган) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - hopscotch | мак | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - hosting; meeting | (конокторду) | Х | | guests | тосуу/тоскон | | | | | 1: (Х) | | 1: (taking care of | 1: (күтүү/күткөн) | | | \[guests\];\ | | | | tending to) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - ice breaker | муз жаргыч | Х | | activity | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - ice skate(s) | коньк[и]{.ul} | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (ice skating) | 1: (коньк[и]{.ul} | 1: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | | тебүү/тепкен) | Mix) | | 2: (ice skating | | | | rink) | 2: (муз | 2: (√: кат[о]{.ul}к) | | | аянт\[час\]ы) | | | 3: (ice skating | | 3: (√: кат[о]{.ul}к) | | rink) | 3: (коньк[и]{.ul} | | | | тебүүчү жай) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - invitation | чакыруу | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - joke | тамаша | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - jubilee | юбил[е]{.ul}й | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - judo | дз[ю]{.ul}до | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - jump\ | секирик | Х | | (1 instance of | | | | jumping) | 1: | 1: (Х) | | | (секирүү/секирген) | | | 1: (jumping \[act | | | | of\]) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - jump rope | скак[а]{.ul}лка | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - kicking | тебүү/тепкен | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - kite | кагаз батперек | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - hide-and-seek | жашынмак | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Сп[о]{.ul}рту, oюндары жана көңүл ачуулары V** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - magic; wizardry; | сыйкыр | Х | | witchcraft; | | | | spell; charm | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - marathon | мараф[о]{.ul}н | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - marble (toy) | шарик | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - masturbation | мастурб[а]{.ul}ция | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - mat (for sport, | мат | Already Russian Word | | like wresting) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - match (sport) | матч | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - motorcross;\ | мото жарыш | Kyrgyz-Russian Mix | | motorcycle race | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - mouth guard | капа | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - movie\* | тасма | √: кин[о]{.ul} | | | | | | 1: (documentary) | 1: (документалдык | 1: (Kyrgyzised | | | кин[о]{.ul}) | Russian) | | 2: (historical | | | | movie) | 2: | 2: (Kyrygz-Russian | | | (кин[о]{.ul}-дастан) | Mix) | | 3: (filmography) | | | | | 3: | 3: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | 4: (trailer) | (тасмагр[а]{.ul}фия) | | | | | Portmanteau) | | | 4: (тр[е]{.ul}йлер) | | | | | 4: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - net (tennis; | с[е]{.ul}тка | Already Russian Word | | volleyball) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - organization (of | уюштуруу/уюштурган | Х | | a club);\ | | | | establishment | | | | (of club, etc) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - P.E. | дене тарбия | √: | | | | физикульт[у]{.ul}ра | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - paintball | пейнтб[о]{.ul}л | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - participation | *+dat* катыштык | Х | | | | | | 1: (act of | 1: | 1: (Х) | | participating) | (катышуу/катышкан) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - party | отуруш | √: вечер[и]{.ul}нка | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - party (formal or | кече | √: вечер[и]{.ul}нка | | official or | | | | ceremonial) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - party; | той | Х | | celebration\* | | | | | 1: (мусульм[а]{.ul}н | 1: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | 1: ("dry" party; a | той/\ | Mix) | | party | мусульм[а]{.ul}нский | | | | той) | 2: (X) | | without alchohol) | | | | | 2: (тойкана) | 3: (X) | | 2: (an elaborate | | | | venue where | 3: (сүннөт той) | 4: (Х) | | | | | | such parties are | 4: (там той) | 5: (Х) | | held) | | | | | 5: (үй той) | 6: (X) | | 3: (circumcision | | | | party for a | 6: (түлөө) | 7: (Х) | | | | | | boy 2-7 years old) | 7: (тушоо той) | 8: (Х) | | | | | | 4: (housewarming) | 8: (бешик той) | 9: (Х) | | | | | | 5: (housewarming) | 9: (жентек той) | | | | | | | 6: (similar to a | | | | block party | | | | | | | | where one neighbor | | | | invites | | | | | | | | the others to | | | | partake in | | | | | | | | fancy meal) | | | | | | | | 7: (celebration of | | | | baby's first | | | | | | | | steps)\* | | | | | | | | 8: (celebration | | | | organized for | | | | | | | | family/friends to | | | | see a | | | | | | | | newborn) | | | | | | | | 9: (celebration | | | | organized for | | | | | | | | family/friends to | | | | see a | | | | | | | | newborn) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - merry-go-round; | карус[е]{.ul}ль | Х | | carousel | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Сп[о]{.ul}рту, oюндары жана көңүл ачуулары VI** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - pastime; | көңүл ачуу | X | | entertainment | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - place won a | орун | √: м[е]{.ul}сто | | competiton | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - playfulness | ойнооктук | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - playground | балдар аянт(час)ы | √: пл[о]{.ul}щадка | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - playground | оюн аянтчасы | √: пл[о]{.ul}щадка | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - playpen (for | ман[е]{.ul}ж | Already Russian Word | | babies) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - point (in a | упай | √: очк[о]{.ul} | | game) | | | | | 1: (упай | 1: (√: очк[о]{.ul} | | 1: (scoring \[i.e. | эсептөө/эсептеген) | | | system\];\ | | эсептөө/эсептеген | | calculating a score) | | | | | | \[*Kyrgyz-Russian | | | | Mix\]*) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - pool (game) | биль[я]{.ul}рд | Х | | | | | | 1: (pool hall) | 1: | 1: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | | (биль[я]{.ul}рдкана) | Mix) | | 2: (pool stick) | | | | | 2: (таяк) | 2: (X) | | 3: (pool ball) | | | | | 3: (ш[а]{.ul}рик) | 3: (Already Russian | | 3a: (cue ball) | | Word) | | | 3a: (кий) | | | 4: (pocket of pool | | 3a: (Already Russian | | table) | 4: (тешиик) | Word) | | | | | | | | 4: (X) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - pool (to swim | басс[е]{.ul}йн | Already Russian Word | | in) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - powerlifting | пауэрл[и]{.ul}фтинг | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - practice (for | пр[а]{.ul}ктика | Already Russian Word | | skill) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - practice (for | тренир[о]{.ul}вка | Already Russian Word | | sport);\ | | | | sports training | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - prize; award (in | байге | √: приз | | sport) | | | | | 1: (баш байге) | 1: (√: гран | | 1: (main prize) | | пр[и]{.ul}) | | | 2: (ачкалай байге) | | | 2: (cash prize) | | 2: (Х) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - procrastination | аялдоо | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - push-up | отжим[а]{.ul}ние | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - race | жарыш | Х | | | | | | 1: (racing) | 1: | 1: (Х) | | | (жарышуу/жарышкан) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - raquet (tennis, | рак[е]{.ul}тка | Already Russian Word | | etc) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - relay race | эстаф[е]{.ul}та | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - rest; | эс алуу/эс алган | Х | | relaxation;\ | | | | act of resting | | (*эс алууда* = to be | | or relaxing; | | on holiday) | | | | | | > break (from | | | | > work);\ | | | | > vacation | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - results | жыйынтык | √: результ[а]{.ul}т | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - results | натыйжа | √: результ[а]{.ul}т | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - room where | калыстар бөлмөсү | Х | | judges/referees | | | | are \~\> | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sand castle | кум(дан) сепил | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - season (in | сез[о]{.ul}н | Already Russian Word | | sports) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - see-saw | өпөң-чычаң | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - rock, paper, | чикатса | Х | | scissors | | | | | 1: (муштум) | 1: (Х) | | 1: (rock) | | | | | 2: (шапалак) | 2: (Х) | | 2: (paper) | | | | | 3: (кайчы) | 3: (Х) | | 3: (scissors) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sex | секс | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (sexology) | 1: | 1: (Already Russian | | | (сексол[о]{.ul}гия) | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - quiz show; game | виктор[и]{.ul}на | Already Russian Word | | show | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - position (one | ампл[уа]{.ul} | Already Russian Word | | plays) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - score\* | эсеп | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - rating (ranked | р[е]{.ul}йтинг | Already Russian Word | | list) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Сп[о]{.ul}рту, oюндары жана көңүл ачуулары VII** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - shopping (as | ш[о]{.ul}ппинг | Already Russian Word | | pastime; hobby) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - shuffling | (карталарды) | Х | | (cards) | аралаштыруу/\ | | | | аралаштырган | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sit up; cruch | пресс | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - ski; skis | л[ы]{.ul}жа | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (skiing) | 1: (л[ы]{.ul}жа | 1: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | | тебүү/тепкен) | Mix) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - skill | жөндөм | X | | | | | | 1: (ability; | 1: (жөмдөмдүүлүк) | 1: (X) | | capability) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sled | чана | X | | | | | | 1: (sledding) | 1: (чана | 1: (X) | | | тебүү/тепкен) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - slide | сыйгалак | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - slide | жылгаяк | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - slight of hand; | ф[о]{.ul}кус | Already Russian Word | | magic trick; | | | | prestidigitation | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - snow angel | периште | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - snowman\* | кар киши | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - soccer; football | футб[о]{.ul}л | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (American | 1: | 1: (Already Russian | | football) | (америк[а]{.ul}нский | Word) | | | футб[о]{.ul}л) | | | 2: (soccer goal | | 2: (Х) | | \[actual frame\]) | 2: (дарбаза) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - social media | соци[а]{.ul}лдык | √: соци[а]{.ul}льная | | network | тармак | сеть | | | | | | 1: (Facebook) | 1: (Ф[е]{.ul}йсбук) | (*соци[а]{.ul}лдык | | | | м[е]{.ul}диа is | | 2: (WhatsApp) | 2: | Kyrgyz-* | | | (В[о]{.ul}тсап\[п\]) | | | 3: (Twitter) | | *Russian Mix*) | | | 3: (Тв[и]{.ul}ттер) | | | 4: (Instagram) | | 1: (Already Russian | | | 4: | Word) | | 5: (odnoklassniki | (Инстагр[а]{.ul}м) | | | \[OK\]) | | 2: (Already Russian | | | 5: | Word) | | 6: (friend request) | ( | | | | однокл[а]{.ul}ссники | 3: (Already Russian | | | \[ОК\]) | Word) | | | | | | | 6: (достошуу сунуш) | 4: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | | | | | | | | 5: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | | | | | | | | 6: (Х) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sparing (i.e. in | сп[а]{.ul}ринг | Already Russian Word | | boxing) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - spike (ball | топту | Х | | sports) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sport | спорт | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (equestrian | 1: (ат | 1: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | sport) | сп[о]{.ul}рту) | Mix) | | | | | | 2: (sport field; | 2: (спорт аянтчасы) | 2: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | sports ground) | | Mix) | | | 3: (велосипеддик | | | 3: (cycling sport) | спорт) | 3: (√: | | | | велосп[о]{.ul}рт) | | 4: (hobby of doing | 4: (спорт менен | | | sport) | машыгуу/\ | 4: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | | машыккан) | Mix) | | 5: (extreme sport) | | | | | 5: | 5: (Kyrgyzised | | | (экстрем[а]{.ul}лдуу | Russian) | | | спорт) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Сп[о]{.ul}рту, oюндары жана көңүл ачуулары VIII** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sports club; | машыгуу кл[у]{.ul}бу | √: ф[и]{.ul}тнес | | fitness club;\ | | клуб | | gym (for working | | | | out) | | (*Машыгуу клубу* is | | | | a | | | | | | | | Kyrgyz-Russian Mix) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - stadium | стади[о]{.ul}н | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - stretching (in | чоюлуу/чоюлган | Х | | general) | | | | | 1: (чоюу/чойгон) | 1: (Х) | | 1: (stretching | | | | \[something, like | | | | | | | | a muscle\]) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - swimming | (сууда) сүзүү/сүзгөн | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - swings; swing | селкинчек | Х | | set | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - team\* | ком[а]{.ul}нда | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (teamwork;\ | 1: (ком[а]{.ul}нда | 1: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | working as a team) | болуп | Mix) | | | | | | 2: (national team) | иштөө/иштеген) | 2: (√:сб[о]{.ul}рная | | | | \[ком[а]{.ul}нда\] | | | 2: (курама | | | | ком[а]{.ul}нда) | \[*курама | | | | ком[а]{.ul}нда is* | | | | | | | | *Kyrgyz-Russian | | | | Mix*\]) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - television | сыналгы | √: телев[и]{.ul}зор | | (set)\* | | | | | 1: (телев[и]{.ul}зор | 1: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | 1: (watching tv | көрүү/көргөн) | Mix) | | \[hobby\]) | | | | | 2: (кан[а]{.ul}л) | 2: (Already Russian | | 2: (tv channel) | | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - tennis | т[е]{.ul}ннис | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (table tennis\*) | 1: (стол | 1: (√: | | | т[е]{.ul}нниси) | наст[о]{.ul}льный | | 2: (tennis ball) | | т[е]{.ul}ннис) | | | 2: (т[е]{.ul}ннис | | | | ш[а]{.ul}рик) | 2: (Kyrgyzised | | | | Russian) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - tent | чатыр | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - throwing; a | ыргытуу/ыргыткан | Х | | throw | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - top (spinning | юл[а]{.ul} | Already Russian Word | | toy) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - tourism | тур[и]{.ul}зм | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - toy | оюнчук | Х | | | | | | 1: (rocking horse; | 1: (оюнчук-ат) | 1: (Х) | | toy horse) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - treadmill | бегов[а]{.ul}я | Already Russian Word | | | дор[о]{.ul}жка | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - tug-of-war | аркан тартыш | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - turn\* | кезек | √: ход; | | | | [о]{.ul}чередь | | 1: (turn in a game) | 1: (басым) | | | | | 1: (√: ход; | | | | [о]{.ul}чередь) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - vacation; | [о]{.ul}тпуск | Already Russian Word | | holiday; break; | | | | leave (from | 1: (декреттик | 1: (√: | | work) | [о]{.ul}тпуск) | декр[е]{.ul}тный | | | | [о]{.ul}тпуск) | | 1: (materinity | | | | leave) | | (*декреттик | | | | [о]{.ul}тпуск is* | | | | | | | | *Kyrgyzised | | | | Russian*) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - vacation; school | танапис | √: каник[у]{.ul}л | | break; holiday | | | | (from school) | 1: (жайкы танапис) | 1: (√: жайкы | | | | каник[у]{.ul}л | | 1: (summer | | | | vacation/break) | | \[*Kyrgyz-Russian | | | | Mix*\]) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - volleyball | воллейб[о]{.ul}л | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - track and field; | жеӊил | Kyrgyz-Russian Mix | | athletics | атл[е]{.ul}тика | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Сп[о]{.ul}рту, oюндары жана көңүл ачуулары IX** +------------------------+------------------+------------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +========================+==================+========================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +------------------------+------------------+------------------------+ | - walker (for baby) | ход[у]{.ul}нок | Already Russian Word | +------------------------+------------------+------------------------+ | - warm-up (for | разм[и]{.ul}нка | Already Russian Word | | sport) | | | +------------------------+------------------+------------------------+ | - water gun | суу мылтык | Х | +------------------------+------------------+------------------------+ | - working out; | машыгуу/машыккан | X | | exercising; | | | | exercise | 1: (көнүгүү) | 1: (√: зар[я]{.ul}дка) | | | | | | 1: (calesthenics) | | | +------------------------+------------------+------------------------+ | - wrestling | күрөш | X | | | | | | 1: (arm wrestling) | 1: (кол күрөш) | 1: (√: | | | | [а]{.ul}рмрестлинг) | | 2: (grab or hold\ | 2: (приём) | | | \[move in wrestling\]) | | 2: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | +------------------------+------------------+------------------------+ | - yoga | й[o]{.ul}га | Already Russian Word | +------------------------+------------------+------------------------+ [\ ]{.ul} **Сп[о]{.ul}рту, oюндары жана көңүл ачуулары X** [Notes on Nouns Pertaining to Sport, Games, and Pastimes]{.ul} \**Оюн-зоок, оюн,* and *иш-аракет/иш-чара* can all be appropriate translations for the word "activity;" however, they are not interchangeable. *Оюн-зоок* is the term used for ludic activities, such as at a *той* or festival. It can also be translated as "the entertainment" that such events provide. *Оюн*, literally "game," is an appropriate translation for classroom activities. *Иш-аракет/иш-чара* is an official term that does not connote funness, such as the activities of a government or of a volunteer. Note also that in Peace Corps circles or with others who are familiar with English teaching methods using activities in the classroom, the word *акт[и]{.ul}вити* is also used. \**Тыныгуу* is preceded by the type of break taken and *үчүн*: *түшкү тамак үчүн тыгынуу* = lunch break. \*Bungee jumping may be unfamiliar to many speakers, so an explanation in Kyrgyz may be necessary: *Б[а]{.ul}нджи-дж[а]{.ul}мпинг деген бутка бир упузун, ийкемдүү аркан байланып көпүрөдөн же башка бийик жерден секирип түшүү экстрем[а]{.ul}лдуу сп[о]{.ul}рттун бир түрү.* \*A *тушоо той* involves children racing toward a baby who's feet have been bound. The child who reaches the child first gets the honour of cutting the cord and taking the baby around a victory walk. Then, all the children get candy. \**Чатыраш* is the historical name for chess. \*Kyrgyz *мелдеш* appears to be more used than Russian *соревнов[а]{.ul}ние*. \*Russian *к[у]{.ul}бик* is much more used \**Жыргал болду* = It was fun! \*Of the two terms, the Russian *кин[о]{.ul}* is generally more used in general conversation; however, *тасма* is also in wide distribution and can be seen primarily in marketing/trailers/posters advertising Kyrgyz-langauge movies. \**Тоюңуз тойго улансын*! is a way of well-wishing at any *той*. \**Эсеби менен* means "with a (final) score of:" *[И]{.ul}ндия 4:1 эсеби менен утту.* \*The verb associated with building snowmen is *жаса-: кар кишилерди жаса-.* \*Thrid person possessed morphology is required on *ком[а]{.ul}нда* when saying what type of team it is or the team's name: *футб[о]{.ul}л ком[а]{.ul}ндасы = a football team; "Шумкар" командасы = Team "Shumkar".* *\*Телев[и]{.ul}зор* almost exclusively used. *\*Наст[о]{.ul}льный т[е]{.ul}ннис* is more common than the Kyrgyzisation *стол т[е]{.ul}нниси*. \*To take turns doing something is expressed via *[о]{.ul}чередь менен, кезек менен,* or *алмак-салмак*. *\ * **Сп[о]{.ul}рту, oюндары жана көңүл ачуулары XI** [Other Nouns Pertaining to Sport, Games, and Pastimes]{.ul} \*The nomadic history of Kyrgyzstan gave rise to many interesting sports and activities: \- *ак терек-көк терек =* A game very similar to Red Rover. \- *ат чабыш =* a horse race; horse racing \* *ат-майдан* = racetrack (for horse races) \- *качка топ =* a dodgeball like game wherein one team is in the centre flanked by another team that throws balls at them. \- *көк бөрү* = Literally meaning "blue wolf," this game is a lot like polo in that it is played on horseback, but riders dip from their horses to lift a dead goat carcass off the ground in attempt to throw it into the scoring area. *\* каз[а]{.ul}н* = The name for the two large, often concrete scoring pits into which the goat carcass must be thrown. > \- *кыз куумай* = A game traditionally played at weddings where the > groom (or men) chase a woman on horseback, and , if they catch her, get to give her a > kiss. Conversely, when the women play chasing the men, when they > > catch them, the women whip the men. \- *кызыл жоолук* = A game similar to "duck, duck, goose" whereby a person floops a *жоолук* around each person in a circle, and the person where the *жоолук* drops has to chase the other person around the circle. *- оодарыш =* A game played on horseback in which riders attempt to pull other players from their horses; similar to "chicken" on horseback or Japanese 騎馬戦 on horseback. \- *ордо* = A game like marbles or horseshoes where one throws a large sheep bone at a pile of smaller ones on the ground a few yards away. \* *абалак* = The name for the larger bone that is thrown in this game. \* *томпой* = Another type of bone used in this game. \- *топ таш* = A game similar to jax. \- *тыйын эңмей* = Game of skill played on horseback where riders gallop at full speed and try to pick up small objects from the ground > \- *улак тартыш* = A game of skill played on horseback. A goat carcass > is placed in the > > centre of an arena. The rider gallops toward the carcass, picks it up > > whilst still riding, tucks it under his/her leg, and rides around the > arena. > > Then, the rider hands the goat carcass underneath the neck of the > horse, > > grabs it with his/her other hand, and does another lap around the > arena > > before dropping it back in the centre. > > \- *упай =* Game played with sheepbones on the floor. First, the bones > are gathered > > together then scattered along the floor, much like breaking in pool. > The player > > must find the largest bone and knock it with another bone without > touching any > > of the others. When successful, the player continues to knock bones > that landed > > in a similar position when first scattered. Points are scored in > threes, and if a > > player does not successfully knock a bone or touches the wrong bone, > the bones > > they collected must go back into the pile. > > \* *хан* = The name of the bone that starts the game off; literally: > "king" > > \- *чака чапмай* = Game where blindfolded person is given directions > and they have to > > find a bucket and hit it with a stick. \- *ыр кесе* = Activity where a cup is passed around; whoever has the but dances, sings, or tells a joke **Сп[о]{.ul}рту, oюндары жана көңүл ачуулары XII** \*Kyrgyzstan has a many holidays: \- *Рождеств[о]{.ul}* = Christmas (only celebrated by Russian minority) -- Jan. 7^th^ \- *Сүйүү күнү* = Valentine's Day (literally: Love Day) -- Feb. 14^th^ Also, the Russian name of the holiday (*День Валент[и]{.ul}на*) can be used. \- *Күлкү күнү* = April Fool's Day (literally: Laughter Day) -- April 1^st^ \- *Эмгек күнү* = Labour Day -- May 1^st^ \- *Акыркы коӊуроо салтанаты/майрамы/аземи =* Last Bell (end of school year) -- May 25^th^ \- *Эгемендүүлүк күнү/\ Кыргыз Респ[у]{.ul}бликасынын мамлекеттик көз карандысыздык күнү =\ *Independence Day -- August 31^st^ \- *Биринчи коӊуроо/Билим күнү* = First Bell Ceremony/Knowledge Day -- Sept. 1^st^ Also, the Russian name of the holiday (*День зн[а]{.ul}ния*) can occasionally be heard. \- *Жаңы жыл* = New Year's (one of the most beloved holidays in Kyrgyzstan) -- Dec. 31^st^ The names for holidays not specific to Kyrgyzstan include: \- *Хэлло[уи]{.ul}н* = Hallowe'en -- October 31^st^ To wish someone a happy holiday, say: *Майрамың(ыз)\[дар\] менен!* The response to this is *Бирге болсун!\ *A *жумалык* is a week-long celebration of something (*Англис тилинин жумалыгы* = English language week). Similarly, a year-long celebration is a *жылдык* (which also means anniversary: *мектептин 40 жылдыгы* = a school's 40^th^ anniversary). *Туулган күнүң(үз) менен*! is used to wish someone a happy birthday. \**Чүкө* are sheep bones used in some traditional Kyrgyz games. Each of the four sides where the bones can land have a name: *бөк, алчы, чик,* and *таа.* \*The word *жан* (literally: soul) is used in video games and the like to mean "life" (an attempt to complete the game): *Менде бир эле жан калды! = I only have one life left!* *\*Отко киргизүү* is a ceremony somewhat like an engagement party in which a newlywed couple is invited over to someone's house. They're showered with food and love; the point being that they newlywed couple is welcome in their home. (Lit. meaning: to lead into the fire). \*The suits of cards are \- *чырым* = clubs \- *ача* = hearts \- *карга* = spade \- *момун* = diamonds \**Дүйнөлүк көчмөн оюндары* are the "World Nomad Games," a large-scale international sporting competition that began in Kyrgyzstan. \*A New Year's party at school or other institution is called a *ёлка,* named after the central feature of such parties: the tree. **Сп[о]{.ul}рту, oюндары жана көңүл ачуулары XIII** +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | **Сын Атоочтор жана Тактоочтор** | | +==================================+==================================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - accurate (aim, etc)\* | так | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - active | активдүү | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - amusing | тамашалуу | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - attributive of "chess"; | шахматтык | | pertaining to chess | | | | (*шахматтык чемпионат*) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - attributive of "club"; | кружоктук | | pertaining to a club | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - attributive of "marathon;"\ | мараф[о]{.ul}ндук | | pertaining to marathons | | | | (*мараф[о]{.ul}ндук жарыш*) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - attributive of "New Year's"; | Жаңы жылдык | | | | | > pertaining to New Year's | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - attributive of "sport"; | спорттук | | pertaining to sport\* | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - attributive of "team;" | ком[а]{.ul}ндалык | | pertaining to a team | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - clumsy; awkward | ыңгайсыз | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - describing someone who just | ойно(o)к | | wants to have fun; playful | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - dynamic; energetic | тың | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - fair (game) | калыс | | | | | 1: (clean \[game\]) | 1: (таза) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - frazzled; so unnerved that | жүдөө | | you can't concentrate or do | | | something correctly | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - free (available to do | бош | | something) | | | | 1: (бош эмес) | | 1: (busy) | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - fun; entertaining | көңүлдүү | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - fun; entertaining | шаттуу | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - funny; hilarious\* | күлкүлүү | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - having a sense of humour;\ | тамаша көй | | describing a person who is | | | always joking or messing | | | around\* | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - interactive | интерактивдүү | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - lively | жаңдуу | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - magic | сыйкырдуу | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - nimble; brisk; alert | сергек | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - no-holds-bar (fighting | эрежесиз | | style) | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - sexual (pertaining to sex) | сексуалдык | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - skilled; adroit | жөндөмдүү | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - skilled; adroit; fast (at | шуулдак | | doing one's job) | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - attributive of "anniversary" | маарекелүү | | | | | | (*15- маарекелүү акция = 15^th^ | | | anniversary sale*) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - describing someone who likes | оюн карак | | to have fun; playful | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - undefeated; undefeatable | жеӊилбес | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ **Сп[о]{.ul}рту, oюндары жана көңүл ачуулары XIV** [Notes on Adjectives and Adverbs Pertaining to Sports, Games, and Pastimes]{.ul} \**Так* can modify any verb giving it the meaning of "focus on" doing that task:\ *Топту так карма! = Focus on catching the ball; Тапшырманы так аткаргыла! = Focus on the task.* \*It would be understandable to use *спорттук* for people to mean that someone is sporty or athletic, but it isn't actually used in Kyrygz often with that meaning. \**Тамаша көй* can also mean funny, but only for a person who makes a lot of jokes. *Күлкүлүү* means funny in appearance or actions. **Сп[о]{.ul}рту, oюндары жана көңүл ачуулары XV** [Other Adjectives and Adverbs Pertaining to Sports, Games, and Pastimes]{.ul} \*Some nouns and infinitives can be used as adjectives. The nouns they modify exhibit third person possessed genitive morphology: \- бейсб[о]{.ul}л = baseball; *бейсб[о]{.ul}л ком[а]{.ul}ндасы* \- волейб[о]{.ul}л = volleyball; *волейб[о]{.ul}л аянтчасы* \- т[е]{.ul}ннис = tennis; *т[е]{.ul}ннис рак[е]{.ul}ткасы* \- футб[о]{.ul}л = football; soccer; *футб[о]{.ul}л тобу* \- шахм[а]{.ul}т = pertaining to chess; *шахмат тактасы* \**Олжолуу бол!* is a way of wishing someone good luck when there's a competition with a prize at stake. It literally means "Be prize-winningish!" **Сп[о]{.ul}рту, oюндары жана көңүл ачуулары XVI** +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | **Этиштер** | | | | +================+================+================+================+ | **Англис | **Этиштин | **Инфинитив** | **Жөндөмө жана | | Тили** | Уңгусу** | | Эскертүүлөр** | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to aim | көздө- | көздөө | Takes dat for | | | | | where | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | аракет кыл- | аракет кылуу | Verbal object | | attempt; | | | in dative | | to try\* | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to be | жүдө- | жүдөө | Intransitive | | b | | | | | utterfingers;\ | | | | | to be | | | | | frazzled | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to be | бошо- | бошоо | Intransitive | | free\*\ | | | | | (to do | | | | | something) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to be | эрин- | эринүү | Seen in the | | lazy;\ | | | phrase *Аллах | | to loaf | | | үчүн эринбе!* | | around\* | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to block | блок кой- | блок коюу | Set phrase | | (ball) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to box | боксташ- | боксташуу | Opponent = | | | | | менен | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | очк[о]{.ul} | очк[о]{.ul} | Takes nom/acc | | calculate | эсепте- | эсептөө | | | a | | | | | | | | | | score/points | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to camp | чатырда укта- | чатырда уктоо | Set phrase | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to catch | карма- | кармоо | Takes nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to cheer | кошто- | коштоо | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | чогулт- | чогултуу | Takes nom/acc | | collect\ | | | | | (as hobby) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to compete | мелдеш- | мелдешүү | With a | | | | | team/person is | | | | | менен; in a | | | | | competition is | | | | | loc. | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to compete | таймаш- | таймашуу | With a | | | | | team/person is | | | | | менен; in a | | | | | competition is | | | | | loc. | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | куттукта- | куттуктоо | Person | | | | | congratulated | | congratulate | | | in acc/nom; | | | | | "for" = менен | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to cuddle | кучакташ- | кучакташуу | Takes менен | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to date | жүр- | жүрүү | Person 1 | | | | | *менен* Person | | (romantically) | | | 2 *жүрүп | | | | | жатат* | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to deal | тарат- | таратуу | If plural, | | (cards) | | | takes acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to dive | чумку- | чумкуу | Into = dative | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to do | кыл- | кылуу | Takes nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to do a | тоңкочукта- | тоңкочуктоо | Intransitive | | | | | | | sommersault;\ | | | | | to go head | | | | | over heels | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to do pull | тартынат- | тартынатуу | Intransitive | | ups | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to do | от | от | Intransitive | | push-ups | жим[а]{.ul}ние | жим[а]{.ul}ние | | | | кыл- | кылуу | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to do | от | от | Intransitive | | push-ups | жим[а]{.ul}ние | жим[а]{.ul}ние | | | | жаса- | жасоо | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ **Сп[о]{.ul}рту, oюндары жана көңүл ачуулары XVII** [\ ]{.ul} +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | **Этиштер** | | | | +================+================+================+================+ | **Англис | **Этиштин | **Инфинитив** | **Жөндөмө жана | | Тили** | Уңгусу** | | Эскертүүлөр** | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to do | пресс кыл- | пресс кылуу | Intransitive | | sit-ups;\ | | | | | to do | | | | | crunches | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to draw a | карта тарт- | карта тартуу | карта can be | | card | | | nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to draw a | карта ал- | карта алуу | карта can be | | card | | | nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to dribble | ээле- | ээлөө | Takes nom/acc | | (ball) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to dunk | чөмүл- | чөмүлүү | Intransitive | | (go | | | | | underwater | / | / | / | | and come | | | | | up | чөмүлдүр- | чөмүлдүрүү | Takes nom/acc | | quickly) | | | | | | | | | | > / | | | | | > | | | | | > to dunk (a | | | | | > person) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | машык- | машыгуу | Intransitive | | exercise | | | | | | 1: (спорт | 1: (спорт | 1: (Set | | 1: (to do | менен | менен | phrase) | | sports) | | | | | | машык-) | машыгуу) | 2: (Set | | 2: (to do | | | phrase) | | calesthenics) | 2: | 2: | | | | (көнүгүү/ | (көнүгүү/ | | | | зар[я]{.ul}дка | зар[я]{.ul}дка | | | | | | | | | жаса-) | жасоо) | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to fish;\ | балык карма- | балык кармоо | Takes nom/acc | | to go | | | | | fishing | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to fish;\ | балык тут- | балык тутуу | Takes nom/acc | | to go | | | | | fishing | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to fish;\ | балык уула- | балык уулоо | Takes nom/acc | | to go | | | | | fishing | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to flirt\* | ойсоӊдо- | ойсоӊдоо | Takes менен | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to flirt\* | тийиш- | тийишүү | Takes dative | | | | | case | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to get a | ору | ору | Use | | certain | н/м[е]{.ul}сто | н/м[е]{.ul}сто | attributive | | place in a | ээле- | ээлөө | number: | | | | | биринчи орун | | competition | | | ээледим. | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to get a | ору | ору | Use | | certain | н/м[е]{.ul}сто | н/м[е]{.ul}сто | attributive | | place in a | ал- | алуу | number: | | | | | биринчи орун | | competition | | | алдым. | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to go | конокко бар- | конокко баруу | Intransitive; | | guesting | | | at someone's | | | 1: (айтта-) | 1: (айттоо) | house use | | 1: (to go | | | possessed | | guesting | | | genitive | | | | | | | specficially | | | 1: | | on | | | (Intransitive) | | | | | | | Kurman Ait) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to go | айылчыла- | айылчылоо | Intransitive | | guesting\* | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to go on | ка | ка | To where in | | holiday;\ | н[и]{.ul}кулга | н[и]{.ul}кулга | dative | | to leave | чык- | чыгуу | | | for | | | 1: (to where | | vaction | 1: | 1: | in dative) | | (school) | ([ | ([ | | | | о]{.ul}тпускка | о]{.ul}тпускка | | | 1: (to go on | чык-) | чыгуу) | | | holiday;\ | | | | | to leave for | | | | | | | | | | vacation | | | | | \[from | | | | | | | | | | work\]) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to have a | кар атыш- | кар атышуу | Reciprocal | | snowball | | | verb | | fight | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to fuck | сик- | сигүү | Takes nom/acc | | (*!*) | | | | | | 1: (сигиш-) | 1: (сигишүү) | 1: (Reciprocal | | 1: (to fuck | | | verb) | | each other | | | | | | | | | | \[*!*\]) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to fuck | сай- | саюу | Takes nom/acc | | (*!*)\ | | | | | (more | | | | | along the | | | | | lines of | | | | | "to bone") | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ **Сп[о]{.ul}рту, oюндары жана көңүл ачуулары XVIII** +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | **Этиштер** | | | | +================+================+================+================+ | **Англис | **Этиштин | **Инфинитив** | **Жөндөмө жана | | Тили** | Уңгусу** | | Эскертүүлөр** | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to have | көңгүл ач- | көңгүл ачуу | | | fun | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to have | жырга- | жыргоо | | | fun;\ | | | | | to enjoy | | | | | oneself | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to hike;\ | чык- | чыгуу | Can specify | | to go for | | | with | | a hike | | | пох[о]{.ul}дго | | | | | чыгуу or, if | | | | | in mountains, | | | | | тоого. | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to hint | ишара кыл- | ишара кылуу | | | at;\ | | | | | to give a | | | | | hint | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to host;\ | тос- | тосуу | Guest in | | to meet | | | nom/acc | | guests;\ | 1: (күт-) | 1: (күтүү) | | | to | | | 1: (Guest in | | entertain | | | nom/acc) | | guests | | | | | | | | | | 1: (to tend | | | | | to;\ | | | | | to take care | | | | | of | | | | | | | | | | guests) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | чакыр- | чакыруу | Person in | | invite;\ | | | nom/acc;\ | | to call | | | for a purpose | | upon;\ | | | in dat: | | to summon | | | *Конокко | | | | | чакыруу* | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to joke; | тамашала- | тамашалоо | Intransitive | | to kid | | | | | | 1: | 1: | 1: (Reciprocal | | 1: (to joke | (тамашалаш-) | (тамашалашуу) | intrans) | | around;\ | | | | | to play around | | | | | | | | | | \[with | | | | | friends\]) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to jump | секир- | секирүү | To place -- | | | | | dative | | | | | | | | | | From place - | | | | | ablative | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to keep | тең | тең | салмактуулук | | one's | салмактуулугун | салмактуулугун | is in | | balance | сакта- | сактоо | possessed | | | | | accusitive | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to kick\* | теп- | тебүү | Direct object | | | | | nom/acc;\ | | | | | to whom: | | | | | dative | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to lead a | өт- | өтүү | Club in | | club | | | nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to make | периште жаса- | периште жасоо | Set phrase | | snow | | | | | angels | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | маст | маст | Subject in | | masturbate | урб[а]{.ul}ция | урб[а]{.ul}ция | nom. | | | кыл- | кылуу | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | уюштур- | уюштуруу | Takes nom/acc | | organize | | | | | (event, | | | | | club, | | | | | meeting) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | катыш- | катышуу | In = dative | | | | | | | participate | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to pop | жар- | жаруу | Takes nom/acc\ | | (balloon) | | | (For saying | | | | | *The balloon | | | | | popped*, use | | | | | the passive of | | | | | *жар-*) | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to party | тойло- | тойлоо | Intransitive | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ **Сп[о]{.ul}рту, oюндары жана көңүл ачуулары XIX** +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | **Этиштер** | | | | +================+================+================+================+ | **Англис | **Этиштин | **Инфинитив** | **Жөндөмө жана | | Тили** | Уңгусу** | | Эскертүүлөр** | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to post to | кой- | коюу | Social Media | | social | | | in dative | | media | | | case; thing | | | | | posted in | | | | | nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | практикала- | практикалоо | Takes nom/acc | | practice | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | п | п | | | practice | р[а]{.ul}ктика | р[а]{.ul}ктика | | | | кыл- | кылуу | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | аялда- | аялдоо | Intransitive | | | | | | | procrastinate | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to relax; | эс ал- | эс алуу | Verbal object | | to rest;\ | | | in abl. for | | to take a | | | "rest by..."\ | | break | | | *Ал | | | | | те | | | | | лев[и]{.ul}зор | | | | | көрүүдөн эс | | | | | алап жатат* | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to relax; | дем ал- | дем алуу | Verbal object | | to rest;\ | | | in abl. for | | to take a | | | "rest by..." | | break | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to roll | айландыр- | айландыруу | Takes nom/acc | | (dice) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to score a | гол киргиз- | гол киргизүү | Гол | | goal | | | technically | | | | | could be in | | | | | accusative | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to serve | салып бер- | салып берүү | Set phrase | | (tennis) | | | intransitive | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to shoot | ш[а]{.ul}йба | ш[а]{.ul}йба | шайба can be | | the puck | чап- | чабуу | in nom or acc | | (hockey) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to shuffle | аралаштыр- | аралаштыруу | Takes nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to sleep | жат- | жатуу | Other person | | with (have | | | with менен | | sex with) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to spike | топту чап- | топту чабуу | Set phrase; | | (ball) | | | ball in acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to stretch | чой- | чоюу | Takes nom/acc | | | | | | | | / | / | / | | | | | | | | чоюл- | чоюлуу | Intransitive | | | | | Reflexive | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to strive | умтул- | умтулуу | For/Toward | | for | | | something in | | | | | dative | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to swim | (сууда) сүз- | (сууда) сүзүү | Place in | | | | | locative | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to throw | ыргыт- | ыргытуу | Takes nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to tie | теӊ-теӊ чык- | теӊ-теӊ чыгуу | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to watch | көр- | көрүү | Takes nom/acc | | (tv/movie) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to win | ут- | утуу | Takes nom/acc | | | | | | | 1: (to lose) | 1: (утул-) | 1: (утулуу) | 1: (Takes | | | | | nom/acc; | | | | | | | | | | often: утулуп | | | | | кал) | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to spend | өткөр- | өткөрүү | Time could be | | time\* | | | in nom or acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ [\ ]{.ul} **Сп[о]{.ul}рту, oюндары жана көңүл ачуулары XX** +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | **Этиштер** | | | | +================+================+================+================+ | **Англис | **Этиштин | **Инфинитив** | **Жөндөмө жана | | Тили** | Уңгусу** | | Эскертүүлөр** | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to win | жең- | жеңүү | Takes nom/acc | | | | | | | 1: (to come | 1: (жеңип | 1: (жеңип | 1: (Type of | | out on | чык-) | чыгуу) | competition, | | | | | etc is in | | top; to be | 2: (жеңил-) | 2: (жеңилүү) | ablative) | | | | | | | victorious) | | | 2: (Takes | | | | | nom/acc; | | 2: (to lose) | | | often: жеңилип | | | | | кал) | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ [\ ]{.ul} **Сп[о]{.ul}рту, oюндары жана көңүл ачуулары XXI** [Notes on Verbs Pertaining to Sports, Games, and Pastimes]{.ul} \**Аракет кыл*- means "to try" in the most broadest of senses. Another verb, *эптештир*-, exists but its usage is much more confined. *Эптештир-* is normally only used to mean "to try to find money" or "to try to find time" *- Мен сенин акчаӊды тапканга эптештирип жатам. --\ *I'm trying to find your money. *- Убактыӊ бар болсо, эптештирип келгенге аракет кыл. --*\ If you have time, try to come.\ Note two things from the above sentences: 1\) Verbal objects of *эптештир-* are used in dative case. 2\) The --п combining form *эптештир-* can actually be used in conjunction with *аракет* *кыл-* as well. \*This verb is often used with a possessed form of *кол*: *Колум бошобойт = Мен бошобойм* = I'm not free at the moment/I'm busy. \*Flirting between two people who are interested in each other is *тийиш*-. *Ойсоңдо*- specifically describes girls' actions, such as giggling, twirling hair, and putting on a lot of make up. \*The verb *теп-* (to kick) is also used with a myriad of sports equipment to yield verbs: \- *коньк[и]{.ul} теп-* = to go ice skating; to ice skate \- *л[ы]{.ul}жа теп-* = to go skiing; to ski \- *селкинчекте теп-* = to swing (on swingset) \- *чана теп-* = to go sledding; to sled \*To do something *эринбей* means to be fastidious about something; that is, doing something diligently or non-stop: *Мен эринбей кыргызча окуйм*. \*The verb *өткөр*- means "to spend time." Other associated verbs include *убакыт бекер эле өткөр*- (to waste time) (*корот*- or *ал*- work too) and *убакытты өткөрүш үчүн* means "to do something in order to kill time" **Сп[о]{.ul}рту, oюндары жана көңүл ачуулары XXII** [Other Verbs Pertaining to Sports, Games, and Pastimes]{.ul} \*Two verbs are used to mean "to organize a celebration (sometimes with alcohol) to celebrate someone's achievement." In the north, *майла*- is used. In the south, *жуу*- is used. One such instance of "washing or greasing," to translate into English, would be when the teacher of a winning Olympiad student buys the judges chocolates. \*In games like chess or checkers where the goal is for one piece to take out another, the verb *же-* (to eat) is used. *Чал-* is used in such games for "to attack another piece." \*When a class or club is cancelled for a one-time occasion, *болбойт* is used: *Бүгүн Англис тил кружогум болбойт*. = My English club has been cancelled today. Literally translating the verb "to cancel" into Kyrgyz (*жой*-) would mean that the club, class, event, etc. would be permanently cancelled. \*To say that one does not have time to do something, two phrases may be used: \- Verb + dat + *убактым жок* = *Сиз менен сүйлөшкөнгө убактым жок.* *-* Possessed Verb + *жетишпе албай кал* = *Кечее сага айтканым жетишпе албай* *калдым.* The verb in *nom + менен + алек бол*- means "to be busy with" and is similar to the above.\ Note that one cannot say *Mен алекмин* as a translation for "I'm busy." One must always state\ what one is busy with using *менен.* *Кечирим сурайм. Сиз менен сүйлөшкөнгө убактым жок.\ Сабакка даярдануу менен алек болуп жатам.* *\**There are many ways to say "to celebrate a holiday:" \- *белгиле-* = to celebrate any holiday (but only this verb is used for "birthday") \- *майрамда*- = to celebrate any holiday \- *өткөр-* = to celebrate any holiday; to spend a holiday; to spend time\ (*убакыт достор менен*) (*Сиздер Жаңы жылды кандай өткөзүңүздөр*) \* өткөрүл- = to be observed (holiday) \- *өткөз*- = to celebrate any holiday; to spend a holiday; to spend time \- *тос-* = to celebrate specifically New Year's \*The verb *өтүп кетти* means that something (movie, game, lesson, etc.) is over. \*A social media platform is used with the dative case and the verb *кир-* to mean: "to have/use a certain social media site." *Инстаграмга/Фейсбукка кирбейм.* = I don't have/use Instagram/Facebook. **Сп[о]{.ul}рту, oюндары жана көңүл ачуулары XXIII** \*There are two main verbs which can translate to "to play" a game or "to do" a sporting activity: *ойно-* and *машык-.* They both have many verb phrases associated with them: Verbs with *ойно-:* *- баскетб[о]{.ul}л ойно-* = to play basketball *- бейсб[о]{.ul}л ойно-* = to play baseball *- воллейб[о]{.ul}л ойно-* = to play volleyball *- гольф ойно-* = to play golf; to golf \- *к[а]{.ul}рта ойно-* = to play cards *- пейнтб[о]{.ul}л ойно-* = to play paintball *- т[е]{.ul}ннис ойно-* = to play tennis *- футб[о]{.ul}л ойно-* = to play football/soccer *- хокк[е]{.ul}й ойно-* = to play hockey *- шахм[а]{.ul}т ойно-* to play chess \- *чатыраш ойно*- = to play chess (seen in epics and old texts) *- ш[а]{.ul}шки ойно-* = to play checkers Verbs with *машык-* (Akin to Russian *заним[а]{.ul}ться*) (Note that this verb takes *менен* with objects): \- *бокс менен машык*- = to box \- *дз[ю]{.ul}до менен машык*- = to do judo; to practice judo \- *күрөш менен машык*- = to wrestle \- *спорт менен машык*- = to do sports; to play sports Other Verbs: \- *аэр[о]{.ul}бикага катыш-* = to do aerobics > \- *чач-* = to throw bones (chuko) in such games; to play such bone > games > > \* ат- the verb for when a bone hits another bone in such games. \**Натыйжалар/Жыйынтыктар/Результ[а]{.ul}ттар* *качан чыгат*? means "When will the results come out/be known?" \*Using an activity in the dative, a time frame in ablative, and the verb *келген* means "to have done/started that activity from that time frame." *Ал балетке кичинекей кезинен келген. =* She began doing balet as a young person. \*The verbs "to pretend" or "to play pretend" may be rendered into Kyrgyz through a certain nominalization process. *Мш* is added to the verb stem, and a form of *болуу* is also used:\ *Ал өлмөш болду*. = It played dead/It pretended to be dead. **Сп[о]{.ul}рту, oюндары жана көңүл ачуулары XXIV** [Other Phrases Pertaining to Sports, Games, and Pastimes]{.ul} \**Ийгилик (болсун!/каалайм!)* = Good luck! \**Ашыкча сүйлөбө*. = Don't be silly; Don't say stupid stuff \**Убакыт болду*! = Time's up! (signifiying end of game) \**Чык*(*кыла*)! You're out! (*оюндан*) \**Конокто* is a phrase used for being a guest on tv/radio: *Тынчтык корпусунун волонтёрлору улуттук кыргыз теле жана радио берүүсү Азаттыкта конокто*. \*\...*менен*\... = ...vs.... \**Мурунку бөлүмдө* means "Previously on..." and is shown at the beginning of a continuation episode of a tv series. \**Катуу алба(ӊыз)* or *Жеӊил кара(ӊыз)* both could mean "take it easy." **\ ** **Тилдери, грамм[а]{.ul}тикасы жана лингв[и]{.ul}стикасы** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - abbreviation | кыскартылыш | √: сокращ[е]{.ul}ние | | | | | | 1: (act of | 1: | | | abbreviating) | (к | | | | ыскартуу/кыскарткан) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - abbreviation | кыскартма | √: сокращ[е]{.ul}ние | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - abstract (of | кыскача жазуу | √: консп[е]{.ul}кт | | paper) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - accent | акц[е]{.ul}нт | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - act of adding | улоо/улаган | Х | | suffixes to | | | | nouns | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - act of circling | тег | Х | | information | еректөө/тегеректеген | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - act of informing | сүйүнчү | Х | | someone about a | | | | happy occurance | | | | \~\> | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - act of marking | м[а]{.ul}ркерлөө | Kyrgyzised Russian | | (designating | | | | with a mark) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - act of | сунуштоо | Х | | recommending | | | | | 1: (сунуштоо каты) | 1: (Х) | | 1: (letter of | | | | recommendation) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - act of | сүйлөө | X | | speaking;\ | | | | one's manner of | 1: (сүйлөй турган | 1: (Х) | | speech; that | нерсе) | | | which has been | | | | said | | | | | | | | 1: (talking point) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - act of | айтуу | Х | | speaking;\ | | | | that which has | 1: (тамгалап айтуу) | 1: (Х) | | been said\* | | | | | | | | 1: (spelling) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - act of writing; | жазуу | Х | | writings | | | | (collective for | 1: (жазылыш) | 1: (Х) | | things that have | | | | been written) | 2: (жазма) | 2: (Х) | | | | | | 1: (how something is | | | | written) | | | | | | | | 2: (writing -- | | | | invention or | | | | | | | | system) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - address (term of | кайрылуу | Х | | address or | | | | address to | | | | nation) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - advice; council | кеңеш | √: сов[е]{.ul}т | | | | (*Only rarely in | | 1: (really good | 1: (насыят) | Soviet contexts)* | | advice/council) | | | | | | 1: (Х) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - alphabet | алфав[и]{.ul}т | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (primer \[*book | 1: (алиппе) | 1: (Х) | | to help learn* | | | | | 2: (алфав[и]{.ul}т | 2: (Х) | | *alphabet*\]) | тартиби менен\ | | | | жайлаштыруу/\ | 3: (Х; | | 2: (alphabetizing; | жайлаштырган) | | | | | \-*те* = in | | alphabetization) | 3: | alphabetical order) | | | (алфав[и]{.ul}ттик | | | 3: (alphabetical | ирээт) | | | order) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Тилдери, грамм[а]{.ul}тикасы жана лингв[и]{.ul}стикасы II** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - anecdote; a | анекд[о]{.ul}т | Already Russian Word | | joke;\ | | | | story to | | | | illustrate a | | | | point | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - announcement | кулактандыруу | Х | | | | | | 1: (official | 1: (билдирүү) | | | announcement) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - announcement | жарыя | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - answering | автожоопбергич | Kyrgyz-Russian Mix | | machine;\ | | | | voicemail | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - anthology; | жыйнак | Х | | collection of | | | | | 1: (ырлар жыйнагы) | 1: (Х) | | 1: (poetry | | | | anthology) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - antonym | ант[о]{.ul}ним | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - aposiopesis\* | апозиоп[е]{.ul}зис | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - archive | арх[и]{.ul}в | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - article\ | макала | X | | (*in newspaper, | | | | magazine*) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - aspiration | дем менен кошо | √: аспир[а]{.ul}ция | | (phonetic) | чыккан үн | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - asterisk | жылдызча | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - at sign (@) | маймылча | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - attachment | тиркеме | X | | | | | | > (*email or | 1: (тиркөө) | 1: (X) | | > otherwise*) | | | | | | | | 1: (act of attaching | | | | to email;\ | | | | registration\ | | | | \[*in a | | | | book/register*\]) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - biography | өмүр баян | √: биогр[а]{.ul}фия | | | | | | 1: (autobiography) | 1: (өздүкү өмүр | 1: (√: | | | баян) | а | | | | втобиогр[а]{.ul}фия) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - biography | тарых таржымалы | √: биогр[а]{.ul}фия | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - biography | таржымакал | √: биогр[а]{.ul}фия | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - blank space\ | боштук | Х | | (between words | | | | or to denote | | | | missing letter) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - board (for | такта(й) | √: д[о]{.ul}ска | | writing)\* | | | | | 1: (м[а]{.ul}ркер | 1: (√: м[а]{.ul}ркер | | 1: (white board) | тактасы/тактайы) | д[о]{.ul}скасы | | | | | | 2: (bulletin board) | 2: (маалыматтык | \[*м[а]{.ul}ркер* | | | такта) | | | | | *тактасы/тактайы is* | | | | | | | | *Kyrgyz-Russian | | | | Mix*\]) | | | | | | | | 2: (Х) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **\ ** **Тилдери, грамм[а]{.ul}тикасы жана лингв[и]{.ul}стикасы III** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - book | китеп | X | | | | | | 1: (hobby of reading | 1: (китеп окуу/китеп | 1: (X) | | books;\ | окуган) | | | act of reading) | | 2: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | | 2: (китеп шкафы) | Mix) | | 2: (bookcase) | | | | | 3: (китепче) | 3: (X) | | 3: (booklet) | | | | | 4: (китеп дүкөнү) | 4: (√: китеп | | 4: (bookstore; | | магаз[и]{.ul}ни | | bookshop) | | | | | | \[Kyrgyz-Russian | | | | Mix\]) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - carrier (phone | опер[а]{.ul}тор | Already Russian Word | | company) | | | | | 1: (байланыш | 1: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | 1: (mobile | опер[а]{.ul}тор) | Mix) | | carrier)\* | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - case | жөндөмө | X | | | | | | 1: (nominative case) | 1: (атооч | 1: (X) | | | жөндөмө\[сү\]) | | | 2: (genitive case) | | 2: (X) | | | 2: (илик | | | 3: (dative case) | жөндөмө\[сү\]) | 3: (X) | | | | | | 4: (accusative case) | 3: (барыш | 4: (X) | | | жөндөмө\[сү\]) | | | 5: (locative case) | | 5: (X) | | | 4: (табыш | | | 6: (ablative case) | жөндөмө\[сү\]) | 6: (X) | | | | | | | 5: (жатыш | | | | жөндөмө\[сү\]) | | | | | | | | 6: (чыгыш | | | | жөндөмө\[сү\]) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - catalog | катал[о]{.ul}г | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - chalk | бор | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - chapter | бөлүм | √: глав[а]{.ul} | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - chrestomathy | хрестом[а]{.ul}тия | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - comedic | айтыш | X | | storytelling | | | | between two | | | | dueling koumouz | | | | players; Kyrgyz | | | | 漫才\~\> | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - comma | үтүр | √: запят[а]{.ul}я | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - commentary | комент[а]{.ul}рий | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - communication | сүйлөшүү | √: | | | | коммуник[а]{.ul}ция | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - communication;\ | баарлашуу | √: | | interview (work, | | коммуник[а]{.ul}ция; | | talking back and | 1: | интервь[ю]{.ul} | | forth) | (ко | | | | ммуник[а]{.ul}циялар | 1: (Kyrgyzised | | 1: (communication | | Russian) | | system) | сист[е]{.ul}масы) | | | | | 2: (Х) | | 2: (cross-cultural | 2: (маданий | | | | алмашуудагы | | | communication) | | | | | баарлашуу) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - compliment (nice | комплим[е]{.ul}нт | Already Russian Word | | thing) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - conjugation (act | жактоо/жактаган | Х | | of) | | | | | 1: (жакталыш) | 1: (Х) | | 1: (conjugation -- | | | | one verb's | | | | | | | | way of | | | | conjugating\*) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - conjunction | байламта | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - climax (of | эӊ кызыктуу жер | √: | | story) | | кульмин[а]{.ul}ция | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - climax (of | эӊ кызыктуу убак | √: | | story) | | кульмин[а]{.ul}ция | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - climax (of | к | √: | | story) | ульмин[а]{.ul}циялык | кульмин[а]{.ul}ция | | | чекит | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - call box\ | сел[е]{.ul}ктордук | √: домоф[о]{.ul}н\ | | (number pad | | (*сел[е]{.ul}ктордук | | outside of | | is Kyrgyzised* | | apartment you | | | | have to dial and | | *Russian*) | | the person in | | | | the apartment | | | | buzzes you in) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Тилдери, грамм[а]{.ul}тикасы жана лингв[и]{.ul}стикасы IV** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - consonant | үнсүз | X | | | | | | 1: (voiced | 1: (жумшак үнсүз) | 1: (X) | | consonant) | | | | | 2: (каткалаң үнсүз) | 2: (X) | | 2: (unvoiced | | | | consonant) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - contents; table | мазмун | Х | | of contents | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - context | конт[е]{.ul}кст | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - conversation | маек | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - copy\* | көүрмө | √: к[о]{.ul}пия | | | | | | 1: (photocopy; | 1: (ксерокөчүрмө) | 1: (√: | | Xerox) | | ксерок[о]{.ul}пия) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - crossword | баш катырма | √: кроссв[о]{.ul}рд | | puzzle\* | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - dash (--) | сызыкча | √: тир[е]{.ul} | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - data plan; phone | тар[и]{.ul}ф | Already Russian Word | | plan;\ | | | | Internet plan | 1: (р[оу]{.ul}минг) | 1: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | | 1: (roming \[plan\]) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - declaration | деклар[а]{.ul}ция | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - definition | аныктама | Х | | | | | | 1: (defining) | 1: | 1: (Х) | | | (аныктоо/аныктаган) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - degree (of | даража | Х | | adjective);\ | | | | form (of word) | 1: (жөнөкөй даража) | 1: (Х) | | | | | | 1: (positive | 2: (жай даража) | 2: (Х) | | degree;\ | | | | dictionary form) | 3: (салыштырма | 3: (Х) | | | даража) | | | 2: (positive | | 4: (Х) | | degree;\ | 4: (күчөтмө даража) | | | dictionary form) | | 5: (Х) | | | 5: (чамалама даража) | | | 3: (comparative) | | 6: (Х) | | | 6: (басандатуучу | | | 4: (superlative) | даража) | 7: (√: | | | | отриц[а]{.ul}тельная | | 5: (approximate adj. | 7: (тангыч | ф[о]{.ul}рма | | degree) | ф[о]{.ul}рма) | | | | | \[*тангыч | | 6: (diminuitive or | 8: (терс | ф[о]{.ul}рма* is | | descending | ф[о]{.ul}рма) | | | | | Kyrgyz-Russian | | degree of adj. | 9: (терс түр) | Mix\]) | | | | | | \[*blue blueish*\]) | 10: (оң | 8: (√: | | | ф[о]{.ul}рма) | отриц[а]{.ul}тельная | | 7: (negative degree | | ф[о]{.ul}рма | | | | | | \[of sentence, verb, | | \[*терс | | etc\]) | | ф[о]{.ul}рмасы* is | | | | | | 8: (negative degree | | Kyrygz-Russian Mix) | | | | | | \[of sentence, verb, | | 9: (√: | | etc\]) | | отриц[а]{.ul}тельная | | | | ф[о]{.ul}рма) | | 9: (negative degree | | | | | | 10: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | \[of sentence, verb, | | Mix) | | etc\]) | | | | | | | | 10: (positive degree | | | | \[sentence, | | | | | | | | verb, etc not in | | | | negative\]) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - denotation | белгилениш | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - dénouement | чечилиш | √: разв[я]{.ul}зка | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - development | өнүгүү | Х | | (literary -- | | | | part leading to | | | | climax) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - declension (of | жөндөлүш | Х | | noun) | | | | | 1: (жөндөө) | 1: (Х) | | 1: (act of declining | | | | a noun for | | | | | | | | case) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Тилдери, грамм[а]{.ul}тикасы жана лингв[и]{.ul}стикасы V** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - dialect | диал[е]{.ul}кт | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (dialectual term\ | 1: | 1: (Х)\ | | \[word indiciative | (диалект[и]{.ul}зм) | 2: (Х) | | of a | | | | | 2: | | | dialect, like | (д | | | y'all\]) | иалектол[о]{.ul}гия) | | | | | | | 2: (dialectology) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - dialogue | сүйлөшүү | √: диал[о]{.ul}г | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - diary; agenda | күндөлүк | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - dictation | жат жазуу | √: дикт[а]{.ul}нт | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - dictionary | сөздүк | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - discussion; | талкуу | √: диск[у]{.ul}ссия | | | | | | > debrief (after | 1: (талкуулоо) | | | > meeting) | | | | | | | | 1: (act of | | | | discussing) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - dual number\ | жуп сан | Х | | (grammatical | | | | requirement in | | | | some languages | | | | to treat the | | | | number 2 | | | | distinctly from | | | | other numbers) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - email | электр[о]{.ul}ндук | email in Latin | | | п[о]{.ul}чта | orthography also | | 1: (email address) | | seen. Kyrgyzised | | | 1: | Russian | | 2: (inbox) | (электр[о]{.ul}ндук | | | | дарек) | 1: (√: | | | | электр[о]{.ul}ндук | | | 2: (келген каттар | п[о]{.ul}чта | | | кутусу) | | | | | \[*Kyrygz-Russian | | | | Mix*\]) | | | | | | | | 2: (Х) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - ending | мүчө | √: оканч[а]{.ul}ние | | | | | | 1: (affix) | 1: ([а]{.ul}ффикс) | 1: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | | 1a: (prefix) | 1а: (пр[е]{.ul}фикс) | | | | | 1а: (Already Russian | | 1б: (suffix) | 1б: (с[у]{.ul}ффикс) | Word) | | | | | | 2: (personal | 2: (жак мүчөсү) | 1б: (Already Russian | | predicate suffix | | Word) | | | 3: (суроолуу «бы» | | | \[*such as the --мин | мүчөсү) | 2: (Х) | | in Мен* | | | | | 4: (этиштин тангыч | 3: (Х) | | *Тревисмин\]*) | мүчөсү) | | | | | 4: (Х) | | 3: (question suffix | 5: (өтүнүчтү | | | "бы") | билдирүүчү | 5: (Х) | | | | | | 4: (negation verb | мүчөсү) | | | ending | | | | | | | | "ба/па") | | | | | | | | 5: (request ending | | | | "чы" | | | | | | | | \[*as in | | | | бериӊизЧИ*\]) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - envelope | конв[е]{.ul}рт | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - epic; epic poem | дастан | √: [э]{.ul}пос | | | | | | 1: (Epic of Manas) | 1: (Манас дастаны) | 1: (√: Манас | | | | [э]{.ul}посу\ | | 1a: (recitation of | 1a: (Манас таануу) | \[*Kyrgyzised | | Manas as a | | Russian*\]) | | | | | | school club or | | 1а: (Х) | | contest) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - eraser | өчүргүч | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - essay | эсс[е]{.ul} | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - essay | сочен[е]{.ul}ние | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - exchange of | кептешүү | Х | | words | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - eye contact | түзгө-түздөн карашуу | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - fable | тамсил | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - fairytale | жомок | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - feedback | сын-пикер | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - editing (a | ред[а]{.ul}кция | Already Russian Word | | publication) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Тилдери, грамм[а]{.ul}тикасы жана лингв[и]{.ul}стикасы VI** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - feeding someone | шыбырап айтып | √: подск[а]{.ul}зка | | lines;\ | берүү/берген | | | whispering the | | | | right answer to | | | | someone | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - flipchart | б[а]{.ul}тман | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - flipchart | флипч[а]{.ul}рт | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - foreward;\ | кириш сөз | Х | | introduction (to | | | | book) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - form (*one fills | бланк | Already Russian Word | | in*) | | | | | 1: | 1: (X) | | 1: (act of filling | (толтуруу/толтурган) | | | out forms) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - gesture (hand | ымдоо-жаӊдоо | √: жест | | movement with | | | | meaning) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - grammar | грамм[а]{.ul}тика | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - grammatical | толуктооч | Х | | compliment; | | | | object | 1: (тике толуктооч) | 1: (Х) | | | | | | 1: (direct object) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - grammatical | констр[у]{.ul}кция | Already Russian Word | | construction | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - greeting | саламдашуу | Х | | | | | | 1: (greetings and | 1: | 1: (Х) | | leave-taking | ( | | | | саламдашуу-коштошуу) | | | \[collective\]) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - greeting | учурашуу | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - handwriting\* | кол | √: п[о]{.ul}черк | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - heart-to-heart | сырдашуу | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - homonym | ом[о]{.ul}ним | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - indication; link | шилтеме | √: сс[ы]{.ul}лка | | (computer) | | | | | | (*computer link | | | | meaning only)* | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - information | маалымат | √: информ[а]{.ul}ция | | | | | | 1: (general | 1: (үстүртөн | 1: (Х) | | information) | маалымат) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - information | сурап-билүү кызмат | Х | | (number you dial | | | | to find out | | | | about stuff) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - interview | аңгемелешүү | √: интервь[ю]{.ul} | | (radio; tv);\ | | | | story telling | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - interview (work, | маектешүү | √: интервь[ю]{.ul} | | talking back and | | | | forth);\ | | | | act of | | | | conversing | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - jargon; | жарг[о]{.ul}н | Already Russian Word | | technical | | | | language | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - journalism | журнал[и]{.ul}стика | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - formatting (a | тариздөө | Х | | page, etc) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - historicism | истор[и]{.ul}зм | Already Russian Word | | (word or idea | | | | relating to | 1: (арха[и]{.ul}зм) | 1: (Already Russian | | historical | | Word) | | concept, like | | | | "Assyria" or | | | | "USSR" or | | | | "telegram") | | | | | | | | 1: (archaism -- word | | | | or idea | | | | | | | | that is antequated, | | | | like | | | | | | | | "thy") | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **\ ** **Тилдери, грамм[а]{.ul}тикасы жана лингв[и]{.ul}стикасы VII** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - language | тил | Х | | | | | | 1: (foreign | 1: (чет тил) | 1: (Х) | | language) | | | | | 2: (эне тил) | 2: (Х) | | 2: (native | | | | language;\ | 3: (дене тили) | 3: (Х) | | mother tongue) | | | | | | | | 3: (body language) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - letter | кат | X | | | | | | > (*message one | 1: (чөп кат) | 1: (X) | | > writes to someone | | | | > else*) | | | | | | | | 1: (bookmark) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - letter (*of | тамга | Х | | alphabet*) | | | | | 1: (баш тамга) | 1: (Х) | | 1: (capital letter) | | | | | 2: (йоттошкон тамга) | 2: (Х) | | 2: (term for Russian | | | | borrowed | | | | | | | | letters e, ё, ю, я) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - lexicography | лексикогр[а]{.ul}фия | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - lexis; | л[е]{.ul}ксика | Already Russian Word | | vocabulary | | | | | 1: | 1: (Already Russian | | 1: (lexicology) | ( | Word) | | | лексикол[о]{.ul}гия) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - liaison | үнсүздөрдүн | √: льез[о]{.ul}н | | | алмашылышы | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - library\* | китепкана | √: библиот[е]{.ul}ка | | | | | | 1: (library studies; | 1: (китепкана | 1: (Х) | | studies to | таануу) | | | | | | | be a librarian) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - linguaphone | лингаф[о]{.ul}н | Already Russian Word | | (cassettes and | | | | headphones used | | | | for learning a | | | | language) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - linguistics | лингв[и]{.ul}стика | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - list | тизме | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - listening (act | угуу | Х | | of) | | | | | 1: (активдүү угуу) | 1: (Х) | | 1: (active | | | | listening) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - literacy | сабаттуулук | Х | | | | | | 1: | 1: (санариптик | 1: (Х) | | (di | сабатуулук) | | | gital/computer/media | | | | | | | | literacy) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - literature | адабият | Х | | | | | | 1: (fiction) | 1: (көркөм адабият) | 1: (Х) | | | | | | 2: (the love of | 2: (адабиятчылык) | 2: (Х) | | literature) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - magazine | журн[а]{.ul}л | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - mass media | массалык маалымат | X | | | каражаттар (ММК) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Тилдери, грамм[а]{.ul}тикасы жана лингв[и]{.ul}стикасы VIII** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - meaning; sense; | маани | X | | significance | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - message | кабар | X | | | | | | 1: (official | 1: (билдирүү) | 1: (Х) | | message; messages | | | | | | | | \[received on | | | | phone\]) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - monologue | монол[о]{.ul}г | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - mood (of verb) | ыңгай | Х | | | | | | 1: (imperative; | 1: (буйрук ыңгай) | 1: (Х) | | command) | | | | | 1а: (үчүнчү жакка | 1а: (Х) | | 1a: (3^rd^ person | тиешелүү | | | imperative) | | 2: (Х) | | | ыңгай) | | | 2: (conditional) | | 2а: (Х) | | | 2: (шарттуу ыңгай) | | | 2a: | | 3: (Х) | | (contrary-to-fact | 2а: (мүмкүн болгон | | | | шарттуу | 4: (Х) | | conditional) | | | | | ыңгай) | | | 3: (intentional | | | | mood) | 3: (ниет ыңгай) | | | | | | | 4: (indicative mood) | 4: (жай ыңгай) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - morphology | морфол[о]{.ul}гия | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - newsletter | басылма | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - newspaper\* | гезит | √: газ[е]{.ul}та\ | | | | (*гезит* *is | | | | Kyrgyzised Russian*) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - nodding | баш ийкөө | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - nodding | баш ийкөө | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - notebook | дептер | X | | | | | | 1: (diminuitive of | 1: (дептерче) | 1: (X) | | above) | | | | | 2: (жумушчу | 2: (Х) | | 2: (workbook \[to | дептер\[и\]) | | | practice | | | | | | | | exercises in for | | | | class\]) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - notice; | маалымдама | X | | notification | | | | | 1: (билдирүү) | 1: (Х) | | 1: (official notice) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - novel | ром[а]{.ul}н | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (novella) | 1: (п[о]{.ul}весть) | 1: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - nuance | н[ю]{.ul}анс | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - number | сан | Х | | (grammatical) | | | | | 1: (жекелик сан) | 1: (Х) | | 1: (singular) | | | | | 2: (көптүк сан) | 2: (Х) | | 2: (plural) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - offer; | сунуш | Х | | suggestion | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - orthography | орфогр[а]{.ul}фия | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - neologism | неолог[и]{.ul}зм | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Тилдери, грамм[а]{.ul}тикасы жана лингв[и]{.ul}стикасы IX** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - pad of paper (to | блокн[о]{.ul}т | Already Russian Word | | write on) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - page (of book) | бет | √: стран[и]{.ul}ца | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - paper | кагаз | Х | | | | | | 1: (sheet of paper) | 1: (барак) | 1: (Х) | | | | | | 1a: (diminuitive of | 1а: (баракча) | 1а: (Х) | | above) | | | | | 2: (кара кагаз) | 2: (Х) | | 2: (carbon copy | | | | paper) | 3: (к[о]{.ul}пия | 3: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | | кагаз) | Mix) | | 3: (carbon copy | | | | paper) | 4: (барактын арты) | 4: (Х) | | | | | | 4: (backside of the | 5: (сормо кагаз) | 5: (Х) | | page) | | | | | 6: (сормо жалгаяк) | 6: (Х) | | 5: (blotting paper) | | | | | 7: (чатыраш кагаз) | 7: (Х) | | 6: (blotting paper) | | | | | | | | 7: (grid paper) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - papyrus | пап[и]{.ul}рус | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - paragraph | парагр[а]{.ul}ф | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - parchment | п[е]{.ul}ргамент | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - parenthesis; | кашаа | Х | | bracket | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - particle | бөлүкчө | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - password | сыр()сөз | √: пар[о]{.ul}ль | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - pen\* | калем сап | √: р[у]{.ul}чка | | | | | | 1: (fountain pen) | 1: | 1: (√: | | | (автом[а]{.ul}ттык | автор[у]{.ul}чка | | | жазуу | | | | | \[*автом[а]{.ul}ттык | | | калеми) | жазуу* | | | | | | | | *калеми is Kyrgyz-* | | | | | | | | *Russian Mix*\]) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - pencil\* | калем | √: каранд[а]{.ul}ш | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - pencil/pen case | пен[а]{.ul}л | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - period (end of | чекит | Х | | sentence); dot | | | | | 1: (үтүрлүү чекит) | 1: (Х) | | 1: (semicolon) | | | | | 2: (көп чекиттер) | 2: (Х) | | 2: (ellipsis; "dot | | | | dot dot") | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - person | жак | X | | (grammatical) | | | | | 1: (биринчи жак) | 1: (X) | | 1: (1^st^ person) | | | | | 2: (экинчи жак) | 2: (X) | | 2: (2^nd^ person) | | | | | 3: (үчүнчү жак) | 3: (X) | | 3: (3^rd^ person) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - philology | фил[о]{.ul}логия | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - phone units | бирдик | √: един[и]{.ul}ца | | | | | | 1: (act of adding | 1: (бирдик жүктөө) | 1: (√: | | units) | | един[и]{.ul}ца | | | | жүктөө | | | | | | | | \[*Kyrgyz-Russian | | | | Mix*\]) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - phonetics | фон[е]{.ul}тика | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - phrase | сөз айкаш | √: фр[а]{.ul}за | | | | | | 1: (rephrasing) | 1: | 1: (Already Russian | | | (перефр[а]{.ul}за) | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - pager | п[е]{.ul}йджер | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Тилдери, грамм[а]{.ul}тикасы жана лингв[и]{.ul}стикасы X** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - phrasebook | сүйлөшмө | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - phraseology | фразеол[о]{.ul}гия | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - plot | сюж[е]{.ul}т | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - poem | ыр | Х | | | | | | 1: (poetry) | 1: (по[э]{.ul}зия) | 1: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - printer | пр[и]{.ul}нтер | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (act of printing | 1: | 1: (X) | | out) | (\ | | | | [пр[и]{.ul}нтерден\] | | | | | | | | чыгаруу/чыгарган) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - printing; | басма | X | | edition | | | | (numbered | 1: (басма | 1: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | printing of | стан[о]{.ul}к) | Mix) | | book) | | | | | 2: (басмакана) | 2: (√: | | 1: (printing press) | | полигр[а]{.ul}фия) | | | | | | 2: (printing house; | | | | | | | | publishing house) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - printing; | басылыш | Х | | edition | | | | (numbered | | | | printing of | | | | book) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - pronunciation\* | так айтуу | √: | | | | произнош[е]{.ul}ние | | 1: (orthoepy | 1: (орфо[э]{.ul}пия) | | | \[correct | | 1: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | | pronunciation of | | | | words\]) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - pronunciation\* | айтылыш | √: | | | | произнош[е]{.ul}ние | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - protective cover | мукаба | Х | | you put around | | | | book;\ | | | | book cover | | | | (general) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - protective cover | тиш | Х | | you put around | | | | book | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - proverb\* | макал | X | | | | | | 1: (saying; | 1: (\[ы\]лакап) | 1: (Х) | | witticism) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - publication | чыгарылыш | Х | | | | | | > (i.e. periodical, | | | | > etc) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - punctuation | пункту[а]{.ul}ция | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (bullet point) | 1: (пункт) | 1: (Х) | | | | | | 2: (punctuation | 2: (бөлгүч белги) | 2: (Х) | | mark) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - questionnaire; | анк[е]{.ul}та | Already Russian Word | | survey | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - quill | пер[о]{.ul} | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - quotation mark | тырмакча | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - quote; quotation | цит[а]{.ul}та | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - predicate of a | баяндооч | Х | | sentence | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Тилдери, грамм[а]{.ul}тикасы жана лингв[и]{.ul}стикасы XI** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - reminder | эскертме | Х | | | | | | 1: (act of | 1: (эскертүү) | 1: (Х) | | reminding) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - report (i.e. | баяндама | Х | | news) | | | | | 1: (баяндоо) | 1: (Х) | | 1: (act of | | | | reporting) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - request | өтүнүч | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - research paper | рефер[а]{.ul}т | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - review (one | пикер | X | | writes)\* | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - revision; | текшерүү | √: коррект[у]{.ul}ра | | proofreading | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - root (of word) | уңгу | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - row; line (of | сап | Х | | text) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sentence; clause | сүйлөм | X | | | | | | 1: (main clause) | 1: (баш сүйлөм) | 1: (Х) | | | | | | 2: (simple sentence) | 2: (жөнөкөй сүйлөм) | 2: (Х) | | | | | | 3: (complex | 3: (татаал сүйлөм) | 3: (Х) | | sentence) | | | | | 4: (бирикме сүйлөм) | 4: (Х) | | 4: (compound | | | | sentence) | 5: (сүйлөмдүн | 5: (Х) | | | түзүлүшү) | | | 5: (sentence | | 6: (Х) | | structure) | 6: (жай сүйлөм) | | | | | | | 6: (declarative | | | | sentence) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - service | байланыш | Х | | (cellphone);\ | | | | connection | | | | (phone) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sign (street or | белги | Х | | otherwise) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - signature\* | кол (тамга) | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - SIM card | SIM-к[а]{.ul}рта | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - slide show | сл[а]{.ul}йд шоу | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (slide \[in | 1: (слайд) | 1: (Already Russian | | show\]) | | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - slogan; motto | ураан | √: дев[и]{.ul}з | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sound (used in | тыбыш | Х | | language) | | | | | 1: (жарылма тыбыш) | 1: (Х) | | 1: (plosive) | | | | | 2: (мурунчул тыбыш) | 2: (Х) | | 2: (nasal) | | | | | 3: (ышкырма тыбыш) | 3: (Х) | | 3: (fricative) | | | | | 4: (шуулдама тыбыш) | 4: (Х) | | 4: (fricative) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - source (of | булак | Х | | information) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - speech (one | тилдик байланыш | Х | | writes to give) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - speech (one | сөз айтуу | Х | | writes to give) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Тилдери, грамм[а]{.ul}тикасы жана лингв[и]{.ul}стикасы XII** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - speech;\ | кеп | Х | | one's manner of | | | | speech | 1: (оозеки кеп) | 1: (Х) | | | | | | 1: (oral speech) | 2: (кеп маданияты) | 2: (Х) | | | | | | 2: (stylistics; | 3: (бөтөн сөз) | 3: (Х) | | speaking style) | | | | | | | | 3: (reported speech) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - status (social | ст[а]{.ul}тус | Already Russian Word | | media) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sticky note; | ст[и]{.ul}кер | Already Russian Word | | post-it note | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - story | аңгеме | √: ист[о]{.ul}рия | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - stress (on word) | (сөз) басым(ы) | √: удар[е]{.ul}ние | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - stutter; stammer | кекечтенүү | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - subject of | ээ | Х | | sentence | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - subscription (to | *+dat* жазылуу | X | | magazine, | | | | YouTube channel) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - subtitles | субт[и]{.ul}тры | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - summary | жыйынтыктоо | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - syllable | муун | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - synonym | син[о]{.ul}ним | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - syntax | с[и]{.ul}нтаксис | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - tab (key on | абз[а]{.ul}ц | Already Russian Word | | computer);\ | | | | indentation (of | | | | paragraph) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - table; chart; | жадыбал | √: табл[и]{.ul}ца | | grid | | | | | 1: (кл[е]{.ul}тка) | 1: (Already Russian | | 1: (one cell or box | | Word) | | within a | | | | | | | | table, chart, or | | | | grid) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - tablet | планш[е]{.ul}т | Already Russian Word | | | | | | > (*touchscreen | | | | > portable | | | | > computer*) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - talk-show | ток-ш[оу]{.ul} | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - teaching of | англис тилин чет тил | Х | | English as a | катары окутуу (АЧКО) | | | foreign language | | | | (TEFL) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - telecom; | телек[о]{.ul}м | Already Russian Word | | | | | | telecommunications | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - telegraph | телегр[а]{.ul}ф | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - telegram | телегр[а]{.ul}мма | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - style (of | стиль | Already Russian Word | | speech, writing) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **\ ** **Тилдери, грамм[а]{.ul}тикасы жана лингв[и]{.ul}стикасы XIII** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - telephone | телеф[о]{.ul}н | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (mobile phone; | 1: (уюлдук | 1: (√: с[о]{.ul}тка\ | | cell phone)\* | телеф[о]{.ul}н) | *\[уюлдук | | | | телеф[о]{.ul}н is\ | | 1a: (smartphone) | 1a: | Kyrgyz-Russian | | | (смартф[о]{.ul}н) | Mix\]*) | | 1б: (cellphone case) | | | | | 1б: (чех[о]{.ul}л) | 1a: (Already Russian | | 2: (telephone | | Word) | | number) | 2: | | | | (\[телеф[о]{.ul}н\] | 1б: (Already Russian | | 2а: (informational | н[о]{.ul}мер\[и\]) | Word) | | number\ | | | | \[to call to find | 2а: (сурап билүү | 2: (Kyrgyzised | | out more | телеф[о]{.ul}ну) | Russian) | | | | | | about something\]) | 2б: (жардам | 2а: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | | л[и]{.ul}ниясы) | Mix) | | 2б: (help line; hot | | | | line) | 3: | 2б: (Kyrygz-Russian | | | (тел | Mix) | | 3: (equipping or | еф[о]{.ul}ндоштуруу) | | | providing an | | 3: (Х) | | | 4: (тергич) | | | area with phone | | 4: (Х) | | service) | | | | | | | | 4: (number pad; key | | | | pad) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - telephone call | чалуу | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - text | текст | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - text message | SMS/СМС | Latin letters used | | | | in Kyrygz (sometimes | | | | СМС seen), | | | | pronounced *эс эм | | | | эс* | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - the news (around | жаңылык | Х | | town);\ | | | | the word (on the | 1: (жаңылыктар) | 1: (Х) | | street) | | | | | 1a: (жаңылыктар | 2: (Х) | | 1: (the news \[tv | түрмөгү) | | | programme\]) | | | | | | | | 1a: (newscast) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - theme | т[е]{.ul}ма | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - tick mark (√) | г[а]{.ul}лочка | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - tick mark (√) | пт[и]{.ul}чка | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - title (of book, | атылыш | Х | | etc.);\ | | | | name of | | | | publication | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - toast (well | тост | Already Russian Word | | wishing with | | | | raised glass) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - tongue twister | жаңыл(т)мач | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - topic (i.e. of | т[о]{.ul}пик | Already Russian Word | | discussion) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - transcription | транскр[и]{.ul}пция | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (act of | 1: | 1: (Kyrgyzised | | transcribing) | (тран | Russian) | | | скр[и]{.ul}пциялоо/\ | | | | транс | | | | кр[и]{.ul}пциялаган) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - translation | котормо | X | | (finished | | | | product one has | 1: (которулуш) | 1: (X) | | done) | | | | | 2: | 2: (X) | | 1: (translation \[of | (которуу/которгон) | | | a word\]) | | | | | | | | 2: (act of | | | | translating) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - type writer | маш[и]{.ul}нка | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Тилдери, грамм[а]{.ul}тикасы жана лингв[и]{.ul}стикасы XIV** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - voice (of verb) | мамиле | X | | | | | | 1: (passive voice) | 1: (туюк мамиле) | 1: (X) | | | | | | 2: (reflexive voice) | 2: (өздүк мамиле) | 2: (X) | | | | | | 3: (reciprocal | 3: (кош мамиле) | 3: (X) | | voice) | | | | | 4: (аркылуу мамиле) | 4: (X) | | 4: (causative | | | | \[voice\]) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - voice mail; | голосов[о]{.ul}й | Kyrgyzised Russian | | voice message | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - vowel | үндүү | X | | | | | | 1: (vowel harmony) | 1: (үндүүлөр | 1: (X) | | | эрчишүүсү) | | | 2: (long vowel) | | 2: (X) | | | 2: (созулма үндүү) | | | 3: (short vowel) | | 3: (X) | | | 3: (кыска үндүү) | | | 4: (back vowel) | | 4: (X) | | | 4: (жоон үндүү) | | | 5: (front vowel) | | 5: (X) | | | 5: (ичке үндүү) | | | 6: (front vowel) | | 6: (Х) | | | 6: (алдынкы | | | 7: (mid vowel) | катардагы | 7: (Х) | | | | | | 8: (back vowel) | үндүү) | 8: (Х) | | | | | | | 7: (орто катардагы | | | | үндүү) | | | | | | | | 8: (арткы катардагы | | | | үндүү) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - white out | зам[а]{.ul}зка | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - word\* | сөз | X | | | | | | 1: (compound noun) | 1: (кошмок сөз) | 1: (X) | | | | | | 2: (twin words | 2: (кош сөз) | 2: (X) | | \[like нан-пан\]) | | | | | 3: (сөз жасоо) | 3: (X) | | 3: (word formation; | | | | | 4: (сөз курамы) | 4: (√: сөздүн | | *слово | | сост[а]{.ul}вы | | образов[а]{.ul}ние*) | 5: (жарыш сөз) | | | | | \[*Kyrgyz-Russian | | 4: (a word's | 6: (сөз байлык) | Mix*\]) | | make-up) | | | | | 7: (сөз түрмөгү) | 5: (√: деб[а]{.ul}т) | | 5: (debate) | | | | | 8: (коюлуучу сөздөр) | 6: (X) | | 6: (transition word) | | | | | | 7: (Х) | | 7: (word list; | | | | vocabulary list) | | 8: (Х) | | | | | | 8: (word bank) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - word order\* | сүйлөм ичиндеги | √: пор[я]{.ul}док | | | сөздөрдүн орун алуу | слов | | | тартиби | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - wordfinder | сөз табуучу | Х | | (small | | | | dictionary in | 1: (т[е]{.ul}мага | 1: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | back of book) | караганда сөз | Mix) | | | | | | 1: (thematic | табуучу) | | | wordfinder) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - work(s) of an | чыгарма | Х | | author | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Тилдери, грамм[а]{.ul}тикасы жана лингв[и]{.ul}стикасы XV** [Notes on Nouns Pertaining to Langauges, Grammar, and Linguistics]{.ul} \*An aposiopesis is an ubrupt cutting off of speech, usually written as a dash (-) or ellipsis (...): *How could you...; I can't even...* \*The Russian translation *доск[а]{.ul}* is much more commonly used, but note however that in Kyrgyz the stress is normally placed on the first syllable instead of on the last. \*The three mobile operators in Kyrgyzstan are *Beeline (Билайн), О! (pronounced: ошка),* and *Мегаком.* \*Жакталыш is also the noun used to describe the declension of nouns in Turkic languages after they follow possessive pronouns: thus, the process of changing the noun in the following example is also called "conjugation:" *менин апам, анын апасы, биздин апабыз\...* \**Баш катырма* in the sense of "crossword" is antiquated. \*While *көүрмө* and *ксерокөүрмө* can be seen ubiquitously on signs for businesses which perform copying tasks, in spoken Kyrygz the Russian loan words *к[о]{.ul}пия* and *ксерок[о]{.ul}пия* are much more used. \**Бул сенин колуңбу? =* Is this your handwriting? \*The Russian *библиот[е]{.ul}ка* is much less used than the Kyrygz *китепкана.* \*The Russian word *газ[е]{.ul}та* is much more used than its Kyrgyzised form *гезит,* although the latter is still commonly seen on kiosks which sell them. \*Russian *р[у]{.ul}чка* is much more used than the Kyrygz *калем сап.* *\**Russian *каранд[а]{.ul}ш* is much more used than the Kyrgyz *калем*. \*The term "pronunciation" is difficult to translate into pure Kyrgyz. *Так айтуу* means "exact speaking" and *айтылыш* refers more to one's way or manner of speaking rather than the pronunciation of a particular word. Thus, the Russian word *произнош[е]{.ul}ние* is often used for sake of convenience. \**Макал айтылгандай, "..."* means "As the saying/proverb goes..." \*The thing that is being reviewed can precede the word *пикер* followed by *тууралуу, туурасында,* оr *жөнүндөгү*: *Сапат \... пикер =* Reviews about the quality. \**Айтканың(ыз) келсин* (literally: May what you said come) is a response given after someone makes a wish or a toast. \*Usually, a possessed form of *кол* is used: *Биякка кол коюӊуз* = Please put signature here. However, the full noun is *кол тамга*. \**Кол телеф[о]{.ul}н* may also be said for "cell phone;" albeit being much less common. \**Сөз түрүндө* means "as words" (as opposed to numbers): *Сандарды сөз түрүндө жазгыла* = Write the numbers out. \**Пор[я]{.ul}док слов* simply rolls off the tongue easier. **Тилдери, грамм[а]{.ul}тикасы жана лингв[и]{.ul}стикасы XVI** [Other Nouns Pertaining to Languages, Grammar, and Linguistics]{.ul} \**Төмөндөгү(лөр)* means "to following" when presenting a list. It can be nominalized: *Менден менин атам төмөндөгүлөрдү күтөт:...* My father expects the following from me... \*Just like English, the word *эгер* (if) can be nominalized; it is mainly used colloquially in advertising in the phrase *«эгерлерсиз»* meaning something similar to "no ifs, ands, or buts." \*Stating a person or institution in ablative case and then saying *дайын* (designation) is a metaphorical way of asking if there has been word from someone: *Мектептин парламентинин президентинен дайын барбы? Жок, дайын жок. =* Has there been any word from the school council president? No, not one. \*The Kyrgyz phrase for "part of speech" is *сөз түркүм*. Various parts of speech include: \- *арт[и]{.ul}кл* = article (a, an, the) \- *ат атооч* = pronoun \* *белгисиз ат атооч* = indefinite pronoun \^ *аныктама ат атооч* = definite pronoun > \^ *белгилүү ат атооч* = definite pronoun > > \* *жактама ат атооч* = personal pronoun > > \* *жалпылагыч ат атооч =* collective pronoun (words like *баары; > бардык*) > > \* *жиктигич ат атооч* = "every" pronoun (words like *ар ким; ар > адам*) > > \* *өздүк ат атооч* = reflexive pronoun > > \* *сурама ат атооч* = interrogative pronoun > > \* *таандык ат атооч* = possessive pronoun > > \* *шилтеме ат атооч* = demonstrative pronoun (words like *бул; ошол; > тетиги*) \- *гер[у]{.ul}ндий* = gerund (Word for any verb beind used as a noun; non-language specific) \* *атоочтук* = verbal noun; Kyrgyz verb's participial form (к/гн form) \- *жандооч* = postposition (words like *менен, үстүндө*) \* *орун жандооч* = postpositions of place/location \- *зат атооч* = noun \- *предл[о]{.ul}г* = preposition \- *сан атооч* = numeral \* *иреттик сан атооч* = ordinal numeral \* *эсептик сан атооч* = cardinal numeral \- *сын атооч* = adjective \* *шилтеме сын атооч* = demonstrative adjective (words like *бул; тигил*) \- *тактооч* = adverb \* *мезгил тактооч* = adverbs of time (*ар дайым; улам-улам; кээде*) > \* *шилтеме тактооч* = demonstrative adverb (words like *мындай; > ошондой*) \- *этиш* = verb \* *жардамчы этиш* = helping verb; auxiliary verb \* *инфинит[и]{.ul}в* = infinitive \* *көмөкчү этиш* = helping verb; auxiliary verb \^ *мод[а]{.ul}лдык этиш* = modal verb \* *кыймыл атооч* = infinitive **Тилдери, грамм[а]{.ul}тикасы жана лингв[и]{.ul}стикасы XVII** \*The Kyrgyz word for "verb tense" is *чак*. The names for different tenses include: \- *бүткөн чак* = perfect tense \* *учурга чейинки бүткөн чак* = present perfect tense (English: *I have read*) \- *келер чак* = future tense \* *арсар келер чак* = future indefinite tense (Kyrgyz: *Мен окуурмун*) > \* *жөнөкөй келээр чак* = simple future tense (English: *I will read)* > > \- *өткөн чак* = past tense \* *адат өткөн чак* = past habitual tense (Kyrgyz: *Мен окучумун*) > \* *айкын өткөн чак* = past definite tense (Kyrgyz: *Мен окудум*) \* *белгисиз өткөн чак* = past indefinite tense (Kyrgyz: *Мен окуганмын*) \^ This tense is also known as *жалпы өткөн чак* > \* *жөнөкөй өткөн чак* = simple past tense (English: *I went*) \* *капыскы өткөн чак* = unexpected past tense (Kyrgyz: *Мага суук тийиптир*) \- *созулган чак* = progressive tense\* \- *узак чак* = progressive tense\* \* *узак келер чак* = future progressive tense (English: *I will be reading*) > \* *узак өткөн чак* = past progressive tense (Kyrgyz: *Мен окуп > жаткам*) > > \* *узак учур чак* = present progressive tense (Kyrgyz: *Мен окуп > жатам*) \- *учур чак* = present tense \* *жөнөкөй учур чак* = simple present tense (English: *I go*) Note: *Узак чак* is much more used than *созулган чак.* **Тилдери, грамм[а]{.ul}тикасы жана лингв[и]{.ul}стикасы XVIII** \*The name of a language can often be made by taking the denonym of the inhabitants of a certain country and adding *тили,* meaning "language." Adding the particle *ч* to the name means "doing \[it\] in the manner of" those people, but in the case of languages, it is an adverbial meaning "in the *x* language." Thus, *корей тили* means "Korean (the language) and *корейче* means "in the Korean language." This is similar to Russian adding *яз[ы]{.ul}к* to deonyms to get the language name and *по-* to get "in that language." Note, however, that the adverbial form can also be nominalized in Kyrgyz and can undergo full declension. See the chart below for a list of languages in Kyrgyz: +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Англисче** | **«Тили» формасы** | **Тактооч формасы** | +======================+======================+======================+ | - Albanian | алб[а]{.ul}н тили | алб[а]{.ul}нча | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - Arabic | араб тили | арабча | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - Belorussian | белор[у]{.ul}с тили | белор[у]{.ul}сча | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - Bulgarian | болг[а]{.ul}р тили | болг[а]{.ul}рча | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - Croatian | хорв[а]{.ul}т тили | хорв[а]{.ul}тча | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - Czech | чех тили | чехче | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - Danish | | датча | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - Dutch | голл[а]{.ul}нд тили | голл[а]{.ul}ндча | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - English | англис тили | англисче | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - Estonian | | эст[о]{.ul}нчо | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - Finnish | | финче | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - French | франц[у]{.ul}з тили | франц[у]{.ul}зча | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - German | н[е]{.ul}мец тили | н[е]{.ul}мецче | | | | | | 1: (Germanic | *or* | *оr* | | language) | | | | | немис тили | немисче | | | | | | | 1: (герм[а]{.ul}н | 1: (n/a) | | | тили) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - Greek | грек тили | гр[е]{.ul}кче | | | | | | 1: (Ancient Greek) | 1: (байыркы грек | 1: (байыркы | | | тили) | гр[е]{.ul}кче) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - Hebrew | ивр[и]{.ul}т тили | ивр[и]{.ul}тче | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - Hungarian | в[е]{.ul}нгер тили | в[е]{.ul}нгерче | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - Icelandic | | исл[а]{.ul}ндча | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - Indonesian | | индон[е]{.ul}зияча | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - Ingush | инг[у]{.ul}ш тили | инг[у]{.ul}шча | | | | | | > (*Turkic language | | | | > of Ingushetia, | | | | > Russia*) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - Italian | итал[я]{.ul}н тили | итал[я]{.ul}нча | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - Japanese | яп[о]{.ul}н тили | яп[о]{.ul}нчо | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - Karachai\ | карачай тили | карачайча | | (*Turkic | | | | language of | | | | Karachai people | | | | of Russia*) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - Kazakh | казак тили | казакча | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - Korean | кор[е]{.ul}й тили | кор[е]{.ul}йче | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - Kyrgyz | кыргыз тили | кыргызча | | | | | | | | قىرگىچه | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - Latin | лат[ы]{.ul}н (тили) | лат[ы]{.ul}нча | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - Lithuanian | | лит[о]{.ul}вчо | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - Malay | мал[а]{.ul}ецтер | мал[а]{.ul}ецтерче | | | тили | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - Norwegian | | норв[е]{.ul}жче | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - Polish | пол[я]{.ul}к тили | пол[я]{.ul}кча | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - Portuguese | португ[а]{.ul}л тили | португ[а]{.ul}лча | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - Romanian | рум[ы]{.ul}н тили | рум[ы]{.ul}нча | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - Russian | орус тили | орусча | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - Slovak | слов[а]{.ul}к тили | слов[а]{.ul}кча | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - Slovene | слов[е]{.ul}н тили | слов[е]{.ul}нче | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - Spanish | исп[а]{.ul}н тили | исп[а]{.ul}нча | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - Swedish | швед тили | шведче | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - Tajik | тажик тили | тажикче | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - Thai | тай тили | тайча | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - Turkish | түрк тили | түркчө | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - Ukrainian | укра[и]{.ul}н тили | укра[и]{.ul}нче | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - Uzbek | өзбек тили | өзбекче | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - Zulu | зул[у]{.ul}с тили | зул[у]{.ul}сча | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - Ughur | уйгур тили | уйгурча | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ Note: *кишиче* is an adverb formed in this manner which means "to speak human speech." **\ ** **Тилдери, грамм[а]{.ul}тикасы жана лингв[и]{.ul}стикасы XIX** +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | **Сын Атоочтор жана Тактоочтор** | | +======================================+==============================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - abbreviated | кыскартылган | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - alphabetic; alphabetical | алфав[и]{.ul}ттик | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - animate (noun) | жандуу | | | | | 1: (inanimate) | 1: (жансыз) | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - approximative (degree of | чамалама | | adjective) | | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - attributive of "comma;" overly | үтүрлүү | | comma'd | | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - attributive of "library;"\ | китепканалык\ | | pertaining to libraries | (*китепканалык тармак*) | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - attributive of "suffix;" | с[у]{.ul}ффикстик | | suffixing (part) | | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - back (vowel) | жоон | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - back (vowel) | арткы катардагы | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - being made up of a string of | тамгалык | | letters; pertaining to letters | | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - biographical | биогр[а]{.ul}фиялык | | | | | 1: (autobiographical) | 1: (автобиогр[а]{.ul}фиялык) | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - bulletted (i.e. a bulletted | пункт менен жасалган | | list) | | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - capital (letter) | баш | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - collective (pronouns) | жалпылагыч | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - comparative | салыштырма | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - compound (structure);\ | бирикме | | describing a word/phrase that is | | | written all together without | | | spaces | | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - constructive (feedback) | конструктивдүү | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - countable (noun) | саналган | | | | | 1: (uncountable \[noun\]) | 1: (саналбаган) | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - countable (noun) | саналуучу | | | | | 1: (uncountable \[noun\]) | 1: (саналбоочу) | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - definite (determinate) | белгилүү | | | | | 1: (indefinite \[indeterminate\]) | 1: (белгисиз) | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - definite (determinate) | аныктама | | (pronouns) | | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - demonstrative (pronouns, | шилтеме | | adjectives) | | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - dialectual | диалект[и]{.ul}калык | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - diminuitive | басандатуучу | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - elongated; long (vowel) | созулма | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - exclamatory (sentence) | илептүү | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - figurative (not literal meaning) | өтмө | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - fluently | такалбай | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - fluently\* | эркин | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - fricative | ышкырма | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - fricative | шуулдама | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - front (vowel) | алдынкы катардагы | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - front (vowel) | ичке | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - blotting; pertaining to | сормо | | blotting;\ | | | that which blots with ink | | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - derivative (affixes, | туунду | | morpheme) \* (explain like --дуу | | | in акылдуу changes part of | 1: (тубаса) | | speech) | | | | | | 1: (non-derivative) | | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ **Тилдери, грамм[а]{.ul}тикасы жана лингв[и]{.ul}стикасы XX** +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | **Сын Атоочтор жана Тактоочтор** | | +==================================+==================================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - generalizing\ | жиктигич | | (pronouns like *ар бир; ар | | | ким*) | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - grammatical | грамм[а]{.ul}тикалык | | | | | 1: (grammatically correct) | 1: (грамм[а]{.ul}тика боюнча | | | туура) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - guttural (sound) | кекиртекчил | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - handwritten | кол жазма | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - having no comment; without | комент[а]{.ul}рийсиз | | comment | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - inarticulate; inarticulately | балдыр-салдыр | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - interrogative | суроолуу | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - interrogative | сурама | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - Latin (pertaining to Latin | лат[ы]{.ul}нский | | alphabet, letters) | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - lexical | л[е]{.ul}ксикалык | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - linguistic | лингв[и]{.ul}стикалык | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - literally; word-for-word | сөзмө-сөз | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - literary | адабий | | | | | 1: (interested in literature; | 1: (адабиятчыл) | | loving literature) | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - mellifluous; sweet (speech) | ширин | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - mid (vowel) | орто катардагы | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - mobile (phone) | уюлдук | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - mobile (phone) | моб[и]{.ul}лдик | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - modal (verb) | мод[а]{.ul}лдык | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - nasal | мурунчул | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - nasal | мурун менен айтылуучу (*тыбыш*) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - negative (verbs, degree) | тангыч | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - negative (verbs, degree) | терс | | | | | 1: (positive \[degree\]) | 1: (оң) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - nice; pretty (for | сулуу | | handwriting) | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - normal degree (of adjective) | жай | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - open; openly (when talking) | ачык\ | | (*adverb*) | (*Мени менен ачык айтсаңар | | | болот)* | | 1: (frankly; completely open | | | \[*adverb*\]) | 1: (ачык-айкын) | | | | | 2: (frank \[person\]; describing | 2: (өткүр) | | someone who | | | | | | always speaks their mind, | | | regardless of | | | | | | what others think) | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - oral; speaking (i.e. test) | оозеки | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - passive (sentence, | туюк мамиледеги | | structure) | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - personal (pronouns) | жактама | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - pertaining to data plans | тар[и]{.ul}фтик | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - pertaining to transcription | транскр[и]{.ul}пциялык | | | | | | (*транскр[и]{.ul}пциялык | | | тамгалар*) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - offset (type; printing) | оффс[е]{.ul}ттик | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - literate\* | сабаттуу | | | | | 1: (illiterate) | 1: (сабатсыз) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ **Тилдери, грамм[а]{.ul}тикасы жана лингв[и]{.ul}стикасы XXI** +---------------------------------------+------------------------------------+ | **Сын Атоочтор жана Тактоочтор** | | +=======================================+====================================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | +---------------------------------------+------------------------------------+ | - philological | филол[о]{.ul}гиялык | +---------------------------------------+------------------------------------+ | - phonetic; phonetical | фон[е]{.ul}тикалык | +---------------------------------------+------------------------------------+ | - possessive (pronouns) | таандык | +---------------------------------------+------------------------------------+ | - possessive (pronouns, etc) | таандык мүчөлүү | +---------------------------------------+------------------------------------+ | - print; block (version of letters) | печ[а]{.ul}тный | +---------------------------------------+------------------------------------+ | - reference; inquiry | сурап-билүү\ | | | *(\...кызмат = справочная служба)* | +---------------------------------------+------------------------------------+ | - reflexive | өздүк | +---------------------------------------+------------------------------------+ | - regular (verb) | туура | | | | | 1: (irregular \[verb\]) | 1: (туура эмес) | +---------------------------------------+------------------------------------+ | - selected (works of author) | тандалган | +---------------------------------------+------------------------------------+ | - short (sound; vowel) | кыска | +---------------------------------------+------------------------------------+ | - short and sweet\* | кыска жана так | +---------------------------------------+------------------------------------+ | - simple (sentence) | жөнөкөй | | | | | 1: (complex \[sentence\]) | 1: (татаал) | +---------------------------------------+------------------------------------+ | - singular | жекелик сандагы | | | | | 1: (plural) | 1: (көптүк сандагы) | +---------------------------------------+------------------------------------+ | - stressed (syllable) | басымдуу | | | | | 1: (unstressed) | 1: (басымсыз) | +---------------------------------------+------------------------------------+ | - superlative | күчөтмө | +---------------------------------------+------------------------------------+ | - talkative; loquacious | сүйлөөк | +---------------------------------------+------------------------------------+ | - thematic | тематикалык | +---------------------------------------+------------------------------------+ | - verbal | верб[а]{.ul}лдык | | | | | 1: (non-verbal) | 1: (верб[а]{.ul}лдык эмес) | +---------------------------------------+------------------------------------+ | - voiced (consonant) | жумшак | | | | | 1: (unvoiced \[consonant\]) | 1: (каткалаң) | +---------------------------------------+------------------------------------+ | - syntactic | с[и]{.ul}нтаксистик | +---------------------------------------+------------------------------------+ [Notes on Adjectives and Adverbs Pertaining to Languages, Grammar, and Lingustics]{.ul} \**Суудай* or *беш колдой* can modify the adverb эркин to exemplify further that one speaks a language "perfectly fluently." \*The Russian translation of *сабаттуу* is *гр[а]{.ul}мотный*. The adverbial form of this word, *гр[а]{.ul}мотно*, is often used in Kyrgyz as well to say that one can write/speak a language well, with a high register, and in an educated manner: *Ал кыргызча гр[а]{.ul}мотно жаза алат.* \**Кыска анда нуска* is a similar phrase, meaning "the shorter the better." **Тилдери, грамм[а]{.ul}тикасы жана лингв[и]{.ul}стикасы XXII** [Other Adjectives and Adverbs Pertaining to Languages, Grammar, and Linguistics]{.ul} \**Language name+ сүйлөгөн* means "*that language-*speaking." *Кан[а]{.ul}да дагы франц[у]{.ul}зча- сүйлөгөн жер.* \*Sometimes a body part-adjective combination can yield a metaphorical meaning which pertains to language: \- *тил + possessed endings + узун* = talkative; loquacious (literally: has a long tongue) \* *эзме (адам)* is an adjective that describes a talkative or loquacious person, but one who is soooo talkative that you don't even want to be around them. \*Cases can be used attributively (such as "nominative pronoun" or "accusative verb") by adjectivalizing *жөндөмөсүндө* to *жөндөмөсүндөгү.* \*Tenses can be used attributively (such as "present tense verb") by adjectivalizing чакта to чактагы: *белгисиз өткөн чактагы этиш* = indefinite past tense verb. \**Number-тилдүү* means "\#-lingual": *эки тилдүү* = bilingual; *көп тилдүү* = multilingual. \*In crosswords, *туурасынан* means "horizontal" and *тигинен* means "vertical." \**A4* is the term for (American) standard-size printer paper. In Kyrgyz, the Russian reading of this is used: *А чет[ы]{.ul}ре* \*Some adjectives are made from nouns being used attributively. The noun they modify is often placed in 3^rd^ person possessed genitive morphology: \- *кагаз* = paper; made from paper: *кагаз батперек* \- *китеп* = pertaining to books: *китеп шк[а]{.ul}фы* \- *котормо* = pertaining to translations: *котормо аг[е]{.ul}нттиги* (translation agency) \- *м[а]{.ul}ркер* = pertaining to markers: *м[а]{.ul}ркер д[о]{.ul}ска* \- *сөз* = pertaining to words: *сөз басымы* \- *сунуштоо* = pertaining to recommending: *сунуштоо каты* \- *телеф[о]{.ul}н* = pertaining to telephones: *телеф[о]{.ul}н н[о]{.ul}мери* \- *ыр* = pertaining to poetry: *ыр жыйнагы* **Тилдери, грамм[а]{.ul}тикасы жана лингв[и]{.ul}стикасы XXIII** +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | **Этиштер** | | | | +================+================+================+================+ | **Англис | **Этиштин | **Инфинитив** | **Жөндөмө жана | | Тили** | Уңгусу** | | Эскертүүлөр** | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | кыскарт- | кыскартуу | Takes nom/acc | | abbreviate | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to add an | ула- | улоо | Noun in | | ending to | | | dative;\ | | a noun | | | ending in | | | | | accusative: | | | | | *Иреттик сан | | | | | атоочтун | | | | | мүчөсүн | | | | | улагыла.* | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to add | жүктө- | жүктөө | единица/бирдик | | units to | | | in nom; at | | phone plan | | | place in | | \~\> | | | ablative | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to add | сал- | салуу | единица/бирдик | | units to | | | in nominative; | | phone plan | | | at place in | | \~\> | | | ablative | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | кайрыл- | кайрылуу | Person | | | | | addressed in | | address\*;\ | | | dative.\ | | to address | | | Address as = | | a person | | | *деп кайрыл-*\ | | as;\ | | | *Жардам керек | | to turn to | | | болсо, дайыма | | someone | | | кайрыл*! | | for help | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to advise | кеңеш бер- | кеңеш берүү | To whom in | | | | | dative | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | алфав[и]{.ul}т | алфав[и]{.ul}т | Takes nom/acc | | | тартиби менен | тартиби менен | | | alphabetize | жайлаштыр- | жайлаштыруу | 1: | | | | | (Intransitive) | | 1: (to be | 1: | 1: | | | alphabetical) | ( | ( | | | | алфав[и]{.ul}т | алфав[и]{.ul}т | | | | менен | менен | | | | | | | | | кет-) | кетүү) | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | кулактандыр- | кулактандыруу | Takes деп | | announce\* | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | жарыяла- | жарыялоо | Takes nom/acc | | announce;\ | | | or деп | | to | | | | | declare\* | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to archive | а | а | Takes nom/acc | | | рх[и]{.ul}вде- | рх[и]{.ul}вдөө | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to ask | сура- | суроо | Sentence use | | | | | деп;\ | | (question)\* | 1: (кечирим | 1: (кечирим | object can be | | | сура-) | суроо) | nom/acc\ | | 1: (to ask | | | Person asked | | forgivness) | 2: (суроо | 2: (суроо | in abl | | | бер-) | берүү) | | | 2: (to give a | | | 1: (Possessed | | question) | | | к/гн | | | | | | | | | | verb + үчүн = | | | | | for) | | | | | | | | | | 2: (To whom: | | | | | dative\ | | | | | суроо can be | | | | | | | | | | nom/acc) | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to be (on | чык- | чыгуу | Newspaper, tv | | tv, in a | | | is in dative | | newspaper) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to be | таңдайлаш- | таңдайлашуу | Intransitive | | | | | reflexive | | palatalized | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to butt in | сөзгө аралаш- | сөзгө аралашуу | Intransitive; | | on | | | in dative | | | | | | | conversation | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to bark | корсулда- | корсулдоо | To whom in | | (order);\ | | | dative | | to speak | | | | | roughly | | | | | and | | | | | quickly to | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ **Тилдери, грамм[а]{.ul}тикасы жана лингв[и]{.ul}стикасы XXIV** +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | **Этиштер** | | | | +================+================+================+================+ | **Англис | **Этиштин | **Инфинитив** | **Жөндөмө жана | | Тили** | Уңгусу** | | Эскертүүлөр** | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to call | (телеф[о | (телеф[о | Person called | | | ]{.ul}н\[до\]) | ]{.ul}н\[до\]) | in dat | | (telephone);\ | чал- | чалуу | | | to ring | | | 1: (person in | | (phone)\* | 1: (адашып | 1: (адашып | dative) | | | чал-) | чалуу) | | | 1: (to dial | | | 2: (Caller 1 | | the wrong | 2: (кошуп | 2: (кошуп | in | | | кой-) | коюу) | | | number) | | | nom/acc; to | | | | | other | | 2: (to connect | | | | | | | | person in | | \[operator | | | dative) | | | | | | | connecting a | | | | | caller | | | | | | | | | | to another | | | | | | | | | | number\]) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to call | чакыр- | чакыруу | Takes | | for a | | | nom/acc:\ | | person;\ | | | *Апа сени | | to call | | | чакырып жатат* | | out to | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to change | өзгүрт- | өзгүртүү | Takes nom/acc | | a topic | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to circle | тегеректе- | тегеректөө | Often | | | | | тегеректеп | | information | | | кой- when | | | | | giving | | | | | commands to | | | | | students; | | | | | Takes nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to circle | тоголокто- | тоголоктоо | Takes | | | | | nom/acc;\ | | information | | | Often in --п | | | | | кой for | | | | | commands | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to come | чык- | чыгуу | From language: | | from a | | | abl | | language\* | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | баарлаш- | баарлашуу | Reciprocal | | | | | verb | | communicate;\ | | | | | to | | | | | converse | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | толукта- | толуктоо | Takes nom/acc | | complete | | | | | | | | | | (sentence);\ | | | | | to fill in | | | | | (blank);\ | | | | | to act as | | | | | the | | | | | | | | | | grammatical | | | | | compliment | | | | | to\* | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | жакта- | жактоо | Takes nom/acc | | conjugate | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | маектеш- | маектешүү | With someone = | | converse;\ | | | ...менен | | to | | | | | interview | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to copy | көчүр- | көчүрүү | Takes nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to debate | жарыш сөзгө | жарыш сөзгө | Set phrase | | | чык- | чыгуу | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to debate | деб[а]{.ul}тка | деб[а]{.ul}тка | Set phrase | | | чык- | чыгуу | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to decline | жөндө- | жөндөө | Takes nom/acc | | a noun | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | аныкта- | аныктоо | Takes nom/acc | | define;\ | | | | | to | | | | | | | | | | elucidate;\ | | | | | to | | | | | clarify;\ | | | | | to specify | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to dial | тер- | терүү | Takes nom/acc | | | | | | | 1: (to dial | 1: (туура эмес | 1: (туура эмес | 1: (Takes | | the wrong | тер-) | терүү) | nom/acc) | | | | | | | number) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ **Тилдери, грамм[а]{.ul}тикасы жана лингв[и]{.ul}стикасы XXVI** +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | **Этиштер** | | | | +================+================+================+================+ | **Англис | **Этиштин | **Инфинитив** | **Жөндөмө жана | | Тили** | Уңгусу** | | Эскертүүлөр** | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to die | чыкпай кал- | чыкпай калуу | Often in past | | | | | tense;\ | | > (writing | | | Intransitive | | > utensil) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | талкуула- | талкуулоо | Takes nom/acc | | discuss;\ | | | | | to talk | 1: (талкуу | 1: (талкуу | 1: () | | about | өткөр-) | өткөрүү) | | | | | | | | 1: (to lead a | | | | | | | | | | discussion on) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to draw a | сыз- | сызуу | Takes nom/acc | | line | | | | | | 1: (*+gen* | 1: (*+gen* | 1: (Thing | | 1: (to | астын сыз-) | астын | being | | underline) | | | | | | 2: (сызып | сызуу) | underlined in | | 2: (to cross | сал-) | | gen; | | out) | | 2: (сызып | | | | | салуу) | астын is noun | | | | | in | | | | | | | | | | possessed acc | | | | | case) | | | | | | | | | | 2: (Takes | | | | | nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to draw a | чий- | чийүү | Takes nom/acc | | line;\ | | | | | to | 1: (чийип | 1: (чийип | 1: (Takes | | underline | сал-) | салуу) | nom/acc) | | | | | | | 1: (to cross | | | | | out) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | (айрыкча) | (айрыкча) | Takes nom/acc | | | белгиле- | белгилөө | | | emphasize;\ | | | | | to | | | | | underline\ | | | | | (put | | | | | importance | | | | | on) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to enclose | тирке- | тиркөө | Takes | | (letter);\ | | | nom/acc;\ | | to attach | | | To what in | | (email) | | | dative | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to end in | аякта- | аяктоо | Thing ends in | | (letter) | | | plus менен | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to equip | телефондоштур- | т | Takes nom/acc | | with | | елефондоштуруу | | | | | | | | telephones;\ | | | | | to provide | | | | | with | | | | | telephone | | | | | access | | | | | \~\> | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to erase; | өчүр- | өчүрүү | Takes nom/acc | | to | | | | | efface;\ | | | | | to wipe | | | | | out/off;\ | | | | | to silence | | | | | phone;\ | | | | | to hang up | | | | | call | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | кептеш- | кептешүү | With someone = | | exchange | | | менен | | words with | | | | | someone | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | билдир- | билдирүү | Мага билдирип | | express;\ | | | кой = Let me | | to | | | know | | inform;\ | | | | | to let | | | | | know;\ | | | | | to | | | | | symbolize | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to fill | толтур- | толтуруу | Takes nom/acc | | out a | | | | | form\* | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | кеп кыл- | кеп кылуу | Use *жөнүндө* | | discuss;\ | | | | | to talk | | | | | about | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to format | таризде- | тариздөө | Takes nom/acc | | a | | | | | | | | | | document/page | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to format | калыпка сал- | калыпка салуу | Takes nom/acc | | a | | | | | | | | | | document/page | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ **Тилдери, грамм[а]{.ul}тикасы жана лингв[и]{.ul}стикасы XXVII** +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | **Этиштер** | | | | +================+================+================+================+ | **Англис | **Этиштин | **Инфинитив** | **Жөндөмө жана | | Тили** | Уңгусу** | | Эскертүүлөр** | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to get cut | үзүлүп кал- | үзүлүп калуу | Intransitive | | off (phone | | | | | call) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to greet | учураш- | учурашуу | Use менен for | | | | | to greet | | 1: (to shake | 1: (кол | 1: (кол | someone | | hands\ | кармашып | кармашып | | | \[in | | | 1: (Use менен) | | greeting\]) | учураш-) | учурашуу) | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to greet | саламдаш- | саламдашуу | Use менен for | | | | | to greet | | | | | someone | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to have a | сырдаш- | сырдашуу | Reciprocal | | | | | intransitive | | heart-to-heart | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | маалымда- | маалымдоо | Person in | | inform;\ | | | dative | | to let | 1: (үлгү ал-) | 1: (үлгү алуу) | | | know;\ | | | Кино эмне | | to | 2: | 2: | жөнүндө | | notify;\ | (маалымдаш-) | (маалымдашуу) | маалымдайт? | | to send a | | | | | message | | | 1: (Work of | | about | | | art in | | (i.e. | | | | | movie) | | | ablative: | | | | | Кинодон | | 1: (to take a | | | | | message | | | кандай үлгү | | | | | ала | | from \[i.e. | | | | | movie\]) | | | алабыз?) | | | | | | | 2: (to share | | | 2: | | | | | (Reciprocal) | | information;\ | | | | | to inform one | | | | | | | | | | another) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | сөздү жула | сөздү жула | Set phrase | | | кач- | качуу | | | interrupt;\ | | | | | to cut | | | | | someone | | | | | off (when | | | | | talking)\* | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | и | и | Person: | | interview | нтервь[ю]{.ul} | нтервь[ю]{.ul} | ablative;\ | | someone | бер- | берүү | интервью could | | | | | be nom/acc | | 1: (to take an | 1: | 1: | | | | (и | (и | 1: (from | | interview) | нтервь[ю]{.ul} | нтервь[ю]{.ul} | person: abl) | | | ал-) | алуу) | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to know a | бил- | билүү | Same as сүйлөй | | language | | | ал- | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to make;\ | түз- | түзүү | Takes nom/acc | | to make | | | | | up\ | | | | | | | | | | (sentences, | | | | | linguistic | | | | | things) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to mark\ | м[ | м[ | Takes nom/acc | | (designate | а]{.ul}ркерле- | а]{.ul}ркерлөө | | | with a | | | | | mark) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to mean\* | түшүндүр- | түшүндүрүү | See usage note | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | кабарла- | кабарлоо | Мага кабарлап | | message;\ | | | кой = Let me | | to | 1: (кабарлаш-) | 1: | know | | inform;\ | | (кабарлашуу) | | | to let | | | 1: (Reciprocal | | know | | | verb) | | | | | | | 1: (to write | | | | | one | | | | | | | | | | another; | | | | | | | | | | to message one | | | | | | | | | | another) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to list | тизмеле- | тизмелөө | Takes nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to leave a | калтыр- | калтыруу | Object is in | | remark | | | nom/acc;\ | | (i.e. a | | | in = dative | | note in a | | | | | guest | | | | | book) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ **Тилдери, грамм[а]{.ul}тикасы жана лингв[и]{.ul}стикасы XXVIII** +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | **Этиштер** | | | | +================+================+================+================+ | **Англис | **Этиштин | **Инфинитив** | **Жөндөмө жана | | Тили** | Уңгусу** | | Эскертүүлөр** | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to nod | баш ийке- | баш ийкөө | Баш can be in | | | | | poss acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to pick up | ал- | алуу | чалуу can be | | a call\* | | | in nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to point | көрсөтүп бер- | көрсөтүп берүү | Takes nom/acc | | out | | | | | | | | | | > (with | | | | | > finger, etc) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to print | (пр[и | (пр[и | Takes nom/acc | | (out) | ]{.ul}нтерден) | ]{.ul}нтерден) | | | | чыгар- | чыгаруу | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | текшер- | текшерүү | Takes nom/acc | | | | | | | proofread;\ | | | | | to revise | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | басып чык- | басып чыгуу | Takes nom/acc | | publish;\ | | | | | to come | / | / | Passive | | out\ | | | *басылып чык-* | | (*i.e. | басып чыгар- | басып чагаруу | often seen in | | жумасына 1 | | | books | | жолу | | | | | чыгат*) | | | / | | | | | | | > / | | | Use this if | | > | | | you are | | > to publish | | | something else | | > (trans) | | | is a subject | | | | | and will print | | | | | something. | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to read\* | оку- | окуу | Takes nom/acc | | | | | | | 1: (to read | 1: (үн чыгарып | 1: (үн чыгарып | 1: (Takes | | aloud) | оку-) | окуу) | nom/acc) | | | | | | | 2: (to | 2: | 2: | 2: (What is | | proofread) | (кор | (кор | being | | | рект[у]{.ul}ра | рект[у]{.ul}ра | | | | оку-) | окуу) | proofread is | | | | | in | | | | | | | | | | genitive; | | | | | then, | | | | | | | | | | *корр | | | | | ект[у]{.ul}ра* | | | | | is in | | | | | | | | | | possessed | | | | | 3^rd^ | | | | | | | | | | person | | | | | accusative: | | | | | | | | | | *Макаламдын* | | | | | | | | | | *коррект | | | | | [у]{.ul}расын* | | | | | | | | | | *окуй | | | | | аласызбы?*) | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to receive | ал- | алуу | кат can be | | (letter) | | | nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | сунушта- | сунуштоо | To whom in | | recommend | | | dat;\ | | | | | specific rec. | | | | | in nom/acc; | | | | | often in | | | | | passive: | | | | | сунуштал- | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to repeat | кайтала- | кайталоо | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | пе | пе | | | rephrase;\ | рефр[а]{.ul}за | рефр[а]{.ul}за | | | to reword | кыл- | кылуу | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to report | баянда- | баяндоо | On what takes | | | | | жөнүндө | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to say; to | сүйлө- | сүйлөө | 1: (Reciprocal | | speak | | | verb) | | | 1: (сүйлөш-) | 1: (сүйлөшүү) | | | 1: (to speak | | | 2: (Set | | with;\ | 2: (ичинен | 2: (ичинен | phrase) | | to converse) | сүйлөн-) | сүйлөнүү) | | | | | | 2a: (Lang is | | 2: (to talk | 2a: (сүйлөн-) | 2a: (сүйлөнүү) | in nom, | | with | | | | | | | | country is in | | oneself) | | | loc; | | | | | | | 2a: (to be | | | *Эфи | | spoken\ | | | [о]{.ul}пияда* | | \[of | | | | | language\]) | | | *кайсы тил* | | | | | \...) | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ **Тилдери, грамм[а]{.ul}тикасы жана лингв[и]{.ul}стикасы XXIX** +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | **Этиштер** | | | | +================+================+================+================+ | **Англис | **Этиштин | **Инфинитив** | **Жөндөмө жана | | Тили** | Уңгусу** | | Эскертүүлөр** | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to say; to | айт- | айтуу | For quotes, | | speak\* | | | takes деп; in | | | 1: (тамгалап | 1: (тамгалап | commands often | | 1: (to spell) | айт-) | айтуу) | with айтып | | | | | бер/кой | | 2: (to | 2: | 2: | | | compliment) | (ком | (ком | 1: (Often in | | | плим[е]{.ul}нт | плим[е]{.ul}нт | passive: | | 3: (to put | айт-) | | | | something | | айтуу) | Катип тамгалап | | | 3: (ичкелеп | | | | d | айт-) | 3: (ичкелеп | айтылат? = How | | iplomatically) | | айтуу) | is | | | 4: (тост айт-) | | | | 4: (to say a | | 4: (тост | it spelled?) | | toast) | 4a: (тост | айтуу) | | | | көтөр-) | | 2: (Person in | | 4a: (to raise | | 4а: (тост | dative) | | a toast) | | көтөрүү) | | | | | | 3: (Takes деп) | | | | | | | | | | 4: () | | | | | | | | | | 4а: () | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to say; to | де- | | Often used to | | tell\* | | | ask simply | | | | | *Эмне дейсиз; | | | | | Ал эмне деди?* | | | | | or as helping | | | | | verb. See note | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to shake | баш чайка- | баш чайкоо | *Баш* can be | | one's head | | | in possessed | | (as way of | | | accusative | | saying no) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to sign | кол кой- | кол коюу | кол does not | | (document) | | | change;\ | | | | | document | | | | | signed in | | | | | dative | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to skip | калтырып тур- | калтырып туруу | Takes nom/acc | | (line, | | | | | box, etc | | | | | when | | | | | writing) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | кекечтен- | кекечтенүү | Intransitive | | stutter; | | | | | | | | | | > to stammer | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | жыйынтыкта- | жыйынтыктоо | Takes nom/acc | | | | | | | summarize;\ | | | | | to sum up | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to tell a | аңгемелеш- | аңгемелешүү | With someone = | | story;\ | | | ... менен | | to | | | | | interview | | | | | (radio; tv | | | | | -- just | | | | | have fun | | | | | talking | | | | | meaning) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to tick or | белгиле- | белгилөө | Takes nom/acc | | mark\ | | | | | (box, etc | | | | | when | | | | | selecting) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | транскр[ | транскр[ | Takes nom/acc | | transcribe | и]{.ul}пцияла- | и]{.ul}пциялоо | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | котор- | которуу | From one | | translate | | | language: | | | | | ablative\ | | | | | To another: | | | | | dative | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to type | бас- | басуу | Takes nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ **Тилдери, грамм[а]{.ul}тикасы жана лингв[и]{.ul}стикасы XXX** +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | **Этиштер** | | | | +================+================+================+================+ | **Англис | **Этиштин | **Инфинитив** | **Жөндөмө жана | | Тили** | Уңгусу** | | Эскертүүлөр** | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to whisper | шыбырып айтып | шыбырып айтып | Person told in | | correct | бер- | берүү | dative;\ | | answer to | | | answer, etc = | | someone;\ | | | nom/acc | | to feed | | | | | someone | | | | | lines | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to whisper | по | по | Person told in | | correct | дск[а]{.ul}зка | дск[а]{.ul}зка | dative | | answer to | кыл- | кылуу | | | someone;\ | | | | | to feed | | | | | someone | | | | | lines | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to write\* | жаз- | жазуу | Takes деп | | | | | (Катта эмне | | 1: (to make | 1: (жаздыр-) | 1: (жаздыруу) | деп жазылды?) | | someone | | | | | | 1а: (айтып | 1а: (айтып | Takes dative | | write | жаздыр-) | | for | | something) | | жаздыруу) | where/in/on | | | 2: (жазыл-) | | what | | 1a: (to | | 2: (жазылуу) | | | dictate) | 3: | | 1: (Person | | | (тайтандатып | 3: | made = dat;\ | | 2: (to | | (тайтандатып | thing written | | subscribe to | жаз-) | | -- acc) | | | | жазуу) | | | \[magazine, | | | 1a: (Person = | | | | | dat;\ | | YouTube | | | what dictated | | channel\]) | | | acc) | | | | | | | 3: (to write | | | 2: (Thing in | | chicken\ | | | dative) | | scratch) | | | | | | | | 3: (Takes | | | | | nom/acc) | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ **Тилдери, грамм[а]{.ul}тикасы жана лингв[и]{.ul}стикасы XXXI** [Notes on Verbs Pertaining to Languages, Grammar, and Linguistics]{.ul} \*Kyrgyz uses the same verb for "to call someone" and "to be ringing." So, to inform someone that their phone is going off, use *Сизге/Сага чалып жатат.* A special Kyrgyzised Russian form for this verb also exists, *звонтет-* taken from the Russian verb *звон[и]{.ul}ть: Бош элесизби? Звонтетели!* \*Use this verb when discussing a word's etymology: *"Л[а]{.ul}ндшафт" немец тилинен чыккан. = "Л[а]{.ul}ндшафт"* came from German. \**Жетпеген тамгаларды толуктап жаз. =* Fill in the missing letters. (Instructions for playing hangman or doing vocabulary exercises where letters have been replaced with blank spaces). \**Толтуруу* can be used with *кроссв[о]{.ul}рд* to mean "to do crossword puzzles," but *чеч-* оr *чечмеле-* also work in this situation. Another verb associated with crosswords is «туура кел-,» which means "to fit" (i.e. that word doesn't fit; it's too long). \*This verbal phrase describes the rude action of cutting someone off mid-sentence. A polite way to ask if you can take the floor in a conversation is *Сөз+possessed+dat + аралжы?* = May I cut you off for a second? May I interrupt quickly? \*There are two ways to say "something means something else" in Kyrygz: 1\) ...деген\...\ *Кыргыз тилинде "apple" деген "алма."* 2\) ...~1~ (деген сөз) \...~2~ дегенди түшүндүрөт. *Кыргыз тилинде "apple" (деген сөз) "алма" дегенди түшүндүрөт.* \**Чалууну алган жок* means "S/he didn't pick up the call." If someone is repeatedly not answering, or you expect they are purposefully screening your calls, you can say *Жооп бербей жатат* (S/he's not answering). \*The passive expression *...болуп окулат* is used to explain how a word is pronounced (literally: read): *Тамга С \[К\] болуп окулат.* **\ ** **Тилдери, грамм[а]{.ul}тикасы жана лингв[и]{.ul}стикасы XXXII** [Other Verbs Pertaining to Grammar, Language, and Linguistics]{.ul} \*To say that one does not get cellphone service in a certain area, use *байланыш* (service) or the name of your cellphone provider plus the phrase *тартпай жат*- or *чыкпай жат-*: *Тоолордо Билайн тартпай жатат. =* Beeline isn't getting any service here in the mountains. *Кал-* is used with these verbs upon realizing that there is no service. \*To recite the epic poem Manas, whether it be as a class or hobby, is *Манас таан-* (lit: to know Manas). Specifically, *Манас оку*- can also be used for the reading of the poem. \*Asking someone *Толуктайсызбы?* is a polite way to see if someone has something that they would like to add to the conversation. \**Эмне деп айтайын?* is a way of asking someone if they would like to leave a message (i.e. on the phone or in person when the person they are looking for is not in.) \**Түшүп сал*- is a transitive verb phrase meaning that one "drops/does not say" a word in a sentence or a letter "disappears" from a word during declension.\ *Шартуу ыңгайдын сүйлөмдөрүндө "then" деген байламтаны түшүп салсаңар болот*. =\ In conditional sentences, you can drop/not say the conjunction "then." When describing this quality about a word, rather than using it transitively, *түш*- or *түшүп кал*- can be used:\ *Кедээ бул тамга сөздөн түшөт/түшүп калат.* \**Орусчалап сүйлө-* is a very convenient verb phrase that describes what many Kyrygz speakers do: it means "to use a lot of Russian when one speaks Kyrgyz." \**Сөздөрдү катыштыр-* is a verb phrase meaning "to use a certain grouping of words and put them in the right order, or to use words to make a dialogue": *Саламдашууга байланышкан Сөздөрдү катыштырып, сүйлөшүүлөрдү түзгүлө.* *\*Жаман сөздөрдү туша-* means "to attempt to watch one's mouth" (make a conscious effort not to cuss) or "to remove a word from one's vocabulary." **Тилдери, грамм[а]{.ul}тикасы жана лингв[и]{.ul}стикасы XXXIII** [A Special Note about Reported Speech]{.ul} \*In order to report the speech of others:\ 1) state the subject: who said the thing 2\) state the quote 3\) use the helping verb *деп* plus another verb of communication in the past:\ *Фиби "Биз Бишкекке барабиз," деп айтты*. = Phoebe said, "We're going to Bishkek."\ The word order could vary significantly from the steps outlined above as long as all the verbs are conjugated according to their respective subjects and *деп* follows immediately after the exact sentence that was uttered: "*Мен келем," -- деп Айжан мага айтты.* = Aijan told me, "I'm coming." In written language, the utterance is written with quotation marks. Verbs that use this construction are plentiful. For many verbs, *деп* acts as the subordinating conjuction "that":\ *деп айт- =* to say (when reporting speech of others or directly quoting self) *деп жаз-* = to write; to be written (when stating the exact words) *деп жооп бер*- = to answer (and state exactly how one answered) *деп ишен-* = to believe that *(Ал арак ичпейт деп ишенем)*. *деп ойло- =* to think that\ (Note, when you are the subject, nominative case is used with the next clause: *Биз\ барабыз деп ойлойм* = I think we will go; however, accusative case and *экен* is\ used when other actors are the subject: *Ат-Башылыктар мени турист экен деп\ ойлошот.* = At-Bashyians think that I'm a tourist.) *жакшы деп ойло-* = to prefer*\ деп сура-* = to ask a question of someone *(Бакыт агай Фибинен "Кандайсыз?" деп сурады) '* *деп таң кал-* = to find surprising (that someone specifically said something; other actions use *менен* and a possessed gerund) *деп түшүндүр-* = to explain to someone (a fact) *деп үмүттөн-* = to hope that (*Сен тезирээк айыгып каласыӊ деп үмүттөнүбүз.*) *деп эсепте-/деп бил- =* to think that; to think of as; to consider to be Note: When quoting facts, just use the sentence as is: *2+2 барабар 4\ деп билем да*. = I know that 2+2=4. But, in the "to think of as" or "to\ consider" meanings, деп эсепте- and деп бил- both use accusative case\ for what or who is being considered: *Аны экинчи амам деп билем. =* I\ think of her as my second mom. *Кыргызстанды экинчи мекени деп\ билишет. =* They consider Kyrgyzstan to be their second home.\ *Америк[а]{.ul}нцы кыргыздарды меймандос эл деп эсептешет. =\ *Americans consider Kyrgyz to be a hospitable people. *Деген* is used to express or inquire into the meaning of words and phrases: *Бул эмне деген сөз?* = What does this word mean? *Бул эмне дегени?* = What did s/he mean by that? Also, *... эмне дейт?* means "How do you say ... in (language)." You can ask a person to tell someone something by quoting what you would like said and then adding *айтып койчу/берчи* (latter for more politeness): *Апабызга салам айтып кой!* *\ * **Тилдери, грамм[а]{.ul}тикасы жана лингв[и]{.ul}стикасы XXXIV** To confirm that you heard someone correctly, state what you think they said and follow up with an appropriate command form of *де* with the polite request particle --*чи.* Note that although this form is grammatically equivalent to the command form, in this cae it is a confirmation of what was said: *Бүгүн келбей калды деӊизчи?* = You said he can no longer come today, right?\ Did you say he can no longer come today? Finally, adding *дейт* or *дешет* after an utterance means "They say...:" *Ош студ[е]{.ul}нттердин шаары дешет.* = They say that Osh is a city for students. **Тилдери, грамм[а]{.ul}тикасы жана лингв[и]{.ul}стикасы XXXV** [Other Phrases Pertaining to Language, Grammar, and Linguistics]{.ul} \*+*Dative* *салам(possessed) айт(ыңыз) (or айтып кой!)* means "Tell (person) I say hi!" *Баарына саламымды* *айт(ыңыз)!* *Ал силерге саламын айтат*. = He says hi. The response when someone passes along a greeting is *Саламатта болсун.* More formally, *урматоосу + poss билгиз-* can be used: *Орозбеков мырза Сиздерге урматоосун билгизет.* = Mr. Orozbekov sends his regards. *\*\...деген эмне?* is a way of asking "What does ... mean?" \*Many idiomatic expressions can be expressed using the word *тил* meaning "tongue."\ - *Анын тили -- уу.* = > \- *Тил + poss келбейт* = to be tongue-tied (*Тилим келбейт*! = My > tongue is tied) \- *Тил + possessed genitive + учунда эле!* = to be on the tip of one's tongue\ (*Тилибиздин урунда эле!* = It's on the tip of our tongue) \**Оозуңа карап сүйлө* = Watch your mouth (strong warning). \*The phrase *Илерги-илерги* begins fairytales, similar to "Once upon a time..." \*After you answer the phone and the other person introduces who's speaking, you can say *Угуп (ж)атам* (literally: I'm listening). \**Чынын айтканда* or *чындыгын айтканда* mean "Frankly speaking...," "To tell the truth...," or "If I'm going to be perfectly honest..." Similarly, *чындыгында* means "in truth." \**Экөөбүздүн гана ичибизде болсун*\... means "Just between you and me..." \**Демекчи + personal endings* is a very formal way of saying "I would like to express/say...". It is used often in speechwriting: *Мен кош келипсиздер демекчимин* = I would like to welcome you all. \*The www. that begins websites is read as *три дабл ю.* \**Койчу*! is used just like the English expression "Shut up!" to express surprise or disbelief when someone tells you something. *Коюӊузчу!,* or even more formally in the conditional *койсоӊузчу!*, are more formal variants. \**Башка сөз менен айтканда =* In other words (way of rephrasing what you just said) *\*Кыскача айтканда, кыскасы,* or often the Russian loand word *кор[о]{.ul}че* can all be used to mean "in short." Colloquially, *айтор* or *айтору* are also options. \**Бул өзү эле айтып турбайбы. =* It speaks for itself... \*Kyrgyz proverbs (*макалдар*) which relate to language include: \- *Ойноп сүйлөң да, ойлоп сүйлө* = Think before you speak \- *Жакшы китеп -- жан шерик =* A good book is a good friend. \- *Адамды сөзүнөн тааныбайт, ишинен тааныйт. =* Actions speak louder than words. > **\ > ** **М[у]{.ul}зыкасы жана иск[у]{.ul}сствосу** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - act of becoming | агаруу/агарган | Х | | white;\ | | | | whitening | 1: | 1: (Х) | | | (агартуу/агарткан) | | | 1: (act of making | | | | white;\ | | | | whitewashing) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - act of drafting\ | сызуу/сызкан | X | | (a sketch, | | | | blueprint) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - act of listening | угуу/уккан | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - act of showing | көрсөтүү/көрсөткөн | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - act of sticking | жабыштыруу | Х | | something on | | | | with adhesive; | | | | glueing | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - album | альб[о]{.ul}м | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - amber | янт[а]{.ul}рь | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - animation | аним[а]{.ul}ция | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - anthem | гимн | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (national anthem) | 1: (мамлекеттик | 1: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | | гимн) | Mix) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - applause; act of | кол чабуу | X | | clapping | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - architecture | архитект[у]{.ul}ра | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - art | иск[у]{.ul}сство | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - arts and crafts; | кол өнөрчүлүк | X | | handicrafts | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - audio | [ау]{.ul}дио | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (audio file) | 1: | 1: (Already Russian | | | ([ау]{.ul}диофайл) | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - balet | бал[е]{.ul}т | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (ballet troupe) | 1: (бал[е]{.ul}ттик | 1: (X) | | | топ) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - beauty (of | сулуулук | X | | human) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - beauty (of | кооздук | X | | nature) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - bell; doorbell\* | коӊуроо | √: звон[о]{.ul}к | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - bells | шылдырак | X | | (instrument) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - bleat; baa; | маароо | Х | | bleating; baaing | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - bouquet (of | гүлдесте | X | | flowers) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - box (in theatre) | л[о]{.ul}жа | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - brass | латунь | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - bronze | коло | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - building frame;\ | карк[а]{.ul}с | Already Russian Word | | building | | | | skeleton; | | | | wireframe | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - arrangement (of | аранжир[о]{.ul}вка | Already Russian Word | | music) | | | | | 1: | 1: (Kyrgyzised | | 1: (act of | (ар | Russian) | | arranging) | анжир[о]{.ul}вкалоо) | | | | | 2: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | 2: (act of | 2: | Mix) | | arranging) | (аранжир[о]{.ul}вка | | | | кылуу) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **М[у]{.ul}зыкасы жана иск[у]{.ul}сствосу II** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - buzzer; horn; | гуд[о]{.ul}к | Already Russian Word | | dial tone; | | | | ringtone (for | | | | phone)\ | | | | (think | | | | basketball/other | | | | sport loud | | | | sound) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - camera | фотоаппар[а]{.ul}т | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (camera lens) | 1: (л[и]{.ul}нза) | 1: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - camera (more | к[а]{.ul}мера | Already Russian Word | | phone camera) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cartoon\* | мультф[и]{.ul}льм | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (colloquial of | 1: (м[у]{.ul}льтик) | 1: (Already Russian | | above) | | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cartoon\* | м | Already Russian Word | | | ультиплик[а]{.ul}ция | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cassette | касс[е]{.ul}та | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - CD | диск | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - chandelier | асма шам | √: л[ю]{.ul}стра | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - chirping; a | чырылдоо | Х | | chirp | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - chisel | искене | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - choreography | хореогр[а]{.ul}фия | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - Chrismas tree | Кытай панары | X | | lights | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - circle | тегерек | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - circle | төгөрөк | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - circle | айлана | X | | | | | | 1: (semicircle) | 1: (жарым айлана) | 1: (X) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - classic | кл[а]{.ul}ссика | Already Russian Word | | (exemplary piece | | | | of art);\ | | | | classical music | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - collage | колл[а]{.ul}ж | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - collection (of | колл[е]{.ul}кция | Already Russian Word | | art) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - colour | өӊ | √: цвет | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - colour pencil | түр каранд[а]{.ul}ш | Kyrgyz-Russian Mix | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - colour\* | түс | √: цвет | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - colouring | боёо | Х | | (act/hobby) | | | | | 1: (боёо китеби) | 1: (Х) | | 1: (colouring book) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - concert | конц[е]{.ul}рт | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (concert hall) | 1: | 1: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | | (конц[е]{.ul}рттик | Mix) | | | зал) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - copper | жез | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cover art (on | заст[а]{.ul}вка | Already Russian Word | | book); | | | | | | | | > splash screen | | | | > (pretty picture | | | | > given to you by | | | | > computer as it | | | | > boots up) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - comedy\ | ком[е]{.ul}дия | Already Russian Word | | (play or movie | | | | genre) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - choir; chorus | хор | Already Russian Word | | (of voices)\* | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - column | түркүк | √: кол[о]{.ul}на | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **М[у]{.ul}зыкасы жана иск[у]{.ul}сствосу III** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - craftsmanship;\ | өнөр | Х | | artistic skill | | | | or talent\* | 1: (көркөмдүк) | 1: (X) | | | | | | 1: (elegance; grace; | | | | artistry) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - creation | чыгарма | Х | | (product of | | | | creating) | 1: (түзүү/түзгөн) | 1: (Х) | | | | | | 1: (act of creating) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - creativity | чыгaрмачылык | X | | | | | | 1: (folklore) | 1: (оозеки | 1: (√: | | | чыгармачылык) | фолькл[о]{.ul}р) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - crepe paper | графир[о]{.ul}ванная | Already Russian Word | | | бумага | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - croaking (of | чардоо | Х | | frog) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - crystal | крист[а]{.ul}лл | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (crystallization) | 1: | 1: (Kyrgyzised | | | (крис | Russian) | | | т[а]{.ul}ллдаштыруу) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - crystal | хруст[а]{.ul}ль | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - culture\* | маданият | √: культ[у]{.ul}ра | | | | | | 1: (state of being | 1: (маданиятуулук) | 1: (X) | | cultured; | | | | | 1а: (маданиятсыздык) | 1a: (X) | | civility; | | | | culturedness) | 2: (маданий алмашуу) | 2: (X) | | | | | | 1a: (state of being | | | | uncultured) | | | | | | | | 2: (cultural | | | | exchange) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cymbals | шыңгырама табактар | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - dance | бий | Х | | | | | | 1: (act or hobby of | 1: (бийлөө) | 1: (Х) | | dancing) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - darkness; the | караңгылык | X | | dark | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - debut | деб[ю]{.ul}т | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - decoration | кооздук | X | | | | | | 1: (act of | 1: | 1: (X) | | decorating) | (кооздоо/кооздогон) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - decoration | жасалга | Х | | | | | | 1: (act of | 1: (жасалгалоо/ | 1: (Х) | | decorating) | | | | | жасалгалаган) | 2: (Х) | | 2: (New Year's | | | | decorations) | 2: (Жаӊы Жылдык | | | | жасалга) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - | чийме | √: диагр[а]{.ul}мма\ | | diagram/diagramme; | | (*diagram meaning*) | | scheme; | 1: (Вендин | | | flowchart | диагр[а]{.ul}ммасы) | √: сх[е]{.ul}ма | | | | | | 1: (Venn diagramme) | | (*scheme/flowchart | | | | meaning*) | | | | | | | | 1: (Kyrygzised | | | | Russian) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - drama | др[а]{.ul}ма | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (melodrama) | 1: | 1: (Already Russian | | | (мелодр[а]{.ul}ма) | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - dream | түш жоруу | Х | | interpretation | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - drum; drum set | бараб[а]{.ul}н | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (larger belly | 1: (долбубас) | 1: (X) | | drum) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - discography | дискогр[а]{.ul}фия | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **М[у]{.ul}зыкасы жана иск[у]{.ul}сствосу IV** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - duet | ду[ | Already Russian Word | | | э]{.ul}т/ду[е]{.ul}т | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - earphones; | кулакчындар | √: | | headphones | | на[у]{.ul}шниктер\ | | | | (*Kyrgyzised | | | | Russian)* | | | | | | | | √: на[у]{.ul}шники | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - easel | мольб[е]{.ul}рт | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - ebony | эб[е]{.ul}н жыгачы | Kyrgyz-Russian Mix | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - echo | жаӊырык | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - emission (of | берүүлөр | X | | tv/radio) | | | | | 1: | 1: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | 1: (radio emission) | (р[а]{.ul}диоберүү) | Mix) | | | | | | 2: (tv emission) | 2: (телеберүү) | 2: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | | | Mix) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - engraving;\ | оюу | Х | | act of | | | | engraving;\ | | | | carving; act of | | | | carving | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - ensemble (band) | анс[а]{.ul}мбль | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - exhibition | көргөзмө | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - façade (of | мандайкы бет | √: фас[а]{.ul}да | | building) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - festival | фестив[а]{.ul}ль | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - fireworks | сал[ю]{.ul}т | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - flash mob\* | фл[э]{.ul}ш | Already Russian Word | | | м[о]{.ul}б | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - format | форм[а]{.ul}т | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - fountain | фонт[а]{.ul}н | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - frame (i.e. for | р[а]{.ul}мка | Already Russian Word | | picture) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - fuss; racket | кым-куут | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - gala | г[а]{.ul}ла | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - gallery | галер[е]{.ul}я | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - genre | багыт | √: жанр | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - glass (as art | айнек | Х | | object) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - gleam; glitter; | жаркылдак | X | | glow; shine | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - glitter; | жалтылдоо | Х | | sparkle; | | | | glisten; flash; | | | | glint; flare; | | | | twinkle; or act | | | | of doing any of | | | | the above verbs | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - glue; resin | желим | √: клей | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - gold | алтын | X | | | | | | 1: (Gold Rush) | 1: (алтын безгеги) | 1: (√: алтын | | | | лихор[а]{.ul}дкасы | | | | | | | | \[*Kyrgyz-Russian | | | | Mix*\]) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - gramophone | граммоф[о]{.ul}н | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - growling; a | ырылдоо | Х | | growl | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - guitar | гит[а]{.ul}ра | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - esthetics | эст[е]{.ul}тика | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **М[у]{.ul}зыкасы жана иск[у]{.ul}сствосу V** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - gurgling; gurgle | чулкулдоо | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - harmony | гарм[о]{.ul}ния | Already Russian Word | | (musical; | | | | artistic) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - hit (song) | хит (ыр) | Kyrgyz-Russian Mix | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - imagination | элес | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - imagination | элестетүү | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - imitation; | тууроо | X | | mimicry | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - insignia; coat | герб | Already Russian Word | | of arms; crest | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - inspiration | эргүү | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - interior\ | интерь[е]{.ul}р | Already Russian Word | | (for design | | | | purposes) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - jewel; | асыл таш | X | | gem(stone) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - jewelry | зергер | X | | | | | | 1: (jewelry items | 1: (зергерчилик) | 1: (Х) | | \[collective\];\ | | | | jewelry-making | | | | profession) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - keyboard | клавиат[у]{.ul}ра | Already Russian Word | | (instrument) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - komuz, | ком[у]{.ul}з | Kyrgyz Word used in | | traditional | | Russian | | Kyrgyz string | 1: (ооз комуз) | | | instrument \~\> | | 1: () | | | | | | 1: ("mouth koumuz," | | | | string- | | | | | | | | like instruement | | | | held in | | | | | | | | the mouth and played | | | | by | | | | | | | | vibrating it with | | | | your | | | | | | | | finger) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - lamination | ламин[а]{.ul}ция | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (laminator) | 1: | 1: (Already Russian | | | (ламин[а]{.ul}тор) | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - landscape | пейз[а]{.ul}ж | Already Russian Word | | (painting) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - laugh | күлкү | Х | | | | | | 1: (guffaw; a burst | 1: (каткырык) | 1: (Х) | | of laughter) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - lifestyle | күнүмдүк жашоо түрү | √: [о]{.ul}браз | | | | ж[и]{.ul}зни | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - line (one draws) | сызык | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - lip-syncing | фоногр[а]{.ul}мма | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - marker | м[а]{.ul}ркер | Already Russian Word | | (dry-erase or | | | | art) | 1: (флом[а]{.ul}стр) | 1: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | | 1: (thinner art | | | | marker) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - mascarade | маскар[а]{.ul}д | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - masterpiece | шед[е]{.ul}вр | Alrady Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - mastery | ишмердүүлүк | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - iamb | ямб | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **М[у]{.ul}зыкасы жана иск[у]{.ul}сствосу VI** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - media (what you | м[е]{.ul}диа | Already Russian Word | | are listening | | | | to) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - melody | обон | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - melody; tune | күү | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - memorial; | эстелик | X | | monument | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - meow; meowing; | мыёолоо | Х | | mewing | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - microphone | микроф[о]{.ul}н | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - miniature | миниат[ю]{.ul}ра | Already Russian Word | | (small-scale | | | | artwork) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - mirage | закым | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - monolith | монол[и]{.ul}т | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - motif | мот[и]{.ul}в | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - movie/theatre | се[а]{.ul}нс | Already Russian Word | | showing;\ | | | | a spectacle; a | | | | show | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - | көп кырдуулук | X | | multi-facetedness | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - musical | м[ю]{.ul}зикл | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - musical | (м[у]{.ul}зыкалык) | √: | | instrument | аспап | (м[у]{.ul}зыкалык) | | | | инструм[е]{.ul}нт\ | | | | (*Kyrgyzised Russian | | | | if* | | | | | | | | *adjective present*) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - noise | (ызы-)чуу | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - number | н[о]{.ul}мер | Already Russian Word | | (musical);\ | | | | one's shtick | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - opera | [о]{.ul}пера | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (soap opera) | 1: (м[ы]{.ul}льная | 1: (Already Russian | | | [о]{.ul}пера) | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - optics | опт[и]{.ul}ка | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - originality | о | Kyrgyzised Russian | | | ригин[а]{.ul}лдуулук | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - ornament | оюу-чийүү | √: орнам[е]{.ul}нт | | | | | | 1: (ornamentation) | 1: (оюу-чийүү менен | 1: (√: | | | | орнам[е]{.ul}нт | | | кооздоо/кооздогон) | менен | | | | | | | | кооздоо/кооздогон | | | | | | | | \[*Kyrgyz-Russian | | | | Mix*\]) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - paint | сыр | X | | | | | | 1: (car paint) | 1: (автосыр) | 1: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | | | Mix) | | 2: (paint thinner; | 2: | | | | ( | 2: (Already Russian | | paint dissolvent) | раствор[и]{.ul}тель) | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - paint | боёк | X | | | | | | 1: (pigment) | 1: (боёгуч) | 1: (Х) | | | | | | 1a: (carmine | 1а: (карм[и]{.ul}н) | 1а: (Already Russian | | pigment) | | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - paint brush | кыл калем | √: кисть | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - parquet floor | парк[е]{.ul}т | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - parterre | парт[е]{.ul}р | Already RussianWord | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - pattern (of | уз[о]{.ul}р | Already Russian Word | | t-shirt; carpet) | | | | | 1: (оюу) | 1: (Х) | | 1: (traditional | | | | patterns and | | | | | | | | designs that act as | | | | motifs | | | | | | | | on Kyrgyz tapestry, | | | | | | | | carpets, etc.)\* | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - mosaic | моз[а]{.ul}ика | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **М[у]{.ul}зыкасы жана иск[у]{.ul}сствосу VII** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - pearl | бермет | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - pennant | в[ы]{.ul}мпел | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - performance | аткаруу | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - petroglyph | петрогл[и]{.ul}ф | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - philharmonic | филарм[о]{.ul}ния | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - photography\ | сүрөткө түшүрүү | √: фотогр[а]{.ul}фия | | (hobby or | кесиби/иши | | | profession) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - piano | пиан[и]{.ul}но | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (grand piano) | 1: (ро[я]{.ul}ль) | 1: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - picture; image; | сүрөт | √: | | painting; | | фотогр[а]{.ul}фия; | | drawing | 1: (сүрөтчө) | ф[о]{.ul}тосүрөт\ | | | | (*photographic | | 1: (diminuitive of | 2: (боёк сүрөт) | picture* | | above; dear | | | | | 3: (үңкүрдөгү сүрөт) | *meaning only)\ | | or little | | (latter is | | picture/drawing) | 4: (сүрөткана) | Kyrgyz-Russian* | | | | | | 2: (specificially: | 5: (сүрөттөө) | *mix)* | | painting) | | | | | 6: (экр[а]{.ul}н | 1: (Х) | | 3: (cave painting) | сүрөтү) | | | | | 2: (X) | | 4: (photo salon; | 7: (дубал сүрөт) | | | photo shop | | 3: (X) | | | 8: (сүрөт тартуу) | | | \[*that develops | | 4: (√: | | photos*\]) | 9: (GIF сүрөтү) | фотос[а]{.ul}лон) | | | | | | 5: (description; | 10: (кум чубуртма | 5: (X) | | portrayal; | сүрөт) | | | | | 6: (√: | | illustration of | | скринш[о]{.ul}т\ | | event) | | \[*экр[а]{.ul}н | | | | сүрөтү* is | | 6: (screenshot) | | | | | | Kyrgyz-Russian | | 7: (mural) | | Mix\]) | | | | | | 8: (act or hobby of | | 7: (Х) | | drawing) | | | | | | 8: (X) | | 9: (GIF) | | | | | | 9: (English-Kyrgyz | | 10: (picture inside | | Mix) | | of a glass | | | | | | 10: (Х) | | container filled | | | | with sand, | | | | | | | | when the glass is | | | | flipped | | | | | | | | over, sand pours in | | | | to | | | | | | | | make the picture) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - pipe (like on | керней | Х | | organ) | | | | | 1: (мүйүз керней) | 1: (Х) | | 1: (traditional | | | | Kyrgyz horn- | 2: (жез керней) | 2: (Х) | | | | | | like instrument made | | | | from | | | | | | | | deer horn) | | | | | | | | 2: (traditional | | | | Kyrgyz/Kazak | | | | | | | | instrument looking | | | | like a | | | | | | | | long metal pipe -- 2 | | | | meters) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - play (theatre on | оюн | Х | | stage) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - playlist | плейл[и]{.ul}ст | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - podcast | подк[а]{.ul}ст | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - poem | ыр | X | | | | | | 1: (couplet) | 1: (купл[е]{.ul}т) | 1: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - porcelain; china | чыны | √: фарф[о]{.ul}р | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - portrait | портр[е]{.ul}т | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - post card\* | ачык кат | √: откр[ы]{.ul}тка | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - pose | п[о]{.ul}за | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **М[у]{.ul}зыкасы жана иск[у]{.ul}сствосу VIII** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - poster | п[о]{.ul}стер | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - poster; placard; | плак[а]{.ul}т | Already Russian Word | | picket sign | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - practice; | репет[и]{.ul}ция | Already Russian Word | | rehersal\ | | | | (for play; | | | | concert) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - putty; act of | зам[а]{.ul}зка | Already Russian Word | | puttying | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - quartet | кварт[е]{.ul}т | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - quartz | кварц | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - quray, | куурай | Х | | traditional | | | | flute-like | | | | instrument of | | | | Central Asia | | | | made from reeds | | | | \~\> | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - radio\* | үналгы | √: р[а]{.ul}дио | | | | | | 1: (radio station) | 1: (ст[а]{.ul}нция) | 1: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - rainbow | күн желеси | √: р[а]{.ul}дуга | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - rainbow | көк желеси | √: р[а]{.ul}дуга | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - rainbow | Асан-Үсөн | √: р[а]{.ul}дуга | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - rattling | тарсылдак | Х | | (sound); | | | | crackling | | | | (sound); rattle | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - recorder | чоор | X | | (instrument) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - refrain | кайырма | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - Renaissance | Ренесс[а]{.ul}нс | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - Renaissance | Кайтадан туулуу | Х | | | (доору) | | | 1: (renaissance | | 1: (Х) | | \[figurative\]; | 1: (калыбына келиш) | | | | | | | rebirth) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - rhythm;\ | ыргак | √: ритм | | how something | | | | flows when it is | 1: (р[и]{.ul}тмика) | 1: (Already Russian | | read aloud | | Word) | | | | | | 1: (rhythmics; | | | | eurhythmics) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - roll (in a | роль | Already Russian Word | | movie) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - row (in theatre) | [я]{.ul}рус | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - ruby | руб[и]{.ul}н | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - rustling (sound) | шуулдоо | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - saxophone | саксоф[о]{.ul}н | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sculpture | скульпт[у]{.ul}ра | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (act or art of | 1: | 1: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | sculpting) | (скульпт[у]{.ul}ра | Mix) | | | | | | 2: (relief) | жасоо/жасаган) | 2: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | | 2a: (bas-relief) | 2: (рель[е]{.ul}ф) | | | | | 2a: (Already Russian | | | 2a: | Word) | | | (барель[е]{.ul}ф) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - seal (official); | мөөр | √: печ[а]{.ul}ть | | stamp | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - shadow (of | көлөкө | Х | | person, item);\ | | | | shade (shadow of | | | | tree, etc used | | | | to cool off) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - shape; form | шекил | √: ф[о]{.ul}рма | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - rosewood | палис[а]{.ul}ндр | Kyrgyz-Russian Mix | | | жыгачы | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - showroom (for | ш[оу]{.ul}рум | Already Russian Word | | furniture, art, | | | | etc) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - roar; yell | бакырык | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - reperatoire | реперт[уа]{.ul}р | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **М[у]{.ul}зыкасы жана иск[у]{.ul}сствосу IX** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - shine; flash | жаркырак | X | | (camera) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - shoot; shot; | кадр | Already Russian Word | | scene; frame\ | | | | (for photos or | 1: (аэросъёмка) | | | tv/movie) | | | | | | | | 1: (aerial shot | | | | \[like video | | | | | | | | footage from a | | | | drone\]) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - silence | тынчтык | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - silence | жымжырттык | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - silver | күмүш | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - siren | сүрөөн | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sketch (rough | эск[и]{.ul}з | Already Russian Word | | drawing) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - snort; snorting | бышкыруу | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - song | ыр | Х | | | | | | 1: (act or hobby of | 1: (ырдоо) | 1: (Х) | | singing) | | | | | 2: (Еврокөрүнүү ыр | 2: (√: | | 2: (Eurovision Song | сынагы) | Евров[е]{.ul}дение) | | Contest) | | | | | 3: (ырдаш) | 3: (Х) | | 3: (one's ability to | | | | sing) | 4: (бешик ыры) | 4: (Х) | | | | | | 4: (lullaby) | 5: (шырылдаӊ) | 5: (Х) | | | | | | 5: (name of a | 6: (опмайда) | 6: (Х) | | special national | | | | | | | | song sung by herders | | | | and | | | | | | | | horse ranglers) | | | | | | | | 6: (name of a | | | | special national | | | | | | | | song sung by those | | | | | | | | threshing grain) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sound recording | з[а]{.ul}пись | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (recorder | 1: (үн жазгыч) | 1: (Х) | | \[machine to | | | | | | | | record, not | | | | instrument\]) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sound; voice | үн | X | | | | | | 1: (sound | 1: (дабыш) | 1: (Х) | | \[non-linguistic, | | | | | 1а: (шуулдоо) | 1а: (Х) | | onomatopoetic\] | | | | | 2: (үн көлөмү) | 2: (Х) | | 1a: (rustling; | | | | rustling sound) | | | | | | | | 2: (volume) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - souvenir | эстелик | √: сувен[и]{.ul}р | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - speakers (not | кол[о]{.ul}нка | Already Russian Word | | built in to | | | | device, but | | | | separate tool) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - specification in | деталдаштыруу | Х | | detail | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - stage | сахна | Х | | | | | | 1: (staging\ | 1: (сахналыш) | 1: (Х) | | \[how play is | | | | staged\]) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - static (radio | кышылдак | Х | | interruption) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - statue | ст[а]{.ul}туя | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (Statue of | 1: (эркиндик | 1: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | Liberty) | ст[а]{.ul}туясы) | Mix) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - stele | такта | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - stereo | ст[е]{.ul}рео | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sticker | накл[е]{.ul}йка | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - still life | ж[и]{.ul}вопись | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - shout | кыйкырык | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - scream | чыӊырык | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - show business | ш[оу | Already Russian Word | | | ]{.ul}-б[и]{.ul}знес | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sonata | сон[а]{.ul}та | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **М[у]{.ul}зыкасы жана иск[у]{.ul}сствосу X** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - string (of | кыл | X | | instrument) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - symbol | симв[о]{.ul}л | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - tape recorder | магнитоф[о]{.ul}н | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (VCR) | 1: | 1: (Already Russian | | | (вид | Word) | | | еомагнитоф[о]{.ul}н) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - template; mould; | калып | √: шабл[о]{.ul}н | | cast | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - the air (tv) | эф[и]{.ul}р | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - theatre | те[а]{.ul}тр | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (movie theatre) | 1: | 1: (Already Russian | | | (киноте[а]{.ul}тр) | Word) | | 2: (amphitheatre) | | | | | 2: | 2: (Already Russian | | 3: (opera house; | (амфите[а]{.ul}тр) | Word) | | opera theatre) | | | | | 3: ([о]{.ul}пера | 3: (Kyrgyzised | | 4: (puppet theatre) | те[а]{.ul}тры) | Russian) | | | | | | | 4: (куурчак | 4: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | | те[а]{.ul}тры) | Mix) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - tile | к[а]{.ul}фель | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - tone\ | ыргак | √: тон | | (of music, | | | | voice) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - tone (of colour) | тон | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - trumpet | сурнай | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - variety show; | эстр[а]{.ul}да | Already Russian Word | | vaudeville | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - vase | в[а]{.ul}за | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - video | в[и]{.ul}део | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (video player) | 1: (в[и]{.ul}део | 1: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | | ойноткуч) | Mix) | | 2: (autoplay \[video | | | | option\]) | 2: ([а]{.ul}вто | 2: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | | ойнотуу) | Mix) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - video clip; | клип | Already Russian Word | | music video | | | | | 1: | 1: (Already Russian | | 1: (videography) | (видеогр[а]{.ul}фия) | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - video editing | монт[а]{.ul}ждоо | Kyrgyzised Russian | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - vinyl record | граммоф[о]{.ul}н | √: пласт[и]{.ul}нка\ | | | табагы | (*граммоф[о]{.ul}н | | | | табагы* *is* | | | | | | | | *Kyrgyz-Russian | | | | Mix*) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - violin | кыл кыяк | √: скр[и]{.ul}пка | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - wallpaper | дубал кагаз | √: об[о]{.ul}и | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - walz | вальс | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - wax | мом | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - whisper; | шыбыр | Х | | whispering | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - whistle (device) | ышкырык | Х | | | | | | 1: (whistling \[act | 1: (ышкыруу) | 1: (Х) | | of\];\ | | | | hiss \[of snake\]) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - visual aid | көрсөтмө куралы | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - urn | [у]{.ul}рна | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **М[у]{.ul}зыкасы жана иск[у]{.ul}сствосу XI** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - whitewashing | актоо/актаган | X | | | | | | 1: (whitewash) | 1: (акиташ) | 1: (X) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - workshop (of | устакана | √: атель[е]{.ul}; | | artist) | | м[а]{.ul}стерская | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - workshop (of | өнөркана | √: атель[е]{.ul}; | | artist) | | м[а]{.ul}стерская | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - xylophone | ксилоф[о]{.ul}н | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - yearbook | винь[е]{.ul}тка | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - yellowing | саргаруу | Х | | | | | | 1: (yellowing | 1: | 1: (Х) | | process; the | (\[жалбырактардын\] | | | | | | | biological process | саргайыш\[ы\]) | | | of how | | | | | | | | leaves turn yellow) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ [\ ]{.ul} **М[у]{.ul}зыкасы жана иск[у]{.ul}сствосу XII** [Notes on Nouns Pertaining to Music and Art]{.ul} \**Звон[о]{.ul}к* tends to be used more in a school or educational setting to mean "bell." It also has the additional meaning of "doorbell." \*Of all the words for cartoon that can be used in Kyrgyz, *м[у]{.ul}льтик* appears to be the most commonly used. \**Хор менен* means "in chorus," "all together" (when saying or singing something). \*The word *түс* appears in 3^rd^ person possessed morphology after many different nouns to denote the colour of those nouns. The resulting phrase is also a noun; for adjectives, see the adjective section: \- *алтын түсү* = gold (colour) \- *заапаран түсү* = saffron yellow \- *зайтун түсү* = olive green \- *р[о]{.ul}за түсү* = rose (red/pink) \- *янт[а]{.ul}рь түсү* = amber (yellowish orange) \*In Kyrgyz, the word *фл[э]{.ul}ш-м[о]{.ul}б* means something a little different from the American understanding of a flash mob. In Kyrgyzstan, a *фл[э]{.ul}ш-м[о]{.ul}б* is a pre-choreographed dance to a mash-up track, but it is preformed at a concert, event, or at a *тойкана* and the audience members are expecting it to happen. In the American understanding, flash mobs usually start suddenly by the preformers in public spaces like malls, parks, or airports and the observers are not expecting it. \*The word *өнөр* is to mean "skill" over *жөндөм* when discussing talents or skills that are inherent or passed down from parent to child. The latter is used for skills which can be acquired by learning and practice. *Өнөр* is coupled with *боюнча* (*ырдоо боюнча өнөр*). It is also used in a popular proverb: *Жигитке 70 өнөр аздык калат*. Literally meaning "For a young man, 70 skills/talents is too few," it is similar to expressing the Western idea of a Renaissance man; namely, a good man should be able to do and know about many things. \*Although the Russian *культ[у]{.ul}ра* can occasionally be heard in Kyrgyz, *маданият* is much more used. \*Although pure Kyrgyz, *ачык кат* isn't readily understood by many native Kyrgyz speakers. It is better to use the Russian *откр[ы]{.ul}тка* instead. \**Р[а]{.ul}дио* is almost exclusively used. **М[у]{.ul}зыкасы жана иск[у]{.ul}сствосу XIII** [Other Nouns Pertaining to Music and Art]{.ul} \*The names of Kyrgyz fairytale characters include: \- *Күлала/З[о]{.ul}лушка =* Cinderella \*The *кара жорго* is a traditional dance among Kyrgyz people involving a lot of shoulder movement. \*An *оюу* is a traditional Kyrgyz *fleur-de-lis* resembling pattern used on yurts, shyrdaks, etc. It looks like this: ![urt-camp-altin-ordo\[1\]](media/image41.jpeg){width="1.7034722222222223in" height="1.2659722222222223in"} **М[у]{.ul}зыкасы жана иск[у]{.ul}сствосу XIV** +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | **Сын Атоочтор жана Тактоочтор** | | +==================================+==================================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - amorphous | ам[о]{.ul}рфтук | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - architectural | архитект[у]{.ul}ралык | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - artificial | жасалма | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - artisianal | артези[а]{.ul}н | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - artistic; expressively | көркөм | | (read) (*adv*);\ | | | in an artistic way (*adv*); | 1: (көрксүз) | | elegant (movement, etc) | | | | | | 1: (ugly; not artistic) | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - attributive of "balet" | бал[е]{.ul}ттик | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - attributive of "cassette;"\ | касс[е]{.ul}талык\ | | pertaining to cassettes | (*касс[е]{.ul}талык үн жазгыч* = | | | cassette recorder) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - attributive of "concert" | конц[е]{.ul}рттик | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - audible | угулуучу | | | | | 1: (inaudible) | 1: (угулбаган) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - beautiful (people, writing) | сулуу | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - beautiful (places) | кооз | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - carved; engraved | оюлган | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - choreographic | хореогр[а]{.ul}фиялык | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - classical | кл[а]{.ul}ссикалык | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - coloured; colourful\* | түстүү | | | | | 1: (multicoloured) | 1: (түркүн түстүү) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - coloured; colourful\* | цветн[о]{.ul}й | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - coloured; colourful\* | өңдүү | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - convex | томпок | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - creative | чыгармачыл | | | | | 1: (creatively) | 1: (чыгармачылык менен) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - crooked | кыйшак | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - crystal clear (used with | акактай (таза) | | water) | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - crystal clear (used with | тунук | | water) | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - crystal clear (used with | кашка | | water) | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - crystallized | крист[а]{.ul}ллдаштырылган | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - cultural | маданий | | | | | 1: (cross-cultural) | 1: (маданий алмашуудагы) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - cultured | маданияттуу | | | | | 1: (uncultured) | 1: (маданиятсыз) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - dancy (music) | шаңдуу | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - dark | караңгы | | | | | 1: (so dark things are hardly | 1: (караң-сураң) | | visible) | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ **М[у]{.ul}зыкасы жана иск[у]{.ul}сствосу XV** +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | **Сын Атоочтор жана Тактоочтор** | | +======================================+==============================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - decorative | декорат[и]{.ul}вдүү | | | | | 1: (decorated) | 1: (жасалгаланган) | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - deluxe (usually follows noun) | люкс | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - describing a cow or bull that | мөөрөөк | | moos a lot \~\> | | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - describing colours that go well | айкалышкан (*түстөр*) | | together | | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - dramatic | др[а]{.ul}малык | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - earth-shakingly; | жер дүӊгүрөгөн | | earth-shatteringly (noise) | | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - faceted\* | кырдуу | | | | | 1: (multifaceted) | 1: (көп кырдуу) | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - faded; discoloured (paint) | оӊгон | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - faint; hardly visible | кала-була | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - graphic; vivid | элестүү | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - high; high-pitched (voice) | бийик | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - high; high-pitched (voice) | жоон | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - illustrated (having | сүрөттүү | | illustrations) | | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - imaginary; made- up; conceived | эслестетилген | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - invisible | көрүнгүс | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - light | жарык | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - live (music) | жандуу | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - loud | катуу | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - loud (said of person; neg. | чулуу | | connotation) | | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - loud; noisy; boisterous | ызы-чуулуу | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - low; low-pitched (voice) | ичке | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - low; low-pitched (voice) | төмөн | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - masterful | ишмердүү | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - musical | м[у]{.ul}зыкалык | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - optical | опт[и]{.ul}калык | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - original | оригин[а]{.ul}лдуу | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - ornamental | орнам[е]{.ul}нттүү | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - oval; oblong | сүйрү | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - painted | сырдалган | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - percussion (instrument) | урма | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - pertaining to a certain genre | ж[а]{.ul}нрдык | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - photographic | фотогр[а]{.ul}фиялык | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - relief; embossed | рель[е]{.ul}фтүү | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - round; circular | тегерек | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - round; circular | тоголок | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - sculptural | скульт[у]{.ul}ралык | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - esthetic | эст[е]{.ul}тикалык | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - recording (pertaining to a | жаздыруучу | | device that records) | | | | 1: (в[и]{.ul}део жаздыруучу) | | 1: (video-recording) | | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ **М[у]{.ul}зыкасы жана иск[у]{.ul}сствосу XVI** +-------------------------------------------+--------------------+ | **Сын Атоочтор жана Тактоочтор** | | +===========================================+====================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | +-------------------------------------------+--------------------+ | - shiny | жылтырак | +-------------------------------------------+--------------------+ | - shiny | жалтырак | +-------------------------------------------+--------------------+ | - shiny | жылтылдак | +-------------------------------------------+--------------------+ | - silent | жымжырт | +-------------------------------------------+--------------------+ | - silver-plated; decorated with silver | күмүштүү | +-------------------------------------------+--------------------+ | - sticky | жабышкак | +-------------------------------------------+--------------------+ | - talented | таланттуу | +-------------------------------------------+--------------------+ | - talented; gifted | чебер | +-------------------------------------------+--------------------+ | - traditional | трад[и]{.ul}циялуу | +-------------------------------------------+--------------------+ | - traditional | салттуу | +-------------------------------------------+--------------------+ | - vocal; vocalic | вок[а]{.ul}лдык | +-------------------------------------------+--------------------+ | - waxed | момдолгон | +-------------------------------------------+--------------------+ | - wire-framed; | карк[а]{.ul}стуу | | | | | > pertaining to construction frames | | +-------------------------------------------+--------------------+ | - without flash; no flash (photography) | жаркыраксыз | +-------------------------------------------+--------------------+ | - wavy | толкума | +-------------------------------------------+--------------------+ **М[у]{.ul}зыкасы жана иск[у]{.ul}сствосу XVII** [Notes on Adjectives and Adverbs Pertaining to Music and Art]{.ul} \*The Russian *цветн[о]{.ul}й* appears to be the most used. \*The number of facets precedes the adjective: *алты кырдуу крист[а]{.ul}лл* = 6-faceted crystal. **М[у]{.ul}зыкасы жана иск[у]{.ul}сствосу XVIII** [Other Adjectives and Adverbs Pertaining to Music and Art]{.ul} \*Some nouns can be used attributively as adjectives. When this is the case, the modified noun is in 3^rd^ person possessed genitive morphology: \- *акр[и]{.ul}л* = acrylic; made from acrylics \- *алтын\** = made of gold \- *бал[е]{.ul}т =* of or pertaining to balet: *бал[е]{.ul}т мектеби* \- *в[и]{.ul}део* = video: *в[и]{.ul}део сабактар* \- *др[а]{.ul}ма* = drama; pertaining to the drama genre: *др[а]{.ul}ма те[а]{.ul}тры* \- *жез* = of or pertaining to or made from copper: *жез билериги* *(жезден жасалган)* \- *зергер* = of or pertaining to jewlry: *зергер өнөрканасы* \- *кварц* = made of quartz \- *крист[а]{.ul}лл* = of or pertaining to or made from crystal: *крист[а]{.ul}лл л[ю]{.ul}страсы* \- *күмүш* = made of silver \- *моз[а]{.ul}ика* = mosaic (patterned): *моз[а]{.ul}ика күзгүлөрү* \- *[о]{.ul}пера* = of or pertaining to opera: *[о]{.ul}пера те[а]{.ul}тры* \- *палис[а]{.ul}ндр* = made of rosewood \- *фарф[о]{.ul}р =* of or pertaining to or made from porcelain: *фарф[о]{.ul}р в[а]{.ul}засы* *(фарф[о]{.ul}рдон жасалган)* \- *хруст[а]{.ul}ль=* of or pertaining to or made from crystal: *хруст[а]{.ul}ль л[ю]{.ul}страсы* \- *чыны =* of or pertaining to or made from porcelain: *чыны в[а]{.ul}засы* *(чыныдан жасалган)* \- *эб[е]{.ul}н* = made of ebony \- *эстр[а]{.ul}да* = of or pertaining to a vaudeville or variety show: *эстр[а]{.ul}да ырчылары* \*Note: *Алтын* is often used metaphorically to connote goodness or perfection: *Алтын\ бала* = a perfect child; *алтын бешик* = an emotional term for one's hometown\ (literally: golden cradle). *\*Түз эф[и]{.ul}р* means "live" when used with t.v. shows, broadcasts, or other transmissions. \*The following phrases both mean "in detail:" \- *ийне-жибине чейин* \- *Майда-чүйдөсүнө чейин* \*When formatting pages, the Russian words *альб[о]{.ul}м* and *кн[и]{.ul}жный* are used in Kyrgyz to mean "landscape" and "portrait," respectively. **М[у]{.ul}зыкасы жана иск[у]{.ul}сствосу XIX** [Colour Terms and Adjectives Describing Colour]{.ul} +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | **Түс Билдирүүчү Сын Атоочтор** | | +==========================================+==========================+ | **Англисче** | **Кыргызча** | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - black | кара | | | | | 1: (blackish) | 1: (каралжын) | | | | | 2: (very black; pitch black; super dark) | 2: (капкара) | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - blue | көк | | | | | 1: (light blue; blueish) | 1: (көкүш) | | | | | 2: (light blue; blueish) | 2: (көгүлтүр) | | | | | 3: (very blue) | 3: (көпкөк) | | | | | 4: (purple; violet)\* | 4: (кызгылт көк) | | | | | 5: (purple; violet)\* | 5: (сыя көк) | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - brown | күрөң | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - gold; golden | алтын | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - gray/grey | боз | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - green | жашыл | | | | | 1: (light green; greenish) | 1: (жашгылт) | | | | | 2: (very green) | 2: (жапжашыл) | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - orange\* | ор[а]{.ul}нжевый | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - pink\* | р[о]{.ul}зовый | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - purple; violet | фиол[е]{.ul}товый | | | | | 1: (aubergine) | 1: (баклаж[а]{.ul}новый) | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - red | кызыл | | | | | 1: (reddish; light red) | 1: (кызылтым) | | | | | 2: (deep red; very red) | 2: (кыпкызыл) | | | | | 3: (ruby red) | 3: (кочкул кызыл) | | | | | 4: (carmine; purplish-red) | 4: (карм[и]{.ul}н) | | | | | 5: (pink)\* | 5: (кызгылт) | | | | | 6: (pink)\* | 6: (мала кызыл) | | | | | 7: (purple; violet)\* | 7: (күлгүн кызыл) | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - silver | күмүш | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - white | ак | | | | | 1: (off white; whiteish) | 1: (агыш) | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - yellow\* | сары | | | | | 1: (light yellow; yellowish) | 1: (саргыч) | | | | | 2: (very yellow) | 2: (сапсары) | | | | | 3: (orange)\* | 3: (кызылт сары) | | | | | 4: (yellowish brown) | 4: (сары күрөң) | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | - pink | апарман | +------------------------------------------+--------------------------+ **М[у]{.ul}зыкасы жана иск[у]{.ul}сствосу XX** [Notes on Colour Adjectives]{.ul} \*Generally speaking, Russian terms (*р[о]{.ul}зовый, фиол[е]{.ul}товый, ор[а]{.ul}нжевый*) are more used than their pure Kyrgyz counterparts. Some colour terms, like *баклаж[а]{.ul}новый*, are loan words from Russian and appear to not have Kyrgyz counterparts. \**Сары* when used to describe a girl in the phrase *сары кыз* means "beautiful." **М[у]{.ul}зыкасы жана иск[у]{.ul}сствосу XXI** [Other Adjectives and Terms Pertaining to Colours]{.ul} \*Some colour adjectives require coupling a noun with the adjective *түстүү*: \- *алтын түстүү* = gold; golden \- *заапаран түстүү =*saffron \- *зайтун түстүү* = olive; olive green; olive-coloured \- *р[о]{.ul}за түстүү* = rose; rose-coloured \- *янт[а]{.ul}рь түстүү* = amber; amber-coloured \*The Russian terms *св[е]{.ul}тлый* and *тёмный* are combined with colour words to yield "light" and "dark," respectively. *Ачык* is the pure Kyrgyz counterpart to *св[е]{.ul}тлый*. Alternatively, the approximative adjectival form of a colour (such as *кызыл кызылтым*) can be used to mean "light." \*To say "black and white" Kyrgyz uses a Russian loan word and an indigenous word, but the two are not interchangeable. The Russian word *чёрно-б[е]{.ul}лый* is used for black-and-white tvs or photographs. The Kyrgyz word *ала* is used with mountains, zebras, or cows. \**Чымкый* can be used with any colour to denote a "pure" representation of that colour:\ *чымкый ак =* pure white (not off-white or any tinge of white). It also means that an entire object is just one colour: *Бул дубал чымкый кызыл сырдалган. --* This wall was painted entirely red. **М[у]{.ul}зыкасы жана иск[у]{.ul}сствосу XXII** +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | **Этиштер** | | | | +================+================+================+================+ | **Англис | **Этиштин | **Инфинитив** | **Жөндөмө жана | | Тили** | Уңгусу** | | Эскертүүлөр** | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | кошто- | коштоо | Takes | | accompany | | | nom/acc:\ | | | | | *Сени | | (musically);\ | | | коштойм.* | | to join | | | | | in\ | | | | | (1 person | | | | | starts | | | | | singing, | | | | | others | | | | | join) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | кол чап- | кол чабуу | *кол* in | | applaud;\ | | | nom/acc\ | | to clap | 1: (дүркүрөтө | 1: (дүркүрөтө | (Acc if | | | кол | кол | plural) | | 1: (to go | | | | | crazy;\ | чап-) | чабуу) | 1: (Set | | \[of crowd\] | | | phrase) | | to go | | | | | | | | | | wild | | | | | | | | | | \[with | | | | | applause\]) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to be | томпой- | томпоюу | Intransitive | | convex;\ | | | Reflexive | | to stick | / | / | | | out | | | / | | | томпойт- | томпойтуу | | | > / | | | Takes nom/acc | | > | | | | | > to make | | | | | > convex | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to be | үн чык- | үн чыгуу | Intransitive.\ | | emitted | | | See: *унчук* | | (sound) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to be | чагыл- | чагылуу | Intransitive | | reflected | | | Reflexive | | | / | / | | | > / | | | / | | > | чагылдыруу | чагылдыруу | | | > to reflect\ | | | Takes nom/acc | | > (i.e. | | | | | > culture/art | | | | | > reflects | | | | | > certain | | | | | > beli | | | | | efs/attitudes) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to be | кышылда- | кышылдоо | Usually in | | staticy;\ | | | continuous: | | to emit | | | *Р[а]{.ul}дио | | static | | | кышылдап | | (radio) | | | жатат.* | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to be | жабыш- | жабышуу | Intransitive | | sticky;\ | | | reflexive | | to adhere | / | / | | | to;\ | | | / | | to stick | жабыштыр- | жабыштыруу | | | to | | | Takes nom/acc | | (intrans)\ | | | | | /\ | | | | | to glue;\ | | | | | to stick | | | | | (on);\ | | | | | to seal | | | | | (with | | | | | | | | | | adhesive);\ | | | | | to adhere | | | | | to (trans) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to become | карар- | караруу | Intransitive | | black | | | Reflexive | | | / | / | | | > / | | | / | | > | карарт- | карартуу | | | > to blacken;\ | | | Takes nom/acc | | > to make | | | | | > black | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to become | көгөр- | көгөрүү | Intransitive | | blue or | | | Reflexive | | green | / | / | | | | | | / | | > / | көгөрт- | көгөртүү | | | > | | | Takes nom/acc | | > to make blue | | | | | > or green | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to become | маданиятташ- | маданиятташуу | Intransitive | | cultured;\ | | | Reflexive | | to become | / | / | | | civilized | | | / | | | м | ма | | | > / | аданиятташтыр- | даниятташтыруу | Takes nom/acc | | > | | | | | > to make | | | | | > cultured;\ | | | | | > to civilize | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to become | кызар- | кызаруу | Intransitive | | red\ | | | Reflexive | | /\ | / | / | | | to | | | / | | redden;\ | кызарт- | кызартуу | | | to make | | | Takes nom/acc | | red | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to become | күмүштөн- | күмүштөнүү | Intransitive | | silvery | | | Reflexive | | | / | / | | | > / | | | / | | > | күмүштө- | күмүштөө | | | > to turn into | | | Takes nom/acc | | > silver;\ | | | | | > to cover in | | | | | > silver;\ | | | | | > to make | | | | | > silvery | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to arrange | аспапка/ | аспапка/ | Takes nom/acc; | | music (but | | | *муз | | setting it | инстр | инструментке | [ы]{.ul}калдык | | to | ум[е]{.ul}нтке | салып иштеп | чыгармаларды* | | | салып иштеп | чыгуу | seen as object | | instruments) | чык- | | | | | | 1: (\[көп\] үн | 1: (Takes | | 1: (to arrange | 1: (\[көп\] үн | кошуп | nom/acc; | | music | кошуп | | | | | | иштеп чыгуу) | *муз[ | | \[by setting | иштеп чык-) | | ы]{.ul}калдык* | | it to | | | | | | | | *чыгармаларды* | | voice\]) | | | | | | | | seen as | | | | | object) | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to arrange | аранжир | аранжир | Takes nom/acc | | music | [о]{.ul}вкала- | [о]{.ul}вкалоо | | | (both | | | | | instrument | | | | | and voice | | | | | meaning) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to arrange | аран | аран | Takes nom/acc | | music | жир[о]{.ul}вка | жир[о]{.ul}вка | | | (both | кыл- | кылуу | | | instrument | | | | | and voice | | | | | meaning) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ **М[у]{.ul}зыкасы жана иск[у]{.ul}сствосу XXIII** +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | **Этиштер** | | | | +================+================+================+================+ | **Англис | **Этиштин | **Инфинитив** | **Жөндөмө жана | | Тили** | Уңгусу** | | Эскертүүлөр** | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to become | агар- | агаруу | Intransitive | | white | | | Reflexive | | | / | / | | | > / | | | / | | > | агарт- | агартуу | | | > to whiten;\ | | | Takes nom/acc | | > to make | | | | | > white | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to become | с | са | Intransitive | | yellow;\ | аргар-/саргай- | ргаруу/саргаюу | Reflexive | | to turn | | | | | yellow | / | / | (*Күзүндө | | | | | жалбырактар | | > / | саргарт- | саргартуу | сарг | | > | | | арат/саргаят*) | | > to turn | | | | | > yellow;\ | | | / | | > to make | | | | | > yellow | | | Takes nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to carve;\ | ой- | оюу | Takes nom/acc | | to engrave | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to change | өзгөр- | өзгөрүү | Intranstive | | (colour) | | | reflexive | | | / | / | | | > / | | | / | | > | өзгөрт- | өзгөртүү | | | > to change | | | Transitive | | > (trans) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to colour | боё- | боёо | Takes nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to colour, | чийгиле- | чийгилөө | | | draw, or | | | | | go outside | | | | | the lines | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | толукта- | толуктоо | Often | | | | | *толуктап тур* | | compliment\ | | | | | (two | | | | | things | | | | | going | | | | | together | | | | | well) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | карама-каршы | карама-каршы | Thing one | | contrast | бол- | болуу | *жана* thing | | | | | two | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | тарсылда- | тарсылдоо | Intransitive | | crackle;\ | | | | | to rattle | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to create | түз- | түзүү | Takes nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to create | чыгармала- | чыгармалоо | Takes nom/ac | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to crunch | кычыра- | кычыроо | Intransitive:\ | | (snow) | | | *Кар | | | | | кычырайт.* | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to cry | кыйкыр- | кыйкыруу | Intransitive | | out; to | | | | | shout | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | крист | крист[ | Intransitive | | crystalize | [а]{.ul}ллдан- | а]{.ul}ллдануу | Reflexive | | | | | | | > / | / | / | / | | > | | | | | > to | крист[а] | крист[а]{ | Takes nom/acc | | > crystalize | {.ul}ллдаштыр- | .ul}ллдаштыруу | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to dance | бийле- | бийлөө | Can take | | | | | nom/acc if | | | | | name of dance | | | | | is object, but | | | | | usually | | | | | intrans | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to create\ | жарат- | жаратуу | Takes nom/acc | | (fig, like | | | | | a nice | | | | | future/a | | | | | better | | | | | world) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ **М[у]{.ul}зыкасы жана иск[у]{.ul}сствосу XXIV** +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | **Этиштер** | | | | +================+================+================+================+ | **Англис | **Этиштин | **Инфинитив** | **Жөндөмө жана | | Тили** | Уңгусу** | | Эскертүүлөр** | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | кооздо- | кооздоо | Takes nom/acc | | decorate | | | | | | 1: (оюу-чийүү/ | 1: (оюу-чийүү/ | 1: (Takes | | 1: (to | | | nom/acc) | | ornament) | о | о | | | | рнам[е]{.ul}нт | рнам[е]{.ul}нт | | | | менен | менен | | | | | | | | | кооздо-) | кооздоо) | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | жасалгала- | жасалгалоо | Takes nom/acc | | decorate;\ | | | | | to adorn | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | сүрөттөп бер- | сүрөттөп берүү | Takes nom/acc | | describe | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to draft;\ | сыз- | сызуу | Takes nom/acc | | to | | | | | sketch;\ | | | | | to draw up | | | | | pla | | | | | n/bluebrints;\ | | | | | to draw a | | | | | line | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to draw;\ | сүрөт тарт- | сүрөт тартуу | When using | | to take a | | | with an | | picture; | 1: (сүрөткө | 1: (сүрөткө | object, either | | to | түш-) | түшүү) | 1) replace | | photograph | | | *сүрөт* with | | | 2: | 2: | the object | | 1: (to get in | (эск[и]{.ul}з | (эск[и]{.ul}з | drawn | | a photo) | жаса-) | жасоо) | /photographed: | | | | | *м | | 2: (to | | | аш[и]{.ul}наны | | sketch;\ | | | тарт!* = | | to make a | | | d | | sketch) | | | raw/photograph | | | | | the car or 2) | | | | | use genitive | | | | | case to | | | | | connect the | | | | | obect with | | | | | *сүрөт: | | | | | Ма | | | | | ш[и]{.ul}нанын | | | | | сүрөтүн тарт* | | | | | | | | | | 1: (Set | | | | | phrase) | | | | | | | | | | 2: (Thing | | | | | sketched in | | | | | | | | | | genitive; then | | | | | | | | | | *эск[и]{.ul}з* | | | | | gets | | | | | | | | | | possessed acc | | | | | | | | | | morphology) | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to edit | мо | мо | Takes nom/acc | | (video) | нт[а]{.ul}жда- | нт[а]{.ul}ждоо | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to fade;\ | оӊ- | оӊуу | Intransitive | | to | | | | | | | | | | discolour;\ | | | | | to lose | | | | | colour | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to give | шаӊшы- | шаӊшуу | Intranstive;\ | | off a | | | *Коӊгуроо | | pleasant, | 1: (шаӊшып | 1: (шаӊшып | шаӊшыйт.* | | melodious | сүйлө-) | сүйлөө) | | | sound \~\> | | | 1: | | | | | (Intransitive) | | 1: (to speak | | | | | clearly | | | | | | | | | | and nicely) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ **М[у]{.ul}зыкасы жана иск[у]{.ul}сствосу XXV** +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | **Этиштер** | | | | +================+================+================+================+ | **Англис | **Этиштин | **Инфинитив** | **Жөндөмө жана | | Тили** | Уңгусу** | | Эскертүүлөр** | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to glue;\ | чапта- | чаптоо | Takes nom/acc; | | to stick | | | Place adhered | | (on);\ | | | to in dative | | to seal | | | | | (with | | | | | | | | | | adhesive);\ | | | | | to adhere | | | | | to | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to imagine | элестет- | элестетүү | Takes | | | | | nom/acc;\ | | | | | often used | | | | | with phrase | | | | | *көз + алды in | | | | | poss dat: Көз | | | | | алдыма; Көз | | | | | алдыга | | | | | элестетет.\ | | | | | *Often with | | | | | helping verb | | | | | *көр-: | | | | | Элестетип көрө | | | | | аласыӊбы?* | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | туура- | тууроо | | | imitate;\ | | | | | to mimic | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to inspire | эрги- | эргүү | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | түш жору- | түш жоруу | Түш can be | | interpret | | | nom/acc | | dreams | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | ла | ла | | | laminate | мин[а]{.ul}ция | мин[а]{.ul}ция | | | | кыл- | кылуу | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to laugh | күл- | күлүү | Intransitive | | | | | | | 1: (to make | 1: (күлдүр-) | 1: (күлдүрүү) | 1: (person in | | someone | | | acc) | | | 2: (каткыр-) | 2: (каткыруу) | | | laugh) | | | 2: | | | 2a: (каткырт-) | 2a: | (Intransitive) | | 2: (to guffaw) | | (каткыртуу) | | | | | | 2a: (person in | | 2a: (to make | | | acc) | | someone | | | | | | | | | | guffaw) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to light | жак- | жагуу | *ёл | | up | | | каны/балатыны* | | (Christmas | | | | | tree) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to listen | ук- | угуу | Takes nom/acc | | (to);\ | | | | | to hear | 1: (угуз-) | 1: (угузуу) | 1: (Song is in | | | | | | | 1: (to play a | 2: (уктур-) | 2: (уктуруу) | nom/acc; | | song\ | | | person is | | \[for | 3: (алыска | 3: (алыска | | | someone\];\ | угул-) | угулуу) | in dative) | | to make | | | | | someone | 4: (түнт коюп | 4: (түнт коюп | 2: (Song etc | | | ук-) | угуу) | is in | | listen) | | | | | | | | nom/acc; | | 2: (to make | | | person is | | someone | | | | | | | | in dative) | | listen) | | | | | | | | 3: (Passive | | 3: (to | | | verb) | | resound;\ | | | | | to be heard | | | 4: | | from | | | (Person/thing | | | | | | | all around) | | | listend to in | | | | | | | 4: (to sit | | | nom/acc) | | still and | | | | | | | | | | listen | | | | | quietly) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to look | кара- | кароо | Takes nom/acc\ | | at;\ | | | *Терезени | | to look | | | карагыла* | | out | | | | | (window) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to make a | дабыш/үн | дабыш/үн | Set phrase | | sound | чыгар- | чыгаруу | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to klink\ | кагыш- | кагышуу | Intransitive | | | | | reflexive | | (onomatopoeia | / | / | | | for sound | | | / | | of dishes | кагыштыр- | кагыштыруу | | | knocking | | | Takes nom/acc\ | | against | | | (*Идиш-аяктар | | each | | | бири-бирин | | other)\ | | | кагыштырат*) | | /\ | | | | | to cause | | | | | two things | | | | | to go | | | | | "klink" by | | | | | hitting | | | | | them | | | | | together | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ **М[у]{.ul}зыкасы жана иск[у]{.ul}сствосу XXVI** +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | **Этиштер** | | | | +================+================+================+================+ | **Англис | **Этиштин | **Инфинитив** | **Жөндөмө жана | | Тили** | Уңгусу** | | Эскертүүлөр** | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to make a | унчук- | унчугуу | Intransitive | | sound\* | | | | | | 1: (унчуктур-) | 1: | 1: (Needed in | | 1: (to | | (унчуктуруу) | the negative | | silence;\ | | | with сал- or | | to make | | | ташта-; Takes | | someone | | | nom/acc) | | | | | | | be silent) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to make | тарсылда- | тарсылдоо | Intransitive | | noise | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to make | *+gen* көркүн | *+gen* көркүн | Set phrase; | | something | чыгар- | чыгаруу | Thing you're | | | | | making | | beautiful\* | | | beautiful is | | | | | in gentive: | | | | | *2018 -- | | | | | шаардын көркүн | | | | | чыгаруу жылы!* | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | көрүн- | көрүнүү | Intransitive | | manifest;\ | | | Reflexive | | to be | | | | | visible;\ | | | | | to become | | | | | visible | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to paint\* | сырда- | сырдоо | Takes nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to pause; | токтот- | токтотуу | Takes nom/acc | | to stop | | | | | (video, | | | | | music) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | аткар- | аткаруу | Takes nom/acc | | perform; | | | | | to act;\ | 1: (\[кыймыл | 1: (\[кыймыл | 1: (Takes | | to act out | менен\] | менен\] | nom/acc) | | | | | | | 1: (to act | көрсөтүп бер-) | көрсөтүп | 2: (Takese | | something | | берүү) | nom/acc) | | | 2: (жаңсап | | | | out) | көрсөт-) | 2: (жаңсап | | | | | көрсөтүү) | | | 2: (to mime;\ | | | | | to act out by | | | | | | | | | | miming) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to play | ойнот- | ойнотуу | Takes nom/acc | | (video, | | | | | etc) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to play | ойно- | ойноо | Instrument can | | musical | | | either be in | | instrument | 1: (тарсылда-) | 1: (тарсылдоо) | nom/acc or | | | | | locative case | | 1: (to play | 2: (черт-) | 2: (чертүү) | | | the drums) | | | 1: (Takes | | | | | nom/acc) | | 2: (to play | | | | | stringed | | | 2: (Takes | | | | | nom/acc) | | instruments)\* | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | жыпжылма кыл- | жыпжылма кылуу | Takes nom/acc | | polish;\ | | | | | to | | | | | furbish;\ | | | | | to brass | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to present | тартуула- | тартуулоо | Takes nom/acc | | (film) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to raise | үнүн көтөр- | үнүн көтөрүү | үн is in | | one's | | | possessed | | voice | | | accusative | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to mould;\ | калыпка сал- | калыпка салуу | Takes nom/acc; | | to | | | often seen | | formulate\ | | | with | | (i.e. | | | adjective: | | computer | | | *компь | | page) | | | [ю]{.ul}тердик | | | | | калыпка | | | | | салган* | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | ре | ре | Can be nom/acc | | practice | пет[и]{.ul}ция | пет[и]{.ul}ция | or set phrase | | | кыл- | кылуу | | | (specifically | | | | | for play, | | | | | concert);\ | | | | | to do a | | | | | dress | | | | | rehersal | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to make | ичкерт- | ичкертүү | Takes nom/acc | | subtle;\ | | | | | to make | | | | | more | | | | | refined;\ | | | | | to make | | | | | more | | | | | | | | | | sophisticated | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ **М[у]{.ul}зыкасы жана иск[у]{.ul}сствосу XXVII** +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | **Этиштер** | | | | +================+================+================+================+ | **Англис | **Этиштин | **Инфинитив** | **Жөндөмө жана | | Тили** | Уңгусу** | | Эскертүүлөр** | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to record | з[а]{.ul}пись | з[а]{.ul}пись | | | | кыл- | кылуу | | | > (music, | | | | | > sound) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to record\ | жаздыр- | жаздыруу | Takes nom/acc | | (sound, | | | | | music) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to ring a | коңгуроо чал- | коңуроо чалуу | Can be nom or | | bell | | | acc | | (trans) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to ring | шыңгыра- | шыңгыроо | Intransitive | | out (note, | | | | | sound) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to rustle | шуулда- | шуулдоо | Intransitive | | (leaves) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | чийип сал- | чийип салуу | Thing | | scribble;\ | | | scribbled on | | to mess up | | | in dative | | paper by | | | | | drawing | | | | | all over | | | | | it | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to sculpt | ску | ску | | | | льпт[у]{.ul}ра | льпт[у]{.ul}ра | | | | жаса- | жасоо | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to send | сал[ю]{.ul}т | сал[ю]{.ul}т | салют an be in | | off | ат- | атуу | nom/acc | | fireworks | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to shine | жаркыра- | жаркыроо | Intransitive | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to show | көргөз- | көргөзүү | Takes nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to show;\ | көрсөт- | көрсөтүү | Takes nom/acc | | to | | | | | indicate | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to sing | ырда- | ырдоо | Normally | | | | | intrans, but | | 1: (to lip | 1: | 1: | cab be nom/acc | | sync) | (фон | (фон | if object is | | | огр[а]{.ul}мма | огр[а]{.ul}мма | song | | | | | | | | ырда-) | ырдоо) | 1: () | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to snap | черт- | чертүү | | | (fingers) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | жалтылда- | жалтылдоо | Intransitive | | sparkle;\ | | | | | to | | | | | glitter;\ | | | | | to | | | | | glisten;\ | | | | | to flash | | | | | (light);\ | | | | | to flare | | | | | (light);\ | | | | | to twinkle | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to specify | деталдаштыр- | деталдаштыруу | | | in detail | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to stage | те[а]{.ul}трга | те[а]{.ul}трга | Takes nom/acc | | (play);\ | кой- | коюу | | | to | | | | | dramatize\ | | | | | (turn into | | | | | a play) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to scream | чыӊыр- | чыӊыруу | Intransitive | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ **М[у]{.ul}зыкасы жана иск[у]{.ul}сствосу XXVIII** +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | **Этиштер** | | | | +================+================+================+================+ | **Англис | **Этиштин | **Инфинитив** | **Жөндөмө жана | | Тили** | Уңгусу** | | Эскертүүлөр** | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to stage | сахналаштыр- | сахналаштыруу | Takes nom/acc | | (play);\ | | | | | to | | | | | dramatize\ | | | | | (turn into | | | | | a play) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to stamp; | мөөр бас- | мөөр басуу | Mөөр | | to seal | | | technically | | | | | can be in nom | | | | | or acc; | | | | | document | | | | | stamped in | | | | | dative | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | дүӊгүрө- | дүӊгүрөө | Intransitive | | thunder;\ | | | | | to boom;\ | | | | | to make a | | | | | loud sound | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to tune | күүлө- | күүлөө | Takes nom/acc | | | | | | | (instrument) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to turn | *+gen* үнүн | *+gen* үнүн | Thing's volume | | down | кичирейт- | кичирейтүү | is in | | volume;\ | | | genitive: | | to lower | | | телев[ | | volume | | | и]{.ul}зордун/ | | | | | | | | | | р[ | | | | | а]{.ul}дионун; | | | | | | | | | | Conversely acc | | | | | can be used: | | | | | *м[ | | | | | у]{.ul}зыканы* | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to turn | *+gen* үнүн | *+gen* үнүн | Thing's volume | | down | азайт- | азайтуу | is in | | volume;\ | | | genitive: | | to lower | | | телев[ | | volume | | | и]{.ul}зордун/ | | | | | | | | | | р[ | | | | | а]{.ul}дионун; | | | | | | | | | | Conversely acc | | | | | can be used: | | | | | *м[ | | | | | у]{.ul}зыканы* | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to turn on | м[у]{.ul}зыка | м[у]{.ul}зыка | М[у]{.ul}зыка | | music;\ | кой- | коюу | can | | to put | | | technically be | | some music | | | in acc | | on | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to turn up | *+gen* үнүн | *+gen* үнүн | Thing's volume | | volume | чоӊойт- | чоӊойтүү | is in | | | | | genitive: | | | | | *телев[и | | | | | ]{.ul}зордун/* | | | | | | | | | | *р[а | | | | | ]{.ul}дионун;* | | | | | Conversely acc | | | | | can be used: | | | | | *м[ | | | | | у]{.ul}зыканы* | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to wax | момдо- | момдоо | Takes nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to whisper | шыбыра- | шыбыроо | Intransitive | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to whistle | ышкыр- | ышкыруу | Intransitive | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | акта- | актоо | Takes nom/acc | | whitewash | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to zoom in | жакында- | жакындоо | Takes object | | (camera) | | | in dat | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to zoom | алыста- | алыстоо | Object in | | out | | | ablative | | (camera) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ **М[у]{.ul}зыкасы жана иск[у]{.ul}сствосу XXIX** [Notes on Verbs Pertaining to Music, Sound, and Art]{.ul} \**Унчукпа!* (literally: "Don't make a sound!") is a polite, yet firm, way of telling someone to shut up. \**Сулуу кыл-* is a more common way of saying "to make something beautiful/pretty/look nice." The phrase listed in the tables above is artistic, like "to draw the beauty of something out." \*The Russianized *крастет-* has also been heard for "to paint." *Биз крастетебиз = Биз сырдайбыз =* We will paint. \**Черт-* is used for stringed instruments that one strums, such as the komuz or guitar, although *ойно*- is more commonly used to say "to play the guitar." **М[у]{.ul}зыкасы жана иск[у]{.ul}сствосу XXX** [Other Verbs Pertaining to Music, Sound, and Art]{.ul} \*The following verbs describe the sounds animals make: \- *айкыр-* = to bray (donkey) \- *бакыр*- = to roar (lion); to yell loudly (human) \- *бышкыр-* = to snort (pig; human laugh) \- *кыйкыр- =* to caw (crow) \^ *«күкирикү» деп кыйкыр-* = to crow (rooster); to cock-a-doodle-doo \- *маара-* = to bleat; to baa (sheep, goat) \- *мөөрө*- = to moo (cow) \- *мыёоло-* = to meow (cat) \- *сайра-* = to sing (songbird) \- *үр-* = to bark (dog) \- *чарда- =* to croak (frog) \- *чулкулда-* = to gurgle (fish) \- *чырылда-* = to chirp (bird) \- *чыртылда-* = to twitter (bird) \- *ырылда-* = to growl (dog, menacing beast) \- *ышкыр-* = to hiss (snake) \*The phrase "to be based on" (such as "to be based on a true story) can be said via the passive verb *алынган* and the thing that they story is based on in ablative case. \**Мыжы- (мыжуу)* is an interesting verb. Translated often as "to knead," it actually describes the action of playing with play dough-like soft textured objects. It is also used to describe the act of squishing something gloopy between your fingers. \*Бул ыр менин мээме синип калды= That song is stuck in my head **М[у]{.ul}зыкасы жана иск[у]{.ul}сствосу XXXI** [Other Phrases Pertaining to Sound and Art]{.ul} \**Кулак салсаңыз/салсаӊыздар* is a more formal way of asking people to listen (*Угуӊуз\[дар\]*). *\*Кулак сенде/сизде* (literally: My ears are on you) is a colloquial way of telling someone that you are listening to them (*Угуп жатам).* **\ ** **Маш[и]{.ul}налары, көчөдөгү кыймылы жана тр[а]{.ul}нспорту** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - act of drawing | сундактыруу | Х | | out a process | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - act of slowing | акырындатуу | Х | | something down | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - act of stopping | токтоо | Х | | \[movement\]\* | | | | | 1: (токтотуу) | 1: (Х) | | 1: (act of stopping | | | | \[action\]) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - address | дарек | √: [а]{.ul}дрес | | | | | | 1: (legal address of | 1: (маалымдарек) | 1: (√: юридикалык | | company) | | [а]{.ul}дрес | | | 2: (катталган дарек) | | | 2: (registered | | \[*Kyrgyz-Russian | | address) | | Mix*\]) | | | | | | | | 2: (√: катталган | | | | [а]{.ul}дрес | | | | | | | | \[*Kyrgyz-Russian | | | | Mix*\] | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - aerostat | аэрост[а]{.ul}т | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - airline | авиакомп[а]{.ul}ния | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - airport | аэроп[о]{.ul}рт | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - aisle (in store) | өтмөк | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - alignment; | теӊдөө | Х | | aligning a car; | | | | balancing tyres | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - alley | алл[е]{.ul}я | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - anchor | [я]{.ul}корь | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - appearance | пайда болуу | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - approach (to | жакындоо | Х | | destination) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - arrival (of | келип түшүү | Х | | object to store) | | | | | | (*жаңы келип | | | | түшүүлөр*) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - arrival; act of | келиш | Х | | coming\* | | | | | 1: (келүү) | 1: (Х) | | 1: (act of coming) | | | | | 2: (көп келиш) | 2: (Х; | | 2: (influx \[lots | | *У | | of\ | | ниверсит[е]{.ul}тке\ | | people/things | | студ[е]{.ul}нттердин | | rushing in\]) | | \...и)* | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - automobile | автомоб[и]{.ul}ль | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - auto-service | автоб[а]{.ul}за | Already Russian Word | | station; | | | | | | | | > motor depot | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - avenue; prospect | түзкөчө | √: просп[е]{.ul}кт | | (street) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - aviation | ави[я]{.ul}ция | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - baby carriage | кол[я]{.ul}ска | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - backing-up (act | артка карай жүрүү | Х | | of) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - barrier\* | тоскоол | Х | | | | | | 1: (obstacle) | 1: (тоскоолдук) | 1: (Х) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - act of lowering | түшүрүү | X | | or letting down | | | | an object | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Маш[и]{.ul}налары, көчөдөгү кыймылы жана тр[а]{.ul}нспорту II** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - beginning | баш | X | | | | | | 1: (start \[of | 1: (башталыш) | 1: (Х) | | event\];\ | | | | beginning of \[an | | | | event\]) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - bicycle\* | велосип[е]{.ul}д | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - blinker | индик[а]{.ul}тор | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - boarding pass | түшүү тал[о]{.ul}н | Kyrgyz-Russian Mix | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - boat; ship | кеме | X | | | | | | 1: (mast) | 1: (м[а]{.ul}чта) | 1: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | | 2: (bow) | 2: (тумшук) | | | | | 2: (Х) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - body (of a car) | к[у]{.ul}зов | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - boulevard | бульв[а]{.ul}р | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - brake | т[о]{.ul}рмоз | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - bridge | көпүрө | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - bus | авт[о]{.ul}бус | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (minibus) | 1: | 1: (Already Russian | | | ( | Word) | | | микроавт[о]{.ul}бус) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - canal | кан[а]{.ul}л | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - car crash | (авто)ав[а]{.ul}рия | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - car inspection | техкароо | Kyrgyz-Russian Mix | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - car race | авто жарыш | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - car rental | жалдоо | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - car wash | унаа жуугуч | √: автом[о]{.ul}йка | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - car\* | автоунаа | √: маш[и]{.ul}на | | | | | | 1: (term for a | 1: (жеңил | 1: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | car/lightweight | маш[и]{.ul}на) | Mix) | | | | | | vehicle as opposed | 2: (унаа тетиктери) | 2: (√: | | to a | | запч[а]{.ul}сти) | | | 3: (өрт өчүргүч | | | truck or tractor | маш[и]{.ul}на) | 3: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | trailer) | | Mix) | | | 4: (БМВ) | | | 2: (car parts; spare | | 4: (Already Russian | | parts) | | Word) | | | | | | 3: (fire truck) | | | | | | | | 4: (BWM) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - caravan | кербен | √: карав[а]{.ul}н | | | | | | 1: (caravanserai) | 1: (кербенсарай) | 1: (Х) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cargo; freight | жүк | X | | | | | | 1: (air cargo) | 1: (авиажүк) | 1: (X) | | | | | | 2: (figuratively: | 2: (өлүк жүк) | 2: (Х) | | dead weight) | | | | | 3: (жүк ташуу) | 3: (Х) | | 3: (transportation | | | | of goods; | | | | | | | | shipping; | | | | expediting) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - chassis | шасс[и]{.ul} | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - covered wagon; | фург[о]{.ul}н | Already Russian Word | | caravan (car | | | | type) | 1: | 1: (Already Russian | | | (автофург[о]{.ul}н) | Word) | | 1: (minivan) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - crosswalk\* | жөөлөрдүн өткөөлү | √: з[е]{.ul}бра | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - cruise | сүзүп жүрүү | √: кру[и]{.ul}з | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - dashboard | щит пр[и]{.ul}бор | Kyrgyzised Russian | | display | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - continuation | уланыш | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Маш[и]{.ul}налары, көчөдөгү кыймылы жана тр[а]{.ul}нспорту III** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - deck (of ship) | п[а]{.ul}луба | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - defroster; a | жылыткыч | Х | | car's heating | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - delay; tarrying | аялдоо | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - delivery | жеткирүү | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - departure; act | кетүү/кеткен | Х | | of leaving | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - deployment (of a | жумшоо | Х | | person | | | | somewhere) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - destination | дайындалган жер | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - direction\* | багыт | √: | | | | направл[е]{.ul}ние | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - displacement\ | которуу/которгон | Х | | (moving | | | | something from | | | | one place to | | | | another) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - distance between | аралык | Х | | vehicles;\ | | | | space between | | | | you and another | | | | person\* | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - dolly (for | т[а]{.ul}чка | Already Russian Word | | moving heavy | | | | loads) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - drifting | дрифт | Already Russian Word | | (dangerous | | | | sport, like | | | | Tokyo Drift) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - drivers' | айдоочулук күбөлүк | X | | liscense | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - driving school | автомектеп | √: автошк[о]{.ul}ла | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - dynamics | дин[а]{.ul}мика | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - elevator\* | асма араба | √: лифт | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - encirclement;\ | тег | Х | | act of | еректөө/тегеректеген | | | surrounding | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - encirclement;\ | курчоо/курчаган | Х | | act of | | | | surrounding | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - end | аяк | X | | | | | | 1: (ending \[of | 1: (аякталыш) | 1: (Х) | | event, story\]) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - end (of time | бүтүш | Х | | frame);\ | | | | ending (of | | | | event, story) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - entrance | кирүү | X | | | | | | 1: (inflow \[of air, | 1: (кириш) | 1: (Х; *Бөлмөгө | | water, etc\]) | | таза* | | | 2: (подъ[е]{.ul}зд) | | | 2: (entrance to an | | *абанын \... и)* | | apartment | | | | | | 2: (Х) | | building) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - entryway (of | оозгу бөлмө | Х | | building) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - entryway (of | кире бериш | Х | | building) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - escort; | узатуу/узаткан | Х | | escorting; | | | | accompanying | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - excavator | экскав[а]{.ul}тор | Already Russian Word | | (vehicle on | | | | tracks that | | | | dicks); a | | | | backhoe | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - excursion | экск[у]{.ul}рсия | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - expedition | экспед[и]{.ul}ция | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - dump truck | кам[а]{.ul}з | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - direction\* | тарап | √: | | | | направл[е]{.ul}ние | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Маш[и]{.ul}налары, көчөдөгү кыймылы жана тр[а]{.ul}нспорту IV** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - exit | чыгуу | X | | | | | | 1: (act of exiting) | 1: (чыгыш) | 1: (Х) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - expectation; act | күтүү | Х | | of waiting | | | | | 1: (күтүү залы) | 1: (Х) | | 1: (waiting room) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - flight | (авиа)каттам | √: рейс | | (commercial)\* | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - flight; act of | учуу | Х | | flying | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - ford\ | сайроон | Х | | (shallow place | | | | where | | | | horses/people | | | | can cross river) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - fork in the road | тароо | Х | | | | | | 1: (2/3/4-way stop) | 1: (2/3/4 айрылыш) | 1: (Х) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - garage | гар[а]{.ul}ж | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - garage (for | ТТС | √: СТО | | repairing car) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - gas pumping | (май куюучу) кран | Kyrgyz-Russian Mix | | device thingy | | | | you insert into | | | | car | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - gas pumping | пистол[е]{.ul}т | Already Russian Word | | device thingy | | | | you insert into | | | | car | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - gas station | запр[а]{.ul}вка | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - gas station | бензокол[о]{.ul}нка | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - gas tank on car | бензоб[а]{.ul}к | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - gasoline | бенз[и]{.ul}н | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - gate | дарбаза | √: вор[о]{.ul}та\ | | | | *(Kyrgyzised as | | 1: (a little door in | 1: (дарбазадагы | вар[о]{.ul}та)* | | a gate) | кичине | | | | | 1: (√: | | | эшик) | кал[и]{.ul}тка) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - gravel (for | шагыл | √: щ[е]{.ul}бень | | road); ballast | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - hallway | далис | √: корид[о]{.ul}р | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - handrail; | кармагыч | Х | | railing | | | | | 1: (кармооч) | 1: (Х) | | 1: (things to hold | | | | on to whilst | | | | traveling in public | | | | transport\*) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - hiding -- act of | катуу | Х | | hiding | | | | | | | | > object | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - highway | тр[а]{.ul}сса | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - highway | шосс[е]{.ul} | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - hitch hiking | автост[о]{.ul}п | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - hitching post | мамы | Х | | (to tie horse) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - forklift | авток[а]{.ul}р | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - fuel (to propel | күйүүчү май | Х | | vehicle) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - hiding -- act of | жашыруу | Х | | hiding object | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - guidebook | жол көрсөткүч | Х | | | китеп(че) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Маш[и]{.ul}налары, көчөдөгү кыймылы жана тр[а]{.ul}нспорту V** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - horn (of car) | сигн[а]{.ul}л | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - hurriedness; | шашылыш | Х | | rush\* | | | | | 1: (шашуу) | 1: (Х) | | 1: (act of hurrying) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - idling (of car); | өчүрүүчү | Kyrgyz-Russian Mix | | idle setting | тех[о]{.ul}д | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - inaccessible | бара алгыстык | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - intersection\* | кесилиш | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - jack (for car) | домкр[а]{.ul}т | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - journey | сапар | Х | | | | | | 1: (business trip) | 1: (иш сапар) | 1: (√: | | | | командир[о]{.ul}вка) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - lane (on road)\* | тилке | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - leave-taking; | коштошуу | Х | | farewell; saying | | | | goodbye | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - left | сол | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - lighthouse; | жээк чырагы | √: ма[я]{.ul}к | | beacon | | | | | 1: (ма[я]{.ul}кча) | 1: (Kyrgyzised | | 1: (diminuitive of | | Russian) | | above) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - limitation | чектөө | Х | | | | | | 1: (the quality of | 1: (чексиздик) | 1: (Х) | | being | | | | | | | | unlimited; | | | | unlimitedness; | | | | | | | | *безлим[и]{.ul}т*) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - make of car;\ | үлгү | √: м[а]{.ul}рка | | model of car\* | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - manhole | люк | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - march (like | жүрүш | Х | | parade);\ | | | | a movement (of | 1: (жөө жүрүш) | 1: (Х) | | people) | | | | | | | | 1: (march | | | | | | | | \[for or against | | | | something\])) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - marshrutka \~\> | маршр[у]{.ul}тка | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - meeting up (act | жолугуу | X | | of) | | | | | 1: (жолугушуу) | 1: (Х) | | 1: (act of meeting | | | | up with | 2: (кездешүү) | 2: (Х) | | | | | | others | | | | \[reciprocal\]; | | | | | | | | *встр[е]{.ul}ча*) | | | | | | | | 2: (meeting up -- by | | | | chance) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - meter | метр | Alread Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (kilometer) | 1: (килом[е]{.ul}тр) | 1: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | | 2: (millimeter) | 2: | | | | (миллим[е]{.ul}тр) | 2: (Already Russian | | 3: (centimeter) | | Word) | | | 3: | | | | (сантим[е]{.ul}тр) | 3: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - motor oil | (мот[о]{.ul}р) | X\ | | | май(ы) | (*Kyrgyz-Russian Mix | | | | if мот[о]{.ul}р* | | | | | | | | *used)* | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - interruption; | үзгүлтүк | Х | | pause | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - metro; subway | метр[о]{.ul} | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (metro plan; | 1: (метр[о]{.ul} | 1: (Kyrgyzised | | metro map; | пл[а]{.ul}ны) | Russian) | | | | | | metro schema) | 2: (метр[о]{.ul} | 2: (Kyrgyzised | | | сх[е]{.ul}масы) | Russian) | | 2: (metro plan; | | | | metro map;\ | | | | metro schema) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **\ ** **Маш[и]{.ul}налары, көчөдөгү кыймылы жана тр[а]{.ul}нспорту VI** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - motor; engine | кыймылдаткыч | √: мот[о]{.ul}р | | | | | | 1: (intake manifold) | 1: | 1: (Already Russian | | | (колл[е]{.ul}ктор) | Word) | | 2: (carburetor) | | | | | 2: | 2: (Already Russian | | 3: (automatic | (карбюр[а]{.ul}тор) | Word) | | transmission) | | | | | 3: | 3: (Kyrgyzised | | 4: (car battery) | (автом[а]{.ul}ттык | Russian) | | | | | | | трансм[и]{.ul}ссия) | 4: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | | | 4: | | | | (аккумул[я]{.ul}тор) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - motorcycle | мотоц[и]{.ul}кл | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - movement | жылыш | Х | | (continuing to | | | | improve)\* | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - movement | кыймыл | Х | | (general term) | | | | | 1: (көчөдөгү кыймыл) | 1: (√: | | 1: (traffic) | | тр[а]{.ul}фик) | | | 2: (кыймыл-аракет) | | | 2: (action \[of | | 2: (Х) | | verb\]) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - moving (homes); | көчүү | X | | movement (of | | | | population); | 1: (көчүү-конуу) | 1: (X) | | migration | | | | | | | | 1: (vertical | | | | migration;\ | | | | people or animals | | | | going up | | | | | | | | a mountain in summer | | | | and | | | | | | | | down in winter) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - nomad | конуш | Х | | encampment;\ | | | | stay (i.e. | | | | hotel)\* | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - oar | калак | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - oil change | май алмаштыруу | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - pace (rate at | жүрүш | Х | | which one | | | | moves)\* | 1: (басылыш) | 1: (Х) | | | | | | 1: (pace\ | | | | \[rate at which one | | | | walks\]) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - parking place; | унаа токтотмо | √: сто[я]{.ul}нка | | parking lot | | | | | 1: (авто токтоочу | √: автотоктотмо\ | | 1: (car park; | жай) | (*Kyrgyz-Russian | | parking garage) | | Mix*) | | | 2: (унаа коюучу жай) | | | 2: (car park; | | 1: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | parking garage) | | Mix) | | | | | | | | 2: (X) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - passage; | өтмө | X | | throughfare | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - plane | учак | √: самолёт | | | | | | 1: (helicopter) | 1: (тик учак) | 1: (√: вертолёт) | | | | | | 2: (empennage; tail | 2: (куйрук жагы) | 2: (Х) | | of plane) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - platform | платф[о]{.ul}рма | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Маш[и]{.ul}налары, көчөдөгү кыймылы жана тр[а]{.ul}нспорту VII** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - port | кеме токтоочу жай | √: порт | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - portal | порт[а]{.ul}л | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - post office; | п[о]{.ul}чта | Already Russian Word | | mail\* | | | | | 1: (жөнөкөй | 1: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | 1: (regular mail; | п[о]{.ul}чта) | Mix) | | snail mail) | | | | | 2: (аба | 2: (√: | | 2: (air mail) | п[о]{.ul}чтасы) | авиап[о]{.ul}чта) | | | | | | 3: (main post office | 3: (почт[а]{.ul}мт) | 3: (Already Russian | | for a city) | | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - pothole | [я]{.ul}ма | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - power windows | стеклоподъёмник | Already Russian Word | | (device that | | | | electronically | | | | raises or lowers | | | | a window) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - punctuality | тактык | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - radar | рад[а]{.ul}р | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - raft | сал | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - railroad\* | темир жол | Х | | | | | | 1: (railroad | 1: (шлагб[а]{.ul}ум) | 1: (Already Russian | | crossing arm) | | Word) | | | 2: (өтмөк) | | | 2: (railroad | | 2: (Х) | | crossing) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - raise; raising; | көтөрүү | Х | | hoisting; | | | | lifting up; | | | | elevating; | | | | elevation | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - raise; raising; | жогорулатуу | Х | | increasing | | | | something | 1: | 1: (Х) | | | (\[те | | | 1: (a jump; a spike | мперат[у]{.ul}рада\] | | | \[i.e. in | | | | | жогорулоо) | | | temperature; | | | | activity\]) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - registration; | кабылдама | √: | | reception | | регистр[а]{.ul}ция | | | 1: (кабыл алуу) | | | 1: (registration; | | 1: (√: | | reception | 2: (каттоо) | регистр[а]{.ul}ция) | | | | | | \[hotel\]) | | 2: (√: | | | | регистр[а]{.ul}ция) | | 2: (registration; | | | | check-in | | | | | | | | \[flight, hotel\]) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - return; one's | кайтуу | Х | | comeback | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - riding a horse | ат(ка) минүү/минген | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - right | оң | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - road block | жол тосуу | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - road; way; | жол | Х | | path\* | | | | | 1: (кайчы жол) | 1: (Х) | | 1: (crossroads) | | | | | 2: (жолсуздук) | 2: (Х) | | 2: (absence of | | | | roads) | 3: (жол көрсөтүү) | 3: (Х) | | | | | | 3: (road sign) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - rocket; | рак[е]{.ul}та | Already Russian Word | | rocketship; | | | | spaceship | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Маш[и]{.ul}налары, көчөдөгү кыймылы жана тр[а]{.ul}нспорту VIII** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - rotation; | айлантуу | Х | | revolution | | | | (around an | | | | object) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - route (a vehicle | (жол) каттам(ы) | √: маршр[у]{.ul}т | | takes);\ | | | | trip by vehicle | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - row | катар | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - running | чуркоо | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - running away; | качуу | Х | | fleeing; flight | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - schedule | жүгүртмө | √: распис[а]{.ul}ние | | | | | | 1: (time table) | 1: (ырааттама) | 1: (√: | | | | гр[а]{.ul}фик) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - seat (on | орун(дук) | √: м[е]{.ul}сто | | transport) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - seatbelt | кур | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - setback; | кечигүү | Х | | | | | | > running or being | | | | > late | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - sidewalk | троту[а]{.ul}р | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - skidoo | авточана | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - slipping (act | тайгалануу | Х | | of) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - spark plug | свеч[а]{.ul} | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - speed | ылдамдык | Х | | | | | | 1: (acceleration) | 1: (ылдамдатуу) | 1: (Х) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - speedometer\* | спид[о]{.ul}метр | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - spin; spinning | тегеретүү | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - spin; spinning | айлануу | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - spinning; going | тегеретүү | Х | | in a circle | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - stairs; step (on | тепкич | Х | | stair) | | | | | 1: (жылма текпич) | 1: (√: | | 1: (escalator) | | эскал[а]{.ul}тор) | | | 2: (пер[и]{.ul}ла) | | | 2: (banister -- | | 2: (Already Russian | | handrail on stair) | | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - starter | ст[а]{.ul}ртер | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - station (metro) | ст[а]{.ul}нция | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - steamboat | парох[о]{.ul}д | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - steering wheel | руль | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - step; one's gait | арыш | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - step; one's gait | кадам | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - stop (bus, etc) | аялдама | √: остан[о]{.ul}вка | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - stop light; | светоф[о]{.ul}р | Already Russian Word | | traffic signal | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - street\* | көчө | X | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - slope; hill; | эӊкейиш | Х | | incline; tilt | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - speed | тездик | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - rush hour | элдин баары жумуштан | √: час пик | | | чыккан мезгили | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Маш[и]{.ul}налары, көчөдөгү кыймылы жана тр[а]{.ul}нспорту IX** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - taxi | такс[и]{.ul} | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (meter in taxi) | 1: (счётчик) | 1: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | | 2: (taxi hired for | 2: | | | transporting | (грузотакс[и]{.ul}) | 2: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | | heavy, bulky goods) | 3: (такс[и]{.ul} | | | | токтому) | 3: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | 3: (taxi stand; taxi | | Mix) | | stop) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - the last (i.e. | арты | Х (*Арты ким?)* | | in line) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - ticket\* | бил[е]{.ul}т | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (plane ticket) | 1: | 1: (Already Russian | | | (авиабил[е]{.ul}т) | Word) | | 2: (automated | | | | ticketing | 2: | 2: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | | (бил[е]{.ul}ттерди | Mix) | | machine) | сатуучу | | | | | | | | маш[и]{.ul}на) | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - tire; tyre | ш[и]{.ul}на | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - tour | тур | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - trace; | из | Х | | footprint; foot | | | | step | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - tractor | тр[а]{.ul}ктор | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - traffic jam | (жол) тыгын | √: пр[о]{.ul}бка | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - trailer (pulled | (авто)приц[е]{.ul}п | Already Russian Word | | behind) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - train | п[о]{.ul}езд | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (train carriage; | 1: (ваг[о]{.ul}н) | 1: (X) | | car) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - train station | вокз[а]{.ul}л | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (bus station) | 1: (автобекет) | 1: (√: | | | | автовокз[а]{.ul}л) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - transfer | тр[а]{.ul}нсфер | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - transfer (plane, | перес[а]{.ul}дка | Already Russian Word | | train, etc) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - transferring; a | өтүү | X | | transfer | | | | | 1: (өтүү коду) | 1: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | 1: (transfer code) | | Mix) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - transportation; | автоунаа | √: тр[а]{.ul}нспорт | | transport\* | | | | | 1: (коомдук унаалар) | 1: (√: коомдук | | 1: (public | | тр[а]{.ul}нспорт | | transport) | | | | | | \[*Kyrgyz-Russian | | | | Mix*\]) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - travel; trip\* | саякат | X | | | | | | 1: (voyage \[by | 1: (деңиз саякаты) | 1: (X) | | ship\]) | | | | | 2: (бюр[о]{.ul} | 2: (Kyrgyz-Russian | | 2: (travel agency) | саякаты) | Mix) | | | | | | 3: (trip \[one takes | 3: (жолдомо) | 3: (√: путёвка) | | for fun\]) | | | | | 4: (үлпөт саякат) | 4: (Х) | | 4: (honeymoon trip) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - trolley bus | тролл[е]{.ul}йбус | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - truck; | жүк (ташуучу) | √: грузов[и]{.ul}к | | semi-trailer | маш[и]{.ul}на | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - truck; | грузов[о]{.ul}й | √: грузов[и]{.ul}к | | semi-trailer | маш[и]{.ul}на | | | | | (*грузов[о]{.ul}й | | | | маш[и]{.ul}на is* | | | | | | | | *Kyrgyzised | | | | Russian*) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - turn (in the | бурулуш | √: повор[о]{.ul}т | | road) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - turnstile | айлангыч | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - visa | в[и]{.ul}за | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Маш[и]{.ul}налары, көчөдөгү кыймылы жана тр[а]{.ul}нспорту X** +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | **Зат Атоочтор** | | | +======================+======================+======================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | **Krussian/Arabic** | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - visit (official, | виз[и]{.ul}т | Already Russian Word | | by member of | | | | government) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - vulcanization | желимдөө | √: | | | | вулканиз[а]{.ul}ция | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - wagon | араба | √: т[а]{.ul}чка | | (horse-drawn); | | | | wheelbarrow; | 1: (кол араба) | (*wheelbarrow | | buggy | | meaning*) | | | | | | 1: (shopping cart) | | 1: (Х) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - walking (hobby) | сейилдөө | X | | | | | | 1: (a stroll; a | 1: (сейил) | 1: (X) | | walk) | | | | | 1а: (токой аралоо/\ | 1а: (Х) | | 1а: (stroll through | токой аралаган) | | | the forest) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - wave (i.e. of | шилтөө | Х | | the hand) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - way of going; | барыш | Х | | хождение | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - wheel | дөңгөлөк | Х | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - windshield | айнек | Х | | | | | | 1: (windshield | 1: (айнек тазалагыч) | 1: (Х) | | wiper) | | | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - yacht | [я]{.ul}хта | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - zigzag | зигз[а]{.ul}г | Already Russian Word | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | - zip code | [и]{.ul}ндекс | Already Russian Word | | | | | | 1: (area code) | 1: (код) | 1: (Already Russian | | | | Word) | +----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ **Маш[и]{.ul}налары, көчөдөгү кыймылы жана тр[а]{.ul}нспорту XI** [Notes on Nouns Pertaining to Cars, Traffic, and Transportation]{.ul} \**Токтоо* is used for stopping as an action; *токтотуу* is the act of stopping *something*, such as *согушту токтотуу жөнүндөгү сүйлөшүүлөр =* negotiations about stopping the way. \**Келиш* can be literal or figurative. With *менен*, it means "with the arrival of:" *Жай мезгилинин келиши менен, балдар көзөмөлүсүз көчөлөрдө ойношот.* = With the arrival of spring, children will play in the streets unattended. \**Тоскоол* is used figuratively to ask if someone is being burdensome or a bother: *Мен тоскоолмунбу? =* Am I bothering you? (*Сага жолтоо боломбу?*). *Тоскоолдук кылбайбыз* or alternatively *Тоскоол болбо*. is a way of saying "Let's not be rude." \*An old word for bicycle is *шайтан араба* (literally: the devil's wagon). \*The Russian word *маш[и]{.ul}на* is much more used in speech, but *автоунаа* is more official, often appearing on signage and in the papers. \**З[е]{.ul}бра* is almost exclusively used for "crosswalk." \**Багыттары боюнча,* or the Russian *по направлениям*, are seen on posters informing passengers about the routes that marshrutkas or buses take. It means "in the direction of...". \**Бүт тараптан* has a metaphorical meaning of "from all sides/directions" or "in every way." *Мага бүт тараптан сулуу адамдар жагат*. = I like people who are beautiful in every way, \**Аралыкты сакта!* means "Keep one's distance; Maintain a safe driving distance." \**Шашылышпы?* is used to ask someone if something is an emergency (like do you have to really miss class to go to the bathroom? Is it an emergency?) \**Асма араба* was observed on a sign at a resort in Cholpon Ata. It was a new word for all the Kyrgyz people I was with as well, and even on the sign, *лифт* was printed next to it in parentheses. Don't actually use *асма араба*, but it could be fun to throw out there at cocktail parties. \*The adjectivalized form of the Russian word, *р[е]{.ul}йстеги,* can be used with a number and modify the word *учак* to mean "flight number:"\ *Түрк авиякомп[а]{.ul}ниясынын 657 рейстеги учагын/самолётун кулактандырдыбы? =* Have they announced Turkish Airlines flight 657? \**Кармоочту карма! =* Hold on to the rail! \*At the intersection of ... and ... is rendered through*: \...көчөсү менен \...көчөсүнүн кесилишинде: Ленин көчөсү менен Байтик көчөсүнүн кесилишиндe =* At the intersection of Lenin and Baitik streets. \**Тилкени карман*! = Maintain your lane \*The phrase "by mail" is *п[о]{.ul}чта аркылуу.* \*When the name of a car's make or model is being used attribuitively, say the car name followed by *үлгүсүдөгү: Хонда Цивик үлгүсүдөгү ачкычтар = А Honda Civic's keys*. The Kyrgyzised (Cyrillic) names for various car models are listed below: \- *[Ау]{.ul}ди* = Audi \- *БМВ* = BMW (pronounced *бэ эм вэ*) \- *В[о]{.ul}льксвагон* = Volkswagon \- *М[а]{.ul}зда* = Masda \- *Мерcед[е]{.ul}с* = Mercedes \- *Х[о]{.ul}нда Ц[и]{.ul}вик* = Honda Civic **Маш[и]{.ul}налары, көчөдөгү кыймылы жана тр[а]{.ul}нспорту XII** \*The literal translation of *жылыш* is "movement" (aka *кыймыл,* coming from the verb *жыл*- meaning "to move; to get out of the way"). This word, however, is used in specific contexts to talk about how things are improving. For example, saying *жылыш жок* means that a certain skill or ability of yours is not improving, meaning that you have metaphorically "plateaued." \*Used in the idiomatic exrpression *үлүлдүн жүрүшүндө* = at a snail's pace. \**Түзкөчө* has been observed on food packaging telling the manufacturer's address, but it is most certainly an example of "over-Kyrgyzisation." The better choice to use is *просп[е]{.ul}кт.* \**Конушуңуздар жайлуу болусн! =* Have a pleasant stay (also the phrase used to congratulate someone on a housewarming). \*Yelling *Жол! Жол!* means "Make way!" *Жол* also means "way" metaphorically; to say that you will "find a way" to do something, use the following formula: *Infinitive in genitive + жолун тап-: Бул нерсени жасоонун жолун табам = I will find a way to do this thing.* \*A rail road itself is *темир жол.* However, to say that one is travelling by rail, *жол* needs to be in 3^rd^ person possessed: *Кытайга темир жолу менен өтөт.* \*In Russian, the stress falls on the syllable with the o; however, the only time I have heard the word *спид[о]{.ul}метр* spoken in Kyrgyz, the speakers placed the stress (perhaps incorrectly) on the e: *спидом[е]{.ul}тр*. \*Street is possessed showing third person genitive morphology (*көчөсү*) in street names. \*A ticket for somewhere is used in the dative: *Нарынга билет кайдан сатып алам*? \**Автоунаа* is an all emcompassing word for any type of motorized transportation: car, bus, and even meaning the word transportation itself. The Russian words for these are also all in use. \*A trip to somewhere can be expressed by the place in dative case preceding *саякат: Пар[и]{.ul}жге саякат* = A trip to Paris **\ ** **Маш[и]{.ul}налары, көчөдөгү кыймылы жана тр[а]{.ul}нспорту XIII** [Other Nouns Pertaining to Cars, Traffic, and Transportation]{.ul} \*The term *үркүн* refers to the flight of Kyrgyz people into China in1916 after a failed rebellion against the Russians. To this day, far Western China has a significant Kyrgyz minority. **Маш[и]{.ul}налары, көчөдөгү кыймылы жана тр[а]{.ul}нспорту XIV** +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | **Сын Атоочтор жана Тактоочтор** | | +======================================+==============================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - attributive of "visa"; | в[и]{.ul}залык | | pertaining to a visa | | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - automatic (i.e. door or car) | автом[а]{.ul}ттык | | | | | 1: (automatically) | 1: (автом[а]{.ul}ттык түрдө) | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - aviation; pertaining to flying | ави[я]{.ul}циялык | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - bareback (without a saddle) | жайдак | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - by foot; on foot | жөө | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - close\* | чумкул | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - close\* | жакын | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - close\* | илгери | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - crowded | тыгын | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - describing a person who is a | куюн көтөн | | fast walker | | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - dirt (road); unpaved (road) | таштак | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - dynamic | дин[а]{.ul}микалык | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - expected | күтүлгөн | | | | | 1: (unexpected) | 1: (күтүлбөгөн) | | | | | 2: (unexpected/unexpectedly) | 2: (күтүүсүз) | | | | | 3: (unexpected/unexpectedly) | 3: (капыскы) | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - fast; quick/quickly | тез | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - fast; quick/quickly | бат | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - flying (i.e. saucer) | учуучу | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - free (asked of taxi) | бош | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - hectic; frenetic; energetic; | кыймылдуу | | frenzied; busy | | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - high-speed (train, internet) | жогорку ылдамдыктагы | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - immediate(ly); instantaneous(ly) | дароо | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - immediately; right away | заматта | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - immediately; right away | ср[а]{.ul}зу | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - in a car; riding in a car | машиначан | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - inaccessible | бара алгыс | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - inaccessible | жол жеткис | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - limited | чектелген | | | | | 1: (unlimited) | 1: (чексиз) | | | | | 2: (without limit) | 2: (чектөөсүз) | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - mobile | уюлдук | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - moving (i.e. staircase) | жылма | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - on a horse; riding a horse | атчан | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - parallel | паралл[е]{.ul}л | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - pertaining to bikes | велосипеддик | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - pertaining to car batteries | аккумул[я]{.ul}тордук | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - adverb describing that which | эшме | | moves with lots of bends, | | | twists, and turns | | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - diagonal; slanted | жантык | | | | | 1: (slanted; sloped; tilted; | 1: (эӊкейиш) | | inclined) | | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - non-stop; doing something | токтоосуз | | without stopping (adj. or adv.) | | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - hectic; frenetic; energetic; | кызуу | | frenzied; busy | | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | - impassible; insurmountable | чыкпас | +--------------------------------------+------------------------------+ **Маш[и]{.ul}налары, көчөдөгү кыймылы жана тр[а]{.ul}нспорту XV** +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | **Сын Атоочтор жана Тактоочтор** | | +==================================+==================================+ | **Англис Тили** | **Кыргыз Тили** | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - pertaining to portals | порт[а]{.ul}лдык | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - pertaining to road work | жолду оңдоо-түзөө\ | | | (*\...иштери жүрүп жатат*) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - punctual | так | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - punctual | пунктуалдуу | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - quick and efficient; | ыкчам | | expedient | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - ready\* | даяр | | | | | 1: (to be completely ready) | 1: (шайлалуу) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - sedentary (marked by not | кыймылсыз | | moving) | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - side-by-side; juxtaposed | катарлаш | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - slow; slowly | жай | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - slowly (adv) (and carefully) | акырындан | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - stick-shift (car) | мех[а]{.ul}ник | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - straight (ahead -- | түз | | direction) | | | | 1: (түздөн-түз | | 1: (direct; going without | \[*Росс[и]{.ul}ядан \... | | stopping) | жеткирүү*\]) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - straight (not curved) | шыдыр | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - surrounding (i.e. buildings, | курчап турган | | things) | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - transportational; pertaining | транспорттук | | to transport | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - travelling (i.e. doctor, | кыдырма | | circus); wandering | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - travelling (i.e. doctor, | көчмө | | circus); wandering | | | | 1: (көчүрмө) | | 1: (portable) | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - turbo (combining adjective) | т[у]{.ul}рбо- | | | | | | (*т[у]{.ul}рбобаскыч = speed | | | boost button*) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - upcoming | келе жаткан | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - walking upright; walking | түз басуучу | | erect | | | | | | > (of ancient man) | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - winding; crooked (street, | ийри | | river) | | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - winter (tyres) | з[и]{.ul}мний | | | | | | (*з[и]{.ul}мний дөӊгөлөк*) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - surrounding (i.e. building, | айланадагы | | things);\ | | | the things around you | (*айланадагы буюмдар*) | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - unending; neverending | аяксыз | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ | - rotating | тегеренме | +----------------------------------+----------------------------------+ **Маш[и]{.ul}налары, көчөдөгү кыймылы жана тр[а]{.ul}нспорту XVI** [Notes on Adjectives and Adverbs Pertaining to Cars, Traffic, and Travel]{.ul} \**Чумкул* is often used for being close to people*: Мага чумкулураак отур.* *Илгери* is an older word. \**Жакын* is used in the same figurative meaning as in English to say that someone was close to being right, but not quite there:\ *"Hello:" H-E-L-O.\ Жакын.* \**Даяр* uses the dative case to mean what one is ready for: *майрамга даярбыз. Даяр бол!* means "Be ready!" **Маш[и]{.ul}налары, көчөдөгү кыймылы жана тр[а]{.ul}нспорту XVII** [Other Adjectives and Adverbs Pertaining to Cars, Traffic, and Travel]{.ul} \*Some nouns are used adjectivally to describe certain things relating to cars or transportation. With such words, the noun they modify will exhibit 3^rd^ person possessed genitive morphology: \- *автомоб[и]{.ul}ль* = automobile; pertaining to cars; car (used attributively) \- *велосип[е]{.ul}д* = pertaining to bicycles \- *тр[а]{.ul}ктор =* pertaining to or related to tractors (*тр[а]{.ul}ктор тетиктери* -- tractor parts*)* \- *т[о]{.ul}рмоз* = attributive of brake (*т[о]{.ul}рмоз сигн[а]{.ul}лы* -- braking signal) \- *чектөө =* restrictive; restraining (*чектөө чаралары* -- restrictive measures) \*Saying in the "bottom" left or right is *төмөнкү сол/оң* *\*Катар келген* means "those things that are in a row."\ *Тисмеде* *катар келген сөздөр үтүр менен жазылат.* = In a list, words that come in a row are separated by commas. \*The phrase *кыр менен* means "carefully" but is only used when descending something steep, such as coming down a mountain. \**Карата билбей* is a verbal phrase which acts as an adjective/adverb "unanticipated."\ *Карата билбей терс таасир =* unanticipated negative influence. \*Алдын ала is an adverb meaning "doing something in advance." *Алдын ала кечирим сурайм. =* I apologize in advance. \**Шүмшүк* is the adverb used with the verb *айда-* to mean "to drive crazily/like a mad man" (dangerously and without regard). \**Сааттын жебеси менен* = clockwise; *Сааттын жебесине карама каршы* = counterclockwise. **Маш[и]{.ul}налары, көчөдөгү кыймылы жана тр[а]{.ul}нспорту XVIII** +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | **Этиштер** | | | | +================+================+================+================+ | **Англис | **Этиштин | **Инфинитив** | **Жөндөмө жана | | Тили** | Уңгусу** | | Эскертүүлөр** | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | ылдамда- | ылдамдоо | Intransitive | | accelerate | | | | | | / | / | / | | > / | | | | | > | ылдамдат- | ылдамдатуу | Trans; takes | | > to | | | nom/acc | | > accelerate | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to align | теӊде- | теӊдөө | Takes nom/acc | | (car);\ | | | | | to balance | | | | | tyres | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to align;\ | түздө- | түздөө | Takes | | to line | | | nom/acc:\ | | up;\ | | | *П | | to put in | | | арталарды\...* | | a line;\ | | | | | to | | | | | straighten | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to appear | пайда бол- | пайда болуу | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | жет- | жетүү | From place -- | | arrive;\ | | | abl | | to make it | | | | | | | | To/at place -- | | (somewhere);\ | | | dat | | to reach | | | | | (a goal)\* | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to back up | артка карай | артка карай | Motion | | (vehicle) | жүр- | жүрүү | indicated by | | | | | verb | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to be | багыттал- | багытталуу | Use dative or | | directed | | | *карай;* | | at/toward | | | | | | | | *Балдарга | | | | | багыталган* | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to be late | кечик- | кечигүү | Often used | | | | | with *кал* in | | 1: (to come | 1: (кечигип | 1: (кечигип | unexpected | | late) | кел-) | келүү) | past to denote | | | | | unpleasant | | | | | surprise. | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to be long | сундак- | сундагуу | Intransitive | | and drawn | | | | | out;\ | / | / | / | | to be | | | | | stretched | сундактыр- | сундактыруу | Takes nom/acc | | out | | | | | (decision, | | | | | etc) | | | | | | | | | | > / | | | | | > | | | | | > to draw out | | | | | > (decision | | | | | > process) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to be lost | адаш- | адашуу | Often using | | | | | helping verb | | 1: (to get | 1: (адашып | 1: (адашып | кал: Адашып | | disoriented) | кет-) | кетүү) | калдык! | | | | | | | 2: (to get | 2: (жоголуп | 2: (жоголуп | 1: () | | lost) | кет-) | кетүү) | | | | | | 2: () | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to begin; | баштал- | башталуу | Intransitive | | to start | | | Reflexive | | | / | / | | | > / | | | / | | > | башта- | баштоо | | | > to begin; to | | | Takes nom/acc | | > start | | | | | > (trans) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ **Маш[и]{.ul}налары, көчөдөгү кыймылы жана тр[а]{.ul}нспорту XIX** +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | **Этиштер** | | | | +================+================+================+================+ | **Англис | **Этиштин | **Инфинитив** | **Жөндөмө жана | | Тили** | Уңгусу** | | Эскертүүлөр** | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to block | тос- | тосуу | Takes nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to book\* | ээлеп кой- | ээлеп коюу | Takes nom/acc | | | | | | | > (a room; | | | | | > tickets) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to book\* | бр[о]{.ul}ндо- | бр[о]{.ul}ндоо | Takes nom/acc | | | | | | | > (a room; | | | | | > tickets) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to change | (май) | (май) | Takes nom/acc | | the oil | алмаштыр- | алмаштыруу | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to chase;\ | кубала- | кубалоо | Takes nom/acc | | to pursue | | | | | | 1: (кубалаш-) | 1: (кубалашуу) | 1: (Reciprocal | | 1: (to chase | | | verb) | | one | | | | | | | | | | another) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to come | жакында- | жакындоо | To place -- | | closer; | | | dat | | | | | | | > to approach | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to come | кир- | кирүү | To place -- | | in; | | | dat | | | 1: (киргиз-) | 1: (киргизүү) | | | > to enter | | | 1: (Takes | | | | | nom/acc;\ | | 1: (to | | | place in | | make/force | | | dative) | | | | | | | someone to | | | | | enter) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to come\* | кел | келүү | From place -- | | | | | abl | | 1: (to go and | 1: (барып | 1: (барып | | | come | кел-) | келүү) | To place -- | | | | | dat | | back)\* | 2: (келтир-) | 2: (келтирүү) | | | | | | 1: (To place | | 2: (to lead | | | -- dat) | | someone | | | | | | | | 2: () | | in; | | | | | | | | | | to show in;\ | | | | | to bring | | | | | someone | | | | | | | | | | to a place) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | катта- | каттоо | From place -- | | commute;\ | | | abl | | to go back | | | | | and forth | | | To place -- | | | | | dat | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | улан- | улануу | Intrans | | continue;\ | | | | | to last; | / | / | / | | to endure | | | | | (intrans) | улант- | улантуу | Takes nom/acc | | | | | | | > / | | | | | > | | | | | > to continue | | | | | > (trans)\* | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to crash; | сүз- | сүзүү | *vehicle менен | | to collide | | | vehicle* | | | | | | | | | | often *сүзүп | | | | | кет-* | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to crawl | жөргөлө- | жөргөлөө | Intransitive | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to delay; | аялда- | аялдоо | Intransitive | | to linger; | | | | | to tarry; | | | | | to doddle | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to draw a | чиймеле- | чиймелөө | *К[а]{.ul}рта* | | map | | | in nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ **Маш[и]{.ul}налары, көчөдөгү кыймылы жана тр[а]{.ul}нспорту** **XX** +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | **Этиштер** | | | | +================+================+================+================+ | **Англис | **Этиштин | **Инфинитив** | **Жөндөмө жана | | Тили** | Уңгусу** | | Эскертүүлөр** | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to deliver | жеткир- | жеткирүү | From place -- | | | | | abl | | 1: (to | 1: (жеткирип | 1: (жеткирип | | | take/drive | кой-) | коюу) | To place -- | | | | | dat | | someone | 2: (таратып | 2: (таратып | | | | бер-) | берүү) | Takes nom/acc | | somewhere) | | | | | | | | 1: (From place | | 2: (to deliver | | | --abl | | the mail) | | | | | | | | To place -- | | | | | dat | | | | | | | | | | Takes acc for | | | | | person) | | | | | | | | | | 2: (To | | | | | place/person | | | | | -- dat; takes | | | | | nom/acc) | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to drive | айда- | айдоо | From place -- | | | | | abl | | 1: (to row | 1: (калак | 1: (калак | | | \[boat\]) | айда-) | айдоо) | To place -- | | | | | dat | | 2: (to fly a | 2: | 2: | | | plane; | (самолёт/учак | (самолёт/учак | vehicle: nom | | | | | or acc | | to pilot) | айда-) | айдоо) | | | | | | 1: () | | 3: (to | 3: (айдат-) | 3: (айдатуу) | | | force/cause | | | 2: () | | | | | | | someone to | | | 3: (Person in | | drive) | | | dat; | | | | | | | | | | vehicle in | | | | | nom/acc) | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to drop | таштап кой- | таштап коюу | Person in acc; | | someone | | | place in | | off | | | locative | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | тегеректе- | тегеректөө | Takes nom/acc | | encircle;\ | | | | | to | | | | | surround | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | курча- | курчоо | Takes nom/acc | | encircle;\ | | | | | to | | | | | surround | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | айлант- | айлантуу | Takes nom/acc | | encircle;\ | | | | | to | | | | | surround | | | | | (trans) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to end;\ | бүт- | бүтүү | Intransitive | | to | | | Reflexive. | | finish;\ | / | / | This form | | to be done | | | combines with | | | бүтүр- | бүтүрүү | verbs: | | > /\ | | | * | | > to finish | | | Гр[а]{.ul}нтты | | > (trans)\* | | | жазып бүттүм* | | | | | = I finished | | | | | writing the | | | | | grant. | | | | | | | | | | / | | | | | | | | | | Takes nom/acc\ | | | | | * | | | | | Гр[а]{.ul}нтты | | | | | бүтүрдүм* = I | | | | | finished the | | | | | grant | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to flip | салта- | салтоо | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to float; | калкы- | калкуу | *шамалда; | | to drift | | | сууда* | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to deliver | жеткиз- | жеткизүү | Takes nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ **Маш[и]{.ul}налары, көчөдөгү кыймылы жана тр[а]{.ul}нспорту** **XXI** +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | **Этиштер** | | | | +================+================+================+================+ | **Англис | **Этиштин | **Инфинитив** | **Жөндөмө жана | | Тили** | Уңгусу** | | Эскертүүлөр** | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to fly;\ | уч- | учуу | From place -- | | to take | | | abl | | off | 1: (уядын | 1: (уядын | | | (plane) | учур-) | учуруу) | To place -- | | | | | dat | | 1: (to leave | | | (*Бишкектен | | the nest;\ | | | Стамбулга саат | | to fly the | | | канчада | | coop;\ | | | учат?)* | | to leave home) | | | | | | | | 1: () | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to follow | ээрчи- | ээрчүү | Takes | | | | | accusative | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to ford | сайроондо- | сайроондоо | *су | | (river) | | | удан/дарыядан* | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to get | отур- | отуруу | Vehicle is in | | in/on | | | dative | | (vehicle) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to get | түш- | түшүү | To get on/in | | on;\ | | | vehicle -- | | to get | / | / | dat: | | off; | | | *Маршруткага* | | | түшүр- | түшүрүү | | | > to climb | | | To get off | | > down from; | | | vehicle --abl | | > to get | | | | | > down;\ | | | To fall from | | > to deplane;\ | | | -- abl | | > to | | | | | > disembark;\ | | | *Бул жерден* | | > to fall | | | *түшөм*.\ | | > | | | *Аттан = from | | > (ie. from | | | horse* | | > tree) | | | | | > | | | *Тоодон = from | | > /\ | | | mountain* | | > to lower | | | | | > something;\ | | | / | | > to let | | | | | > someone off | | | Object in | | > (vehicle) | | | nom/acc; place | | | | | lowered into | | | | | in dative | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to go | бар | баруу | From place -- | | | | | abl | | 1: (to go and | 1: (барып | 1: (барып | | | check | көр-) | көрүү) | To place -- | | | | | dat | | something out) | | | | | | | | 1: (To place | | | | | -- dat | | | | | | | | | | Takes nom/acc) | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to go | дрифт кыл- | дрифт кылуу | | | drifting | | | | | (sport) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to go | утурла- | утурлоо | Object in | | toward | | | accusative | | | | | | | something;\ | | | | | to get | | | | | closer to\ | | | | | (an | | | | | event);\ | | | | | to draw | | | | | near to\ | | | | | (an event) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to hide | бекин- | бекинүү | Intransitive | | (oneself) | | | Reflexive | | / | / | / | | | | | | / | | > to hide | кат- | катуу | | | > (trans) | | | Takes nom/acc | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to hide | жашырын- | жашырынуу | Intransitive | | (onself) | | | Reflexive | | | / | / | | | > / | | | / | | > | жашыр- | жашыруу | | | > to hide | | | Takes nom/acc | | > (trans) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to guide | жетекте- | жетектөө | Person in | | | | | nom/acc;\ | | | | | to place in | | | | | dative | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ **Маш[и]{.ul}налары, көчөдөгү кыймылы жана тр[а]{.ul}нспорту XXII** +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | **Этиштер** | | | | +================+================+================+================+ | **Англис | **Этиштин | **Инфинитив** | **Жөндөмө жана | | Тили** | Уңгусу** | | Эскертүүлөр** | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to hire | жалда- | жалдоо | Takes nom/acc | | (taxi);\ | | | | | to rent | | | | | (car) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to honk | ( | ( | Takes nom/acc | | (car horn) | сигн[а]{.ul}л) | сигн[а]{.ul}л) | | | | бас- | басуу | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to hurry; | шаш- | шашуу | From place -- | | to rush\* | | | abl | | | / | / | | | > / | | | To place -- | | > | шаштыр- | шаштыруу | dat | | > to hurry | | | | | > someone;\ | | | / | | > to rush | | | | | > someone | | | Person in | | | | | accusative | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to hurry; | чамда- | чамдоо | Intransitive | | to rush | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to | кесилиш- | кесилишүү | *\...менен | | intersect | | | кесилишет* | | (streets) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to jump | секир- | секирүү | Intransitive | | | | | | | 1: (to gallop | 1: | 1: | 1: | | \[horse\]) | ( | ( | (intransitive) | | | текирең-таскак | текирең-таскак | | | | | | | | | секир-) | секирүү) | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to keep | өзүн өзү | өзүн өзү | From in | | one's | четтет- | четтетүү | ablative;\ | | distance;\ | | | өзүн өзү | | to remove | | | declines in | | oneself | | | possessed acc. | | from a | | | depending on | | situation | | | subject | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to land | кон- | конуу | Place in | | (plane);\ | | | dative: *жерге | | to alight | | | конуу; бутакка | | (bird); | | | конуу* | | | | | | | > to perch;\ | | | | | > to | | | | | > settle/stop | | | | | > moving (of | | | | | > nomads) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to lay | тамыр жай- | тамыр жаюу | Loc. for place | | down one's | | | | | roots | | | | | (settle | | | | | down) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to leave | жөнө- | жөнөө | From place -- | | from;\ | | | abl | | to depart | | | | | from;\ | | | To place -- | | to take | | | dat | | off | | | | | (vehicle) | | | | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to leave;\ | кет- | кетүү | For a place -- | | to depart | | | dat | | | 1: (кетип | 1: (кетип | | | (transport)\* | кал-) | калуу) | 1: (For place | | | | | -- dat) | | 1: (to have | 2: (кетип | 2: (кетип | | | set out for) | бар-) | баруу) | 2: (From place | | | | | -- abl | | 2: (to set out | | | | | for;\ | | | To place -- | | to leave for) | | | dat) | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to lead to | алып бар- | алып баруу | Road/direction | | (a place) | | | is subject; to | | | | | place in | | | | | dative\ | | | | | (Бул жол | | | | | Чолпон Атага | | | | | чейин алып | | | | | барабы?) | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ **Маш[и]{.ul}налары, көчөдөгү кыймылы жана тр[а]{.ul}нспорту XXIII** +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | **Этиштер** | | | | +================+================+================+================+ | **Англис | **Этиштин | **Инфинитив** | **Жөндөмө жана | | Тили** | Уңгусу** | | Эскертүүлөр** | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ | - to leave; | чык- | чыгуу | To | | to exit;\ | | | leave/exit/get | | to go | / | / | off/depart | | out;\ | | | (vehicle) uses | | to get | чыгар- | чыгаруу | ablative. | | in/on;\ | | | | | to get | | | To get in/on a | | off;\ | | | vehicle and to | | to | | | climb use | | climb\*;\ | | | dat.\ | | to go | | | Go upstairs = | | upstairs;\ | | | *Тепкичке чык* | | to depart | | | | | from | | | / | | | | | | | (transport) | | | From place in | | | | | ablative; | | > / | | | person in | | > |